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Negotiation skills

Presentation covers all the main aspects of negotiation process. Key Elements of Negotiations Variety of Negotiations Type of Negotiations Negotiation Styles Type of Negotiators Negotiation Tactics Stages of Negotiation Cycle with Strategy & Tactics

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By: Prashant Dedhia
prashantrd1980@gmail.com
www.linkedin.com/in/prashantdedhia
 Overview
 Key Elements of Negotiations
 Variety of Negotiations
 Type of Negotiations
 Negotiation Styles
 Type of Negotiators
 Negotiation Tactics
 Stages of Negotiation Cycle with Strategy & Tactics
Index
 Definition of Negotiations :
 Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial
outcome. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them.
 It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft
outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is often conducted by putting forward a position and making
small concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other
to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are
successful. Negotiation is not a zero-sum game; if there is no cooperation, the negotiation will fail.
 Everyone negotiates everyday, often without even considering it a negotiation. Negotiation occurs in
business, sales, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among nations, and
in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, etc. The study of the subject is
called negotiation theory. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators,
leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiator, or hostage negotiators
Overview
 Requirement Analysis
 Product or Service
 Product Marketability
 Market Research / Industry Study
 Competition / Monopoly
 Buyer and Seller
 Volume and Value
 Product / Service Quality
 Terms and Conditions
 Authority Level
 Available Alternatives
 Direct dealing or indirect dealing
Key Elements of Negotiation Process
 Brand Power
 Taxation
 Internal Conflicts
 Pain Points
 Reverse Engineering
 Long Term Vision
 Cost benefit analysis
 Judgement
 Reaction Time
 Decision Timing
 Culture / Geographical Conditions
 Nature of Product of Service
 Ongoing process
 Political Considerations
 Inco Terms & Lead Time
 Credit Period
 Daily routine Negotiations
 Commercial Negotiations
 Employment Negotiations
 Political Negotiations
 Price Negotiations
 Terms and Conditions Negotiations
 Hostage Negotiations
 Social Negotiations
 Technology Negotiations
 Barter Negotiations
Variety of Negotiations
Integrative Negotiation (Win-Win)
 Integrative negotiation is also called interest-based,
merit-based, or principled negotiation. It is a set of
techniques that attempts to improve the quality and
likelihood of negotiated agreement by providing an
alternative to traditional distributive negotiation
techniques.
 While distributive negotiation assumes there is a
fixed amount of value (a "fixed pie") to be divided
between the parties, integrative negotiation often
attempts to create value in the course of the
negotiation ("expand the pie").
 It focuses on the underlying interests of the parties
rather than their arbitrary starting positions,
approaches negotiation as a shared problem rather
than a personalized battle, and insists upon
adherence to objective, principled criteria as the basis
for agreement.
Types of Negotiations
Distributive Negotiation (Win-Lose)
 Distributive negotiation is also sometimes
called positional or hard-bargaining
negotiation. It tends to approach negotiation on
the model of haggling in a market.
 In a distributive negotiation, each side often
adopts an extreme position, knowing that it
will not be accepted, and then employs a
combination of guile, bluffing, and
brinkmanship in order to cede as little as
possible before reaching a deal.
 Distributive bargainers conceive of negotiation
as a process of distributing a fixed amount of
value

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Negotiation skills

  • 2.  Overview  Key Elements of Negotiations  Variety of Negotiations  Type of Negotiations  Negotiation Styles  Type of Negotiators  Negotiation Tactics  Stages of Negotiation Cycle with Strategy & Tactics Index
  • 3.  Definition of Negotiations :  Negotiation is a dialogue between two or more people or parties intended to reach a beneficial outcome. This beneficial outcome can be for all of the parties involved, or just for one or some of them.  It is aimed to resolve points of difference, to gain advantage for an individual or collective, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is often conducted by putting forward a position and making small concessions to achieve an agreement. The degree to which the negotiating parties trust each other to implement the negotiated solution is a major factor in determining whether negotiations are successful. Negotiation is not a zero-sum game; if there is no cooperation, the negotiation will fail.  Everyone negotiates everyday, often without even considering it a negotiation. Negotiation occurs in business, sales, non-profit organizations, government branches, legal proceedings, among nations, and in personal situations such as marriage, divorce, parenting, etc. The study of the subject is called negotiation theory. Professional negotiators are often specialized, such as union negotiators, leverage buyout negotiators, peace negotiator, or hostage negotiators Overview
