Hernán Cortéz wanted a kingdom, and the only way he could have one was to own an island. Perhaps not surprisingly, explorers he commissioned “discovered” that Baja California was an island – or at least they were willing to believe it was.The myth of California as an island persisted for almost 175 years, until a group of Roman Catholic priests was commissioned to settle the controversy over whether it was or was not.Dora Beale Polk, The Island of California, Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1991.
The history of bad business decisions makes for great story telling. For example Coke once had the opportunity to buy Pepsi and declined. The Yale professor who gave Federal Express founder Fred Smith a “C” for his paper on creating on overnight delivery service company because it wasn’t feasible. In 1999 Excite had the opportunity to buy Google for a million dollars and declined. This example from Steve Jobs.http://www.articlesbase.com/leadership-articles/bad-business-decisions-and-famous-quotes-451168.html.
Or these examples missing the boat completely on computers and the Beatles. It’s not just people who die for lack of vision, organizations do to. Digital Equipment eventually got bought by Compaq, which later merged with HP, an some of the Digital divisions were eventually sold to Intel. Decca split into British and American companies, merged with MCA, and currently is part of Universal Music Group, and the leading producer of Classical and Broadway recordings which don’t have that big a market share. What might they have been if they’d signed the Beatles?http://www.articlesbase.com/leadership-articles/bad-business-decisions-and-famous-quotes-451168.html
There are a number of ways to do environmental scanning, including logic models, as in this graphic from research utilization dot org. It’s a fairly straight forward process of analyzing the situation, the inputs or resources available, the outputs, and the short, midrange and long term outcomes or impacts, all of which works as a process regardless of product or service or the size of the organization.http://www.researchutilization.org/logicmodel/images/logic1sm.jpgLogic models show presumed linkages between: Inputs or resourcesActivities or processesOutputsOutcomesTypically the linkages are not very clearly articulated
http://www.12manage.com/images/picture_porter_value_chain.gifIn some of your other graduate classes you should have been exposed to value based management dot net, which like 12 manage is a great resource for finding, understanding, and applying models and processes for organizational analysis, development, change and leadership, though more often than not many of these types of sites will talk about management, more than leadership. 12 manage dot come is where this graphic of Porter’s model comes from, relating to production in particular.And as Bryson states Porter’s Value Chain is another model that may or may not provide more detail regarding actual processes for transforming resources into outputs or outcomes than a logic model does.Just as in week one you did a search for strategic planning models beyond Bryson, what models, processes, and tools you use within your organization or as a consultant really depends on the organizational culture and internal and environments to fit the needs of the organization.
If you’re not aware of Drucker and haven’t read any, you need to. I can’t imagine graduating with an organizational leadership degree that doesn’t require a study of Drucker somewhere along the line. Those are also books you keep because what he has to say never becomes outdated or some passing fad.In our building a framework for strategic planning, Bryson advises: You ignore the internal and external environments at your peril.You should provide incentives for truth-telling.The future may not be wholly open, but it may be more open than we think.You should invite challenges to the “official future.”
A SWOT is a standard analysis that you should be familiar with. Bryson discusses in particular a variation called SWOC, where “Challenges” has replaced the term “threats” as we’ll see looking his model again next. This particular graphic comes from Biz Strategies.com, another online resource for developing your toolbox of models and competencies.
You should clearly understand that Strengths and Weaknesses are internal, and that Opportunities and Threats, or Challenges however the organization prefers to describe them, are external. And as we look at Bryson’s Strategy Change Cycle there are both types of scans which provide input into the strategic issues the organization faces.
Externally issues. At first glance these may seem obvious, but that doesn’t mean that those leading our organizations have paid full attention to all of them, and if you’re missing a piece of the puzzle, you’ll make decisions that aren’t adequate for what’s happening in the marketplace, or you just won’t be ready when either the challenge or the opportunity comes.
Just as important, is understanding the capabilities and resources that the organization has? Have we developed an organizational learning culture that allows us to gain knowledge we’re missing? Are we transferring knowledge and experience across departments and project teams so that past mistakes don’t have to be repeated? Are we preparing the next generation of innovators and leaders within the organization and transferring the experience of older workers to their cohorts? Additionally of course, how are we measuring performance, and are we using the right measurements to get the results we need? Are we measuring the right things? Are the measuring requirements taking so much time that we’re inhibited from actually doing something that advances the organization? As Drucker would say, it’s not making the wrong decisions that leads to failure, it’s asking the wrong questions to begin with.
