Ramesh K Raut


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Conflict & Reaolution

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  • Conflict can be defined as a process in which an effort is purposely made by “A” to offset the efforts of “B” by some form of blocking that will result in frustrating “B” in attaining his or her goals or furthering his or her interests. This definition is comprised of five elements.
    Conflict must be perceived by the parties to it. If there is no awareness, then no conflict exists. Additional elements are opposition, scarcity, and blockage and the assumption that there are two or more parties whose interests or goals appear to be incompatible. Resources are limited, and scarcity encourages blocking behavior. The parties, therefore, are in opposition. And when one party blocks another’s means to a goal, conflict exists.
    There is debate over whether conflict is limited to only overt acts. The above definition assumes that conflict is a determined action, which can exist at either the latent or overt level.
  • Ramesh K Raut

    1. 1. A Presentation on CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (Conflict & Negotiation) BY: Rajiv Ramesh Narayan Ramchandra
    2. 2. Learning Objectives Learning Objectives 1. Define conflict. 2. Differentiate between the traditional, human relations, and integrationist views of conflict. 3. Contrast task, relationship, and process conflict. 4. Outline the conflict process. 5. Describe the five conflict-handling intentions. 6. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining. 7. Identify the five steps in the negotiating process. 8. Describe cultural differences in negotiations.
    3. 3. What is Conflict? What is Conflict?  Conflict Defined – Is a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about. – Or simply disagreement between the two or more persons on any point.
    4. 4. What is conflict. What is conflict. Conflict is… •a normal, inescapable part of life •a periodic occurrence in any relationship •an opportunity to understand opposing preferences and values •ENERGY 4
    5. 5. How many people ??? How many people ???
    6. 6. Various conflict in between Various conflict in between
    7. 7. Causes of conflict Causes of conflict
    8. 8. Transitions in Conflict Thought Transitions in Conflict Thought Traditional View of Conflict The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided. Human Relations View of Conflict The belief that conflict is a natural occurrence in all groups and organization. Interactionist View of Conflict The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively.
    9. 9. Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict Functional versus Dysfunctional Conflict Functional Conflict Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance. Dysfunctional Conflict Conflict that hinders group performance.
    10. 10. Types of Conflict Types of Conflict Task Conflict Conflicts over content and goals of the work. Process Conflict/ organizational conflict Conflict over how work gets done. Relationship Conflict Conflict based on interpersonal relationships. These conflicts are almost dysfunctional.
    11. 11. The Conflict Process The Conflict Process
    12. 12. Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility  Communication – Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise”  Structure – – – – – – Size and specialization of jobs Jurisdictional clarity/ambiguity Member-goal incompatibility Leadership styles (close or participative) Reward systems (win-lose) Dependence/interdependence of groups  Personal Variables – Differing individual value systems – Personality types
    13. 13. Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Stage II: Cognition and Personalization Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility. Conflict Definition Conflict Definition Negative Emotions Negative Emotions Positive Feelings Positive Feelings
    14. 14. Positives and Negatives of Conflict Positives and Negatives of Conflict Positive • Increased involvement • Increased cohesion • Innovation and creativity • Personal growth and change • Clarification of key issues work • Organizational vibrancy threatened • identities • • • • • Negative Unresolved anger Personality clashes Less self-esteem Inefficiency Diversion of energy from • Psychological well being Individual and group • Wastage of resources
    15. 15. Stage III: Intentions Stage III: Intentions Intentions Decisions to act in a given way. Cooperativeness: Cooperativeness: •• Attempting to satisfy the other party’s Attempting to satisfy the other party’s concerns. concerns. Assertiveness: Assertiveness: •• Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns. Attempting to satisfy one’s own concerns.
    16. 16. Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Competing A desire to satisfy one’s interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict. Collaborating A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.
    17. 17. Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Stage III: Intentions (cont’d) Accommodating The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own. Compromising A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.
    18. 18. Stage IV: Behavior Stage IV: Behavior Conflict Management The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.
    19. 19. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes  Functional Outcomes from Conflict – Increased group performance – Improved quality of decisions – Stimulation of creativity and innovation – Encouragement of interest and curiosity – Provision of a medium for problem-solving – Creation of an environment for self-evaluation and change  Creating Functional Conflict – Reward dissent (dispute) and punish conflict avoiders.
    20. 20. Stage V: Outcomes Stage V: Outcomes  Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict – Development of discontent(dissatisfaction) – Reduced group effectiveness – Retarded communication – Reduced group cohesiveness – Infighting among group members overcomes group goals
    21. 21. Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Management Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques •• Problem solving Problem solving •• Superordinate goals Superordinate goals •• Expansion of resources Expansion of resources •• Smoothing Smoothing •• Authoritative command Authoritative command •• Altering the human variable Altering the human variable
    22. 22. Conflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques  Problem Solving. Face to face meeting with conflicting parties for the purpose of identifying the problem and resolving it through open discussion.  Super ordinate goals. Creating a shared goal that cannot be attained without the cooperation of each of the conflicting parties.  Expansion of Resources. When a conflict is caused by the scarcity of resources, expansion of resources can create win-win solution.
    23. 23. Conflict Resolution Techniques Conflict Resolution Techniques  Smoothing Playing down differences while emphasizing common interests between the conflicting parties.  Authoritative command. Management uses its formal authority to resolve the conflicts.  Altering the human variables. Uses behavioral change techniques as human relations training and alter attitude and behaviors that cause conflict.
    24. 24. n on iio t t a iia t ot o g eg e N N
    25. 25. Negotiation Negotiation Negotiation A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them. BATNA The Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement; the lowest acceptable value (outcome) to an individual for a negotiated agreement.
    26. 26. Bargaining Strategies Bargaining Strategies Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.
    27. 27. What is the most important strategy for What is the most important strategy for encouraging integrative bargaining? encouraging integrative bargaining? A. B. C. D. Focusing on the problem, not the people Focusing on interests, not demands Creating new options for joint gain Focusing on what is fair
    28. 28. The The Negotiation Negotiation Process Process
    29. 29. Issues in Negotiation Issues in Negotiation  The Role of Personality Traits in Negotiation – Traits do not appear to have a significantly direct effect on the outcomes of either bargaining or negotiating processes.  Gender Differences in Negotiations – Women negotiate no differently from men, although men apparently negotiate slightly better outcomes. – Men and women with similar power bases use the same negotiating styles. – Women’s attitudes toward negotiation and their success as negotiators are less favorable than men’s.
    30. 30. Third-Party Negotiations Third-Party Negotiations Mediator  A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives. Arbitrator  A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement.
    31. 31. Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d) Third-Party Negotiations (cont’d) Conciliator  A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. Consultant  An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis.
    32. 32. 5 ways to manage conflict 5 ways to manage conflict •• Avoidance Avoidance •• Competition/Forcing (A) Competition/Forcing (A) •• Accommodation (B) Accommodation (B) •• Compromise (C) Compromise (C) •• Collaboration (D) Collaboration (D) I win, you lose (competition—A) I lose or give in (accommodate—B) We both get something (compromise—C) We both “win”(collaborate—D) A B C D
    33. 33. Tips for Managing Workplace Conflict Tips for Managing Workplace Conflict • Build good relationships before conflict occurs • Do not let small problems escalate; deal with them as they arise • Respect differences • Listen to others’ perspectives on the conflict situation • Acknowledge feelings before focussing on facts • Focus on solving problems, not changing people • If you can’t resolve the problem, turn to someone who can help • Remember to adapt your style to the situation and persons involved