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LDR 660 – Formulating Strategy               Siena Heights - Wallace                                Bryson, 2011
Issue Clarification• What is the real issue, conflict or dilemma?• Why is it an issue? What aspect causes the issue?• Who ...
Strategy Patterns“A strategy may be thought of asa pattern of purposes, policies,programs, actions, decisions,and/or resou...
Mintzberg                                          “Strategic planning is not                                          str...
Mintzberg (1994)• Pattern• Position   – Dominant player, low-cost provider, service     provider of choice, etc.• Perspect...
Focusing1. Addressing the new   (rules, design, concepts,   changes, technologies).2. Creating processes3. Controlling str...
StrategyLevels           1. Whole organization           2. Subunits              (departments)           3. Programs, ser...
Purpose          Bryson, 2011
Generic    Enterprise    Scheme                                                   1 Understand social                     ...
5 Key ?????1. What are the practical alternatives, dreams or visions we   might pursue to address this issue and achieve t...
Focusing1. What’s really reasonable?2. Where can we combine proposals, actions and   specific steps?3. Do any proposals, a...
Strategy Mapping                   Bryson, 2011
Strategy Mapping                   Bryson, 2011
Strategy Mapping                   Bryson, 2011
LearningOrganizationSenge (1990) defines the learning organization as anorganization that possesses not only an adaptive c...
Watkins &Marsick, (1993, 1996)When a learning organization becomesoperational as an intentional part of thebusiness strate...
Learning Organization• Developing a hierarchy of ideas from  more abstract (i.e., values and mission)  to more concrete (i...
Miles &Snow (1978)• Prospectors – “continually search for  market opportunities, and . . .  Regularly experiment with pote...
1           Values  Validate  2            Goals Which Creates  3            IssuesWhich exist in a context of possible  4...
Agree on 1           ValuesDecide on 2           GoalsExplore3     Strategic IssuesDiscuss          Context           Opti...
1            ValuesServed by 2          GoalsAchieved by 3       StrategiesThrough agreed upon 4          ActionsSupported...
Where we              want to be         Strategic         PlanningWhere    Process           Continuallywe are           ...
Process  Variation• Remember that strategic thinking,  acting and learning are more  important than a particular  approach...
ResourcesJohn M. Bryson, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, 4th    Edition (San Francisco: Jossey-...
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LDR 660 - Formulating Strategies

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Based in part on the text by John M. Bryson (2011) for my graduate class on strategic planning.

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LDR 660 - Formulating Strategies

