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LLDR 660 - Planning, Management & Process


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Based in part on the text by John M. Bryson (2011) for my graduate class on strategic planning with videos available on YouTube.

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LLDR 660 - Planning, Management & Process

  1. 1. LDR 660Strategic Planning Siena Heights - Wallace Bryson, 2011
  2. 2. ON TARGET Strategic Planning “A disciplined effort to produce fundamental decisions and actions that shape and guide what an organization (or other entity) is, what it does, and why it does it.” Bryson, 2011, p. 7. Bryson, 2011
  3. 3. ON TARGET Benefits of Strategic Planning Promotion of strategic thought and action Improved decision making Enhanced organizational responsiveness Improved organizational performance Higher organizational citizenship behavior Enhanced organizational learning Bryson, 2011
  4. 4. ON TARGET Characteristics: Strategic Planning • Is concerned with identifying and responding to the most fundamental issues facing an organization • Addresses the subjective question of purpose and the often competing values that influence mission and strategies • Emphasizes the importance of external trends and forces as they are likely to affect the organization and its mission • Attempts to be politically realistic by taking into account the concerns and preferences of internal, and especially external, stakeholders Poister, T. H., and Streib, G. (1994). Bryson, 2011
  5. 5. ON TARGET Strategic Planning Is NOT: • A substitute for strategic thinking, acting, and learning • A substitute for leadership • Synonymous with creating an organizational strategy There is a difference between what is deliberate and what is emergent There is a difference between what is intended and what is realized Bryson, 2011
  6. 6. ON TARGET Characteristics: Strategic Planning • Relies heavily on the active involvement of senior level managers, and sometimes elected officials, assisted by staff support where needed • Requires the candid confrontation of critical issues by key participants in order to build commitment to plans • Is action-oriented and stresses the importance of developing plans for implementing strategies, and • Focuses on implementing decisions now in order to position the organization favorably for the future Poister, T. H., and Streib, G. (1994). Bryson, 2011
  7. 7. ON TARGET Strategic Management • Links strategic planning with implementation • Is concerned with managing an organization in a strategic way on an ongoing basis Bryson, 2011
  8. 8. ON TARGET Strategic Management Systems • Are one means of inducing and linking strategic thinking, acting, and learning throughout an organization or other entity • Are intended to promote strategic thought, action, and learning and to control and guide the way strategies are implemented; and to develop capacities for future action consisting of: Mission and vision Strategic planning Results-oriented budgeting Strategic measurement Performance management Bryson, 2011
  9. 9. ON TARGET Strategic Management Systems Source: Poister and Streib (1994) Bryson, 2011
  10. 10. ON TARGET Strategic Management Systems • Layered or stacked units of management models • Strategic issues management models • Contract models • Portfolio models • Goal or “benchmark” models Bryson, 2011
  11. 11. ON TARGET Strategic Management Systems • Tools and techniques can emphasize process or content • Process tools and techniques can foster or reinforce centralized or decentralized interactions • Content approaches favor experts and expert knowledge, and therefore limited interactions Bryson, 2011
  12. 12. ON TARGET Implementation • The hardest part of implementation is the details Performance measurement and management Program and project management Budgets Personnel Ongoing learning and readjustment Bryson, 2011
  13. 13. ON TARGET Implementation “Leadership is the inspiration and mobilization of others to undertake collective action in pursuit of the common good.” Crosby & Bryson, 2005 “Leaders’ influence will turn on their own qualities of character, expertise, prestige, intelligence, ch arm and credibility, but these will have little impact unless they engage the relevant needs and motivations of the persons being influenced. James McGregor Burns, 1978 Bryson, 2011
  14. 14. ON TARGET Effective Strategic Management Requires: Understanding the context Understanding the people involved, including oneself Sponsoring the process Championing the process Facilitating the process Fostering collective leadership Bryson, 2011
  15. 15. ON TARGET Effective Strategic Management Requires: Using dialogue and discussion to create a meaningful process, clarify mandates, articulate mission, identify strategic issues, develop effective strategies, and possibly develop a vision of success Making and implementing decisions in arenas Enforcing rules, setting disputes, and managing residual conflicts Putting it all together Bryson, 2011
