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OB - Communication and Networking

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Based on the Organizational Behavior text by Krietner & Kinicki (2009).

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OB - Communication and Networking

  1. 1. Ch 14Communication BUSA 220 Wallace – Spring 2012 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  2. 2. What’s Your Experience?• What are the goals of work-related communication?• How do you know effective communication took place?• What indications does the communication sender have that the message is not understood? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  3. 3. Simple ModelKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  4. 4. Aristotle’s ModelSource: http://www.shkaminski.com Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  5. 5. Laswell’s ModelCroft, 2004 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  6. 6. Shannon-Weaver ModelKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Source: http://www.shkaminski.com 2009 Krietner/Kinicki,
  7. 7. Berlo’s ModelKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  8. 8. Barriers Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  9. 9. Personal Barriers 1. Variable skills in communicating effectively 2. Variations in how information is processed and interpreted 3. Variations in personal trust 4. Stereotypes and prejudices 5. Big egos 6. Poor listening skills 7. Natural tendency to evaluate other’s messages 8. Inability to listen with understanding 9. Nonverbal communication Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  10. 10. Other Barriers • Physical barriers the distance between employees can interfere with effective communication • Semantic barriers encoding and decoding errors—involve transmitting and receiving words and symbols— fueled by the use of jargon and unnecessaryKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 words Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  11. 11. What Do You Think?A computer sales personrelies on technical jargonto explain aspects of acomputer system to hisnon-technical customer.Which type of barrierexists? a. Semantic barrier b. Physical barrier c. Medium barrier d. Feedback barrier Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  12. 12. Assertive Style Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Description Pattern Pattern Pushing hard  Good eye contact  Direct and without attacking;  Comfortable, unambiguous permits others to but firm posture language influence outcome:  Strong, steady, and  No attributions expressive and self- audible voice or evaluations of enhancing without other’s behavior  Facial expressions intruding on others matched to message  Use of ―I‖  Appropriately statements and serious tone cooperative  Selective ―we‖ statements interruptions to ensure understandingKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  13. 13. Aggressive Style Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Description Pattern PatternTaking advantage  Glaring eye contact  Swear words andof others;  Moving or leaning abusiveexpressive and self- too close languageenhancing at  Threatening  Attributions andothers’ expense gestures evaluations of  Loud voice others’ behavior  Frequent  Sexist or racist interruptions terms  Explicit threats or put-downs Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  14. 14. Nonassertive Style Nonverbal Behavior Verbal Behavior Description Pattern Pattern Encouraging others  Little eye contact  Qualifiers to take advantage  Downward glances  Fillers of us; inhibited;  Slumped posture  Negaters self-denying  Constantly shifting weight  Wringing hands  Weak or whiny voiceKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  15. 15. Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication messages sent outside of written or spoken word – Experts estimate 65 to 90% of every conversation is nonverbal • What are examples of nonverbal communication? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  16. 16. What Do You Think? During a job interview, Charlie, the interviewer stared intently at the candidate while he talked, constantly nodded his head to show understanding, and leaned over the table towards the candidate. Charlie’s nonverbal communication is: a. Effective, he did all the right things b. Over the top, he would make me uncomfortable c. Pretty good, he just shouldn’t have leaned over the tableKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  17. 17. Active ListeningFive Dominant Styles• Appreciative• Empathetic• Comprehensive• Discerning• Evaluative Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  18. 18. Effective Listening Keys • Capitalize on thought speed • Listen for ideas • Find an area of interest • Judge content, not delivery • Hold your fire • Work at listening • Resist distractions • Hear what is said • Challenge yourself • Use handouts, overheads, or other visual aids Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  19. 19. Gender Differences 1. Men are less likely to ask for information or directions 2. In decision making, women are more likely to downplay their certainty; men are more likely to downplay their doubts 3. Women apologize even when they have done nothing wrong. Men avoid apologies as signs of weakness or concession 4. Women accept blame as a way of smoothing awkward situations. Men ignore blame and place it elsewhere 5. Women temper criticism with positive buffers. Men give criticism directlyKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  20. 20. Gender Differences 6. Women insert unnecessary and unwarranted ―thank-you’s‖ in conversations. Men avoid thanks altogether 7. Women ask ―What do you think?‖ to build consensus. Men perceive that question as a sign of incompetence and lack of confidence 8. Women give directions in indirect ways 9. Men usurp (take) ideas stated by women and claim them as their own. Women allow this process to take place without protest 10. Women use softer voice volume to encourage persuasion and approval. Men use louder voice volume to attract attention and maintain controlKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  21. 21. Formal Channels• Follow the chain of command or organizational structure• Vertical – up and down the organization• Horizontal - communicating within and between work units• External – communicating with others outside the organization• What are examples of vertical, horizontal and external communication? Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  22. 22. Informal Channels • Grapevine - unofficial communication system of informal organization and encompasses all types of communication media – Moles – Liaisons • Management by Walking Around – Managers literally walk around an talk to people across lines of authority – How would this work in a virtual working environment?Krietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  23. 23. What Do You ThinkTrue (A) or False (B)?1. The Grapevine is only 30% accurate2. The grapevine moves a lot faster than formal communication channels.3. Organizational moles use the grapevine to their personal advantage.4. Managers should try to control or stop the grapevine because of it’s negative impact on the organization. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  24. 24. Contingency Model Rich Overload zone Richness of Communication Medium Face-to-face Interactive media Personal static media Oversimplification zone Impersonal static media Lean Low Complexity of Problem/Situation HighKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  25. 25. Grapevine Patterns E C K H G I X Y F B D E G J D F H I D C A B J Probability—each J C A K randomly tells others Gossip—one tells all B I B D A C FSingle strand—each tells one Cluster—some tellother A selected others; most typical Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  26. 26. Internet Privacy/Security • Pick Strong Passwords • Use Different Passwords • Don’t Reveal Sensitive Information • Don’t Share Files • Update Security Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  27. 27. Generation Norms Freedom Customization Scrutiny Integrity Collaboration Entertainment Speed InnovationKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  28. 28. TelecommutingProblems Benefits Work-life Green balance Employer Isolation attractiveness Career Productivity gainsimplications Takes self- Reduced capital discipline costs Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  29. 29. Managing Email • Don’t assume e-mail is confidential • Be professional and courteous • Avoid sloppiness • Don’t use e-mail for volatile or complex issues • Keep messages brief and clear • Save people time • Be careful withKrietner/Kinicki, 2009 attachments Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  30. 30. Cell Phone Etiquette Thou Shalt Not Forget to turn cell Speak Set ringerSubject others phone Dial louder toto cell phone off while on cell annoyingconversations during driving phone tones public shows Krietner/Kinicki, 2009
  31. 31. ReferencesBerelson, B., & Steiner, G. (1964). Human behavior: An inventory of scientific findings. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World.Berlo, D. (1960). The process of communication: An introduction to theory and practice. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Croft, R.S. (2004). Communication TheoryDale, E. (1969). Audiovisual methods in teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Kaminski, S.H. (2008). http://www.shkaminski.com/Classes/BJU_MBA_665/Laswell, H. (1948). The structure and function of communication in society. In L. Bryson (Ed.), The communication of ideas. New York: Harper.Ruben, B. D. (1984). Communication and human behavior. Hew York: Macmillan Publishing Co.Schramm, W. (1954). How communication works. In W. Schramm (Ed.), The process and effects of mass communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Shannon, C. & Weaver, W. (1949). The mathematical theory of communication. . Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Theodorson, S. & Theodorson, A. (1969). A modern dictionary of sociology. New York: Cassell Education Limited. Krietner/Kinicki, 2009

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