This is a direct quote from Bryson when he teaches this class. And a short definition of livelihood scheme is simply a comparison of current organizational competencies to organizational objectives so gaps and or shortcomings can be prepared for. And of course, just because we possess a competency, doesn’t mean we can’t improve upon them, because resources, knowledge and technology continue to change. What we’re looking for is an ability to be adaptable enough in our KSA’s to handle any environmental threat or opportunity that comes.
Harland Cleveland was a diplomat, author and educator among worked with NATO under Johnson, was a U.S. Assistant Secretary of State, President of the University of Hawaii, and founding dean of the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.Peter Drucker we’ve already discussed.Visioning should not be confused with a vision statement. We make plans and decisions based on reasonable actionable data. But real vision, or visioning goes beyond what we can see or read to the unknown. As Arthur C. Clark stated: The only way to know the limits of the possible is to go beyond them to the impossible.
Take a moment to read these two quotes as well, because even now you are working to create a future different than the one you had yesterday. What’s required of leadership is giving voice and image to a vision of the future that others can understand band believe in.
Developing a vision sketch early in the process is particularly helpful when: The organization will have trouble identifying strategic issues directly. It is not possible to agree on specific, detailed goals and objectives. Drastic change is likely to be necessary.
We talked about this in week 1, but again Howard Gardner’s research in “Changing Minds” tells us that whether individually or organizationally we must have: Reason: Allowing members to understand the need for change.Research: Providing important information that supports the reason.Resonance: The understanding of change must reach to the core beliefs of members.Redescriptions: The basis for change must be expressed in multiple forms (numbers, graphics, etc.). Schein suggests that the stories which bind members together are the most important (Schein, 2004)Resources and Rewards: Members must have the tools they need to complete the change, and a reward for success (beyond simply keeping your job).Real World Events: Change will not be successful if it doesn’t relate to real life and what’s occurring outside of the organization.Resistances: Every human comes from their personal paradigms and resistance to change is inevitable, but can be overcome.
NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR .. Graphic from Bryson visually gives us a representation of a vision that has a large strategic plan and can be accessed at: http://obssr.od.nih.gov/about_obssr/strategic_planning/strategicPlanning.aspx. They’re strategic planning process took place very ten years since the founding of the organization, but now is a vision and strategy that is continually improved upon.
NIH Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR .. Graphic from Bryson visually gives us a representation of a strategic plan that has a large number of objectives and can be accessed at: http://obssr.od.nih.gov/about_obssr/strategic_planning/strategicPlanning.aspx
As a leader, whether we’re talking about the entire organization or your department or team, needs to be in multiple forms, but clear, concise and in ways that drive passion and excitement. And so that when your team or any other stakeholder wanders off course, which is generally inevitable, you can return to the Department of Why, and refocus efforts. A paraphrase of Peter Block from his book Community: The Structure of Belonging is that the real challenge is to discover and create the means for engaging stakeholders that brings a new possibility into being.” (Berrett-Koehler, 2008).
Research shows that clearly communicated and understood visions have measured positive impacts. The basis of this slide again comes from Bryson’s presentation for his class, so I haven’t got a list of published studies, but they’re not hard to find if you want to invest the time. As Schein clearly states: All group learning ultimately reflects someone’s original beliefs and values, their sense of what out to be, as distinct from what is.’ Schein, E. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Shared organizational values in part define an organizational culture (that’s not a full definition of course). Consider JC Quick’s 1992 article from Organizational Dynamics about Southwest Airlines though: “Cultural values become the platform for specific and concrete actions designed to meet difficulty and challenge. “We cannot think of organizational culture as a substitute for responsible, problem-solving behavior on the part of leadership. Culture becomes the vehicle through which problems and challenges become addressed, defined, reframed and ultimately solved. When cultural values do not work in this fashion, they must be modified or jettisoned. The culture is not the end or goal, but rather the means” (Quick, 1992, p. 54).
To suggest that the future is all butterflies, blue skies, roses and chocolate is unrealistic to say the least. To suggest that we as leaders, can provide guidance and create an image of the future which others want to participate in is why you’re in grad school to begin with. But having a vision, and being able to apply goals, strategies, objectives and action plans or tactics will be part of our studies over the next several weeks.