  16. 16. ON TARGET Context • Appreciate history but don’t get bogged down • Tailor the process to fit • Know when to go big or choose smaller objectives. Bryson, 2011
  17. 17. ON TARGET Understand the Participants Understand and appreciate diversity and commonality. Develop strength of character and insight. Understand the competencies. Bryson, 2011
  18. 18. ON TARGET Sponsor the Process Articulate the purpose and importance of the strategic planning effort. Commit the necessary resources to the effort. Emphasize at the beginning and at critical points that action and change will result. Encourage and reward creative thinking, constructive debate, and multiple sources of input and insight. Be aware of the possible need for outside consultants. Be willing to exercise power and authority to keep the process on track. Bryson, 2011
  19. 19. ON TARGET Champion the Process Keep strategic planning high on people’s agendas Attend to the process without promoting specific solutions. Think about what has to come together (people, tasks, information, reports) at or before key decision points. Organize the time, space, materials, and participation needed for the process to succeed. Pay attention to the languages used to describe strategic planning and implementation. Keep pushing the process along. Bryson, 2011
  20. 20. ON TARGET Facilitate the Process Know the strategic planning process, and explain how it works at the beginning and at many points along the way. Tailor the process to the organization and to the group involved. Convey a sense of humor and enthusiasm for the process and help groups get unstuck. Press groups toward taking action and assigning responsibility for specific actions. Congratulate people whenever possible. Bryson, 2011
  21. 21. ON TARGET Foster Collective Leadership Rely on teams. Focus on network and coalition development. Establish specific mechanisms for sharing power, responsibility, and accountability. Bryson, 2011
  22. 22. ON TARGET Meaningful Dialogues Understand the design and use of forums. Seize opportunities to provide interpretation and give direction in difficult and uncertain situations. Reveal and name real needs and real conditions. Help followers frame and reframe issues and strategies. Offer compelling visions of the future. Champion new and improved ideas for addressing strategic issues. Detail actions and expected consequences. Bryson, 2011
  23. 23. ON TARGET Decision Arenas Understand the design and use of arenas. Mediate and shape conflict within and among stakeholders. Understand the dynamics of political influence and how to target resources appropriately. Build winning, sustainable coalitions. Avoid bureaucratic imprisonment. Bryson, 2011
  24. 24. ON TARGET Norms, Disputes & Conflict Understand the design and use of formal and informal courts. Foster organizational integrity and educate others about ethics, constitutions, laws, and norms. Apply constitutions, laws, and norms to specific cases. Adapt constitutions, laws, and norms to changing times. Resolve conflicts among constitutions, laws, and norms. Bryson, 2011
  25. 25. ON TARGET Virtual Teams • Establish regular group interaction • Firm rules for communication • Use visual forms of communication where possible • Imitate the attributes of co-located teams • Give and receive regular feedback & assistance • Agree on technology standards Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 Bryson, 2011
  26. 26. ON TARGET Virtual Teams • Use 360-degree feedback to better understand and evaluate team members • Provide a virtual meeting room via intranet, web site, or bulletin board • Note which employees effectively use e-mail to build team rapport • Smooth the way for an employee’s next assignment if membership on the team, or the team itself is not permanent • Be available to employees, but don’t wait for them to seek you out • Encourage informal, off-line conversations between team members Source: Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 Bryson, 2011
  27. 27. ON TARGET Bring It All Together “Planning is the organization of hope.” --Stephen Blum “Usually, the main problem with life conundrums is that we don’t bring to them enough imagination.” --Thomas Moore “Never doubt that a small group of committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has.” --Margaret Mead Bryson, 2011
  28. 28. ON TARGET Bring It All Together "The companies that survive longest are the ones that work out what they uniquely can give to the world—not just growth or money but their excellence, their respect for others, or their ability to make people happy. — Charles Handy "Youve got to think about big things while youre doing small things, so that all the small things go in the right direction.“ — Alvin Toffler Bryson, 2011