  1. 1. LDR 660 – Formulating Strategy Siena Heights - Wallace Bryson, 2011
  2. 2. Issue Clarification• What is the real issue, conflict or dilemma?• Why is it an issue? What aspect causes the issue?• Who says its an issue?• What are the consequences of inaction?• Can we do something about it?• Can issues be eliminated or combined?• Does an issue need to be separated into two or more issues?• One department or across departments?• What are we missing? Bryson, 2011
  3. 3. Strategy Patterns“A strategy may be thought of asa pattern of purposes, policies,programs, actions, decisions,and/or resource allocations thatdefines what an organization is,what it does and why it does it.Strategy therefore is anextension of the organization’s(or community’s) mission,forming a bridge between theorganization and itsenvironment.” -- Bryson, 2011, p. 219. Bryson, 2011
  4. 4. Mintzberg “Strategic planning is not strategic thinking. One is analysis and the other is synthesis… Real strategic change requires inventing new categories, not rearranging old ones.” Mintzberg, HBR 1994Graphic source: Carpenter, et al. 2009. Bryson, 2011
  5. 5. Mintzberg (1994)• Pattern• Position – Dominant player, low-cost provider, service provider of choice, etc.• Perspective – David Osborne and Peter Plastrik’s “Five Strategies” • Core; Consequences; Customer; Control; and Culture.• Plan – The plan is the strategy• Posture or Ploy – Strategy as stratagem, ruse, gaming device, etc. Bryson, 2011
  6. 6. Focusing1. Addressing the new (rules, design, concepts, changes, technologies).2. Creating processes3. Controlling strategy delivery4. Developing future capabilities.5. Maintaining and enhancing stakeholder relations. Bryson, 2011
  7. 7. StrategyLevels 1. Whole organization 2. Subunits (departments) 3. Programs, service or process strategies. 4. Functional (operations). Bryson, 2011
  8. 8. Purpose Bryson, 2011
  9. 9. Generic Enterprise Scheme 1 Understand social 2 Engage in needs and strategic leadership stakeholders and their interests 3 Pursue meaningful mission and fulfill 9 Cultivate support mandates and legitimacy 8 Secure needed resources 4 Build and draw on core and distinctive competenciesLivelihood 5 Pursue competitive 6 Employ coherent 7 Produce desirable and collaborative and effectiveScheme in circle results advantages strategies and operations Bryson, 2011
  10. 10. 5 Key ?????1. What are the practical alternatives, dreams or visions we might pursue to address this issue and achieve this goal?2. What are the barriers to realizing these alternatives, dreams or visions?3. What major proposals might we pursue to achieve these visions or to overcome the barriers?4. What major actions (within existing staff job descriptions) must be taken to implement the proposals?5. What specific steps must be taken in the next six months? Bryson, 2011
  11. 11. Focusing1. What’s really reasonable?2. Where can we combine proposals, actions and specific steps?3. Do any proposals, actions or specific steps contradict each other, and if so, what do we do about it?4. What (including resources) are we or key implementers really willing to commit to in the next year?5. What are the specific next steps that would have to occur in the next six months for this strategy to work? Bryson, 2011
  12. 12. Strategy Mapping Bryson, 2011
  13. 13. Strategy Mapping Bryson, 2011
  14. 14. Strategy Mapping Bryson, 2011
  15. 15. LearningOrganizationSenge (1990) defines the learning organization as anorganization that possesses not only an adaptive capacitybut the ability to create alternative futures through fivedisciplines.• Team learning• Shared visions• Mental models• Personal mastery• System thinking Bryson, 2011
  16. 16. Watkins &Marsick, (1993, 1996)When a learning organization becomesoperational as an intentional part of thebusiness strategy: – People are aligned around a common vision. – They generate new knowledge with three key components: • Systems-level continuous learning that is created in order to • Create and manage knowledge outcomes • Which lead to improvement in the organization’s performance and value. Bryson, 2011
  17. 17. Learning Organization• Developing a hierarchy of ideas from more abstract (i.e., values and mission) to more concrete (i.e., strategies and actions)• Understanding an idea’s placement within the hierarchy (i.e., what is attended to and why)• Understanding the connection between values and assertions (two often unarticulated keys to real learning)• Using strategic planning as a component of a “learning organization” Bryson, 2011
  18. 18. Miles &Snow (1978)• Prospectors – “continually search for market opportunities, and . . . Regularly experiment with potential responses to emerging environmental trends”• Defenders – “devote primary attention to improving the efficiency of their current operations”• Reactors – “seldom makes adjustment of any sort until forced to do so by environmental pressures” Bryson, 2011
  19. 19. 1 Values Validate 2 Goals Which Creates 3 IssuesWhich exist in a context of possible 4 OptionsSupported by 5 Assertions © Fran Ackermann, 1989 and Realizations, Inc., 1998 Bryson, 2011
  20. 20. Agree on 1 ValuesDecide on 2 GoalsExplore3 Strategic IssuesDiscuss Context Options Content Options Actions Assertions Assertions © Fran Ackermann, 1989 and Realizations, Inc., 1998 Bryson, 2011
  21. 21. 1 ValuesServed by 2 GoalsAchieved by 3 StrategiesThrough agreed upon 4 ActionsSupported by 5 Assertions © Fran Ackermann, 1989 and Realizations, Inc., 1998 Bryson, 2011
  22. 22. Where we want to be Strategic PlanningWhere Process Continuallywe are Measured and Revised Bryson, 2011
  23. 23. Process Variation• Remember that strategic thinking, acting and learning are more important than a particular approach.• Evaluate alternatives prior to implementation. Are they: – Politically acceptable – Administratively and technically workable – Results oriented – Legally, ethically and morally defensible? Bryson, 2011
  24. 24. ResourcesJohn M. Bryson, Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, 4th Edition (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011)Senge, P. M. (1990). The fifth discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Random House.Watkins, K. E., & Marsick, V. J. (1993). Sculpting the learning organization: Lessons in the art and science of systemic change. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.Watkins, K. E., & Marsick, V. J. (1996). In action: Creating the learning organization. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development. Baiyin Bryson, 2011

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