Margaret Meade: Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it's the only thing that ever has.That team whether in your department or the entire organization will become thoughtful and committed, even passionate, when you united them behind a clear mission, vision and values of the organization. And of course, when leadership behaves in ways that also fulfill, and not violate those core precepts. Change is inevitable. Change that is empowering, planned, measured and clearly articulated, creates a viable future.
Strategic Planning - Scanning & Visioning
LDR 660 Wk 2 - Scanning Winter II - Wallace
You Get What You Ask For? The Island of California Cortez wanted his own island kingdom and his explorers found one for him. So the “modern” world believed CA was an island for 175 years. Polk, 1991
External Environmental Knowledge?"So we went to Atari and said, "Heyweve got this amazing thing, evenbuilt with some of your parts, what doyou think about funding us? Or wellgive it to you. We just want to do it.Pay our salary, well come work foryou." And they said, "No". So thenwe went to Hewlett Packard and theysaid, "Hey, we dont need you; youhavent even got through college yet." Source: Bad Business Decisions
External Environmental Knowledge?"There is no reason anyone wouldwant a computer in their home." --Ken Olson, president, chairman andfounder of Digital EquipmentCorp., 1977"We dont like their sound, and guitarmusic is on the way out." --DeccaRecording Co. rejecting theBeatles, 1962. Source: Bad Business Decisions
Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005)• The only thing we know about the future is that it will be different.• One cannot manage change. One can only be ahead of it.• Management by objective works if you know the objectives. Ninety percent of the time you dont.• The purpose of an organization is to enable common men to do uncommon things.
Actionable Data Builds Reasonable GoalsPublic and nonprofitorganizations should focus ondeveloping easilyunderstandable and viable“livelihood schemes.” Theschemes will build on strengths(and especially distinctivecompetencies), take advantageof opportunities, and minimizeor overcome weaknesses andthreats to achievingaspirations, and will be robustin the face of changingenvironments. Bryson, 2011
Visioning• We tackle 20-year problems with five-year plans staffed by two-year personnel funded by one year appropriations. Harlan Cleveland• Unless commitment is made, there are only promises and hopes . . . but no plans. Peter F. Drucker
VisioningI skate to where I think thepuck will be. Wayne GretzkyThose people who develop theability to continuously acquirenew and better forms ofknowledge that they can apply totheir work and to their lives willbe the movers and shakers in oursociety for the indefinite future. Brian Tracy
Vision• A description or picture of what success would look like for the organization, program, project, etc.• Vision Sketch – a brief description• Vision of Success – a description of what the organization would look like if it succeeds in implementing its strategies and achieving its full potential; typically formulated later in the process.
Howard Gardner (2006) 1. Reason 2. Research 3. Resonance 4. Redescriptions: 5. Resources and Rewards 6. Real World Events 7. Resistances
National Institutes of Health OBSSR OBSSR Strategic Plan Bryson, 2011
National Institutes of Health OBSSR OBSSR Strategic Plan Bryson, 2011
Inspire Stakeholders ClearlyFocuses on better future.Encourages hopes and dreams.Appeals to common values.States positive outcomes.Emphasizes strength of unifiedgroup.Uses word pictures, images andmetaphors.Communicates enthusiasm andkindles excitement. Bryson, 2011
Clear Communicated Visions Increase:• Job satisfaction• Commitment• Loyalty• Esprit de corps• Clarity about organizational values• Pride in the organization• Productivity• Organizational effectiveness Bryson, 2011
Shared Organizational ValuesFoster strong feelings of personaleffectivenessPromote high levels oforganizational loyaltyFacilitate consensus about keyorganizational goals andstakeholdersEncourage ethical behaviorPromote strong norms aboutworking hard and caringReduce levels of job stress andtension. Bryson, 2011
ConclusionYou must give birth to your images.They are the future waiting to beborn. Rainer Maria Rilke, poetThe visionary is the only realist. Federico Fellini, film makerA leaders role is to raise peoplesaspirations for what they canbecome and to release their energiesso they will try to get there. David Gergen
Peter F. Drucker (1909-2005) Teamwork is neither "good" nor "desirable." It is a fact. Wherever people work together or play together they do so as a team. Which team to use for what purpose is a crucial, difficult and risky decision that is even harder to unmake. Managements have yet to learn how to make it.