  • 4.  Requirement Analysis  Product or Service  Product Marketability  Market Research / Industry Study  Competition / Monopoly  Buyer and Seller  Volume and Value  Product / Service Quality  Terms and Conditions  Authority Level  Available Alternatives  Direct dealing or indirect dealing Key Elements of Negotiation Process  Brand Power  Taxation  Internal Conflicts  Pain Points  Reverse Engineering  Long Term Vision  Cost benefit analysis  Judgement  Reaction Time  Decision Timing  Culture / Geographical Conditions  Nature of Product of Service  Ongoing process  Political Considerations  Inco Terms & Lead Time  Credit Period
  • 5.  Daily routine Negotiations  Commercial Negotiations  Employment Negotiations  Political Negotiations  Price Negotiations  Terms and Conditions Negotiations  Hostage Negotiations  Social Negotiations  Technology Negotiations  Barter Negotiations Variety of Negotiations
  • 6. Integrative Negotiation (Win-Win)  Integrative negotiation is also called interest-based, merit-based, or principled negotiation. It is a set of techniques that attempts to improve the quality and likelihood of negotiated agreement by providing an alternative to traditional distributive negotiation techniques.  While distributive negotiation assumes there is a fixed amount of value (a "fixed pie") to be divided between the parties, integrative negotiation often attempts to create value in the course of the negotiation ("expand the pie").  It focuses on the underlying interests of the parties rather than their arbitrary starting positions, approaches negotiation as a shared problem rather than a personalized battle, and insists upon adherence to objective, principled criteria as the basis for agreement. Types of Negotiations Distributive Negotiation (Win-Lose)  Distributive negotiation is also sometimes called positional or hard-bargaining negotiation. It tends to approach negotiation on the model of haggling in a market.  In a distributive negotiation, each side often adopts an extreme position, knowing that it will not be accepted, and then employs a combination of guile, bluffing, and brinkmanship in order to cede as little as possible before reaching a deal.  Distributive bargainers conceive of negotiation as a process of distributing a fixed amount of value
  • 7. Accommodating Individuals who enjoy solving the other party's problems and preserving personal relationships. Accommodators are sensitive to the emotional states, body language, and verbal signals of the other parties. They can, however, feel taken advantage of in situations when the other party places little emphasis on the relationship. Avoiding Individuals who do not like to negotiate and don't do it unless warranted. When negotiating, avoiders tend to defer and dodge the confrontational aspects of negotiating; however, they may be perceived as tactful and diplomatic. Collaborating Individuals who enjoy negotiations that involve solving tough problems in creative ways. Collaborators are good at using negotiations to understand the concerns and interests of the other parties. They can, however, create problems by transforming simple situations into more complex ones. Competing Individuals who enjoy negotiations because they present an opportunity to win something. Competitive negotiators have strong instincts for all aspects of negotiating and are often strategic. Because their style can dominate the bargaining process, competitive negotiators often neglect the importance of relationships. Compromising Individuals who are eager to close the deal by doing what is fair and equal for all parties involved in the negotiation. Compromisers can be useful when there is limited time to complete the deal; however, compromisers often unnecessarily rush the negotiation process and make concessions too quickly. Negotiation styles
  • 8.  Three basic kinds of negotiators have been identified by researchers involved in The Harvard Negotiation Project. These types of negotiators are: Soft bargainers, hard bargainers, and principled bargainers.  Soft. These people see negotiation as too close to competition, so they choose a gentle style of bargaining. The offers they make are not in their best interests, they yield to others' demands, avoid confrontation, and they maintain good relations with fellow negotiators. Their perception of others is one of friendship, and their goal is agreement. They do not separate the people from the problem, but are soft on both. They avoid contests of wills and will insist on agreement, offering solutions and easily trusting others and changing their opinions.  Hard. These people use contentious strategies to influence, utilizing phrases such as "this is my final offer" and "take it or leave it." They make threats, are distrustful of others, insist on their position, and apply pressure to negotiate. They see others as adversaries and their ultimate goal is victory. Additionally, they will search for one single answer, and insist you agree on it. They do not separate the people from the problem (as with soft bargainers), but they are hard on both the people involved and the problem.  Principled. Individuals who bargain this way seek integrative solutions, and do so by sidestepping commitment to specific positions. They focus on the problem rather than the intentions, motives, and needs of the people involved. They separate the people from the problem, explore interests, avoid bottom lines, and reach results based on standards (which are independent of personal will). They base their choices on objective criteria rather than power, pressure, self-interest, or an arbitrary decisional procedure. These criteria may be drawn from moral standards, principles of fairness, professional standards, tradition, and so on. Type of Negotiators
  • 9.  Auction: The bidding process is designed to create competition. When multiple parties want the same thing, pit them against one another. When people know that they may lose out on something, they will want it even more. Not only do they want the thing that is being bid on, they also want to win, just to win. Taking advantage of someone's competitive nature can drive up the price.  Brinksmanship: One party aggressively pursues a set of terms to the point at which the other negotiating party must either agree or walk away. Brinkmanship is a type of "hard nut" approach to bargaining in which one party pushes the other party to the "brink" or edge of what that party is willing to accommodate. Successful brinksmanship convinces the other party they have no choice but to accept the offer and there is no acceptable alternative to the proposed agreement.  Bogey: Negotiators use the bogey tactic to pretend that an issue of little or no importance to him or her is very important. Then, later in the negotiation, the issue can be traded for a major concession of actual importance.  Chicken: Negotiators propose extreme measures, often bluffs, to force the other party to chicken out and give them what they want. This tactic can be dangerous when parties are unwilling to back down and go through with the extreme measure. Negotiation Tactics
  • 10.  Defence in Depth: Several layers of decision-making authority is used to allow further concessions each time the agreement goes through a different level of authority. In other words, each time the offer goes to a decision maker, that decision maker asks to add another concession in order to close the deal.  Deadlines: Give the other party a deadline forcing them to make a decision. This method uses time to apply pressure to the other party. Deadlines given can be actual or artificial.  Good Guy/Bad Guy: The good guy/bad guy approach is typically used in team negotiations where one member of the team makes extreme or unreasonable demands, and the other offers a more rational approach. This tactic is named after a police interrogation technique often portrayed in the media. The "good guy" will appear more reasonable and understanding, and therefore, easier to work with. In essence, it is using the law of relativity to attract cooperation. The good guy will appear more agreeable relative to the "bad guy." This tactic is easy to spot because of its frequent use.  Highball/Lowball: Depending on whether selling or buying, sellers or buyers use a ridiculously high, or ridiculously low opening offer that will never be achieved. The theory is that the extreme offer will cause the other party to re evaluate his or her own opening offer and move close to the resistance point (as far as you are willing to go to reach an agreement). Another advantage is that the person giving the extreme demand appears more flexible he or she makes concessions toward a more reasonable outcome. A danger of this tactic is that the opposite party may think negotiating is a waste of time. Negotiation Tactics – continued..
  • 11.  Flinch: Flinching is showing a strong negative physical reaction to a proposal. Common examples of flinching are gasping for air, or a visible expression of surprise or shock. The flinch can be done consciously or unconsciously. The flinch signals to the opposite party that you think the offer or proposal is absurd in hopes the other party will lower their aspirations. Seeing a physical reaction is more believable than hearing someone saying, "I'm shocked.“  The Nibble: Nibbling is asking for proportionally small concessions that haven't been discussed previously just before closing the deal. This method takes advantage of the other party's desire to close by adding "just one more thing."  Snow Job: Negotiators overwhelm the other party with so much information that he or she has difficulty determining which facts are important, and which facts are diversions. Negotiators may also use technical language or jargon to mask a simple answer to a question asked by a non-expert.  Mirroring: When people get on well, the outcome of a negotiation is likely to be more positive. In order to create trust and a rapport, it is recommended to mimic or mirror the opponent's behaviour and repeat what has been said. Mirroring is a behaviour that refers to a person repeating the core content of what another person just said, or repeating a certain expression. It indicates attention to the subject of negotiation and acknowledges the other party's point or statement. Mirroring can help create trust and establish a relationship. Negotiation Tactics – continued..
  • 12.  Before The Negotiation Strategy : Increase Your Power - Gather Benchmark Data - Enhance Your BATNAs Strategy : Control the Logistics - Choose a Day With Nice Weather - Choose an Early Time - Choose the Right Medium - Negotiate at Your Office Strategy : Encourage Cooperative Behaviour - Avoid Negotiation Terminology - Schedule a Future Interaction Stages of Negotiation Cycle
  • 13.  During the Negotiation Strategy : Convey the Proper Emotions - Show the Signs of Disappointment - Become Angry (When Appropriate) Strategy : Demonstrate Your Power - Mention Your BATNAs - Avoid Disclaimers and Weak Language Strategy : Properly Address the Terms - Address all Relevant Terms - Rank Order the Terms Stages of Negotiation Cycle
  • 14.  Ending The Negotiation Strategy : Anchor Your Offer - Make the First Offer - Request a High Precise Range Strategy : Frame Your Offer - Separate Gains / Combine Losses - Create Visual Balance - Justify With Graphs Strategy : Counter Their Offer - Ask Diagnostic Questions - Always Counter Their First Offer - Pause After They Make an Offer Stages of Negotiation Cycle
  • 15.  After The Negotiation Strategy : Finalize The Deal - Follow Up With an Email Summary - Compliment Their Negotiation Skills - Be the First to Draft the Contract Stages of Negotiation Cycle