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Identification, Discrimination and Classification of Cotton Crop by Using Multispectral imagery using complete enumeration approach over Haryana state

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Identification, Discrimination and Classification of Cotton Crop by
Using Multispectral imagery using complete enumeration approach
over Haryana state
Om Pal1, Hemraj1
1Haryana Space Application Centre, Hisar, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract - The accurate and timely crop production
forecast plays a pivotal role in management for taking the
decision related to import, export etc. by the policy makers
which may be very helpful for enhancing productivity,
resource allocation, and sustainable land management. The
crop production forecast comprisesmainlycropareaandyield
assessment. In recent years, crop classification and area
assessment using remote sensing and GIS techniques have
gained prominence due to theirnon-invasiveandcost-efficient
nature. The use of multi-spectral data operating in the visible
and near infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum is
widely used for the crop area, health and condition
assessment. This research paper presents an in-depth
exploration of cotton crop classification and area estimation
using single date multi-spectral imagery by employing
complete enumeration approach in major cotton growing
districts of Haryana. The study investigates the potential of
optical data for accurate cotton crop identification and
monitoring. The paper discusses the methodology, data
acquisition, feature extraction, classification algorithms, and
showcasing their applicability in different agricultural
contexts. Through an extensive review of existing literature
and empirical analysis, the study suggests the implication of
supervised classification technique and the role of remote
sensing and GIS based technology in enhancing agricultural
crop management.
Key Words: Agriculture, Cotton crop, Optical data,
Supervised Classification, GIS, Area estimation
1. INTRODUCTION
Cotton, a vital cash crop, plays a crucial role in the global
economy by providing raw material for the textile industry.
Temporal monitoring the growth stages and crop health
assessment of cotton crop is essential for optimizing yield
and resource utilization. Traditional methods of crop
assessment using field survey is labour-intensive and often
may be lacking of accuracy due to human intervention. In
recent years, remote sensing technologies coupled with
advanced machine learning techniques have emerged as
powerful tools for crop classificationandmonitoring.Optical
data from satellite and drone-based sensors provide
valuable information about the spectral reflectanceofcrops.
These temporal data sources offer insights into various
physiological and biochemical changes within the plants.
Multispectral and hyperspectral data, as well as vegetation
indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation
Index), have been widely utilized in crop classification
studies [1], [2].
Machine learning algorithms have shown remarkable
success in analysing optical data for crop classification.
Maximum Likelihood, Convolutional Neural Networks
(CNNs), Random Forest, Support Vector Machines (SVMs),
and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) are commonly employed
for feature extraction and classification [3], [4]. Accurate
identification of cotton growth stages is crucial for timely
crop assessment. Optical data can assist in distinguishing
between stages such as planting, emergence, flowering, boll
development, and senescence. Machine learning models
trained on annotated datasets can accurately classify these
stages [5]. Early detection of pestinfestationsanddiseasesis
vital for preventing yield losses. Optical data can reveal
stress indicators and anomalies in cotton fields. Integration
of spectral data with machine learning algorithms enables
the assessment of health conditions, facilitating targeted
treatment [6].
Geographical information system and satellite-based
imageries are helpful for identification and demarcation of
cotton crop from other associated land cover features thus
capable of generating the crop map which is used as basic
input for further crop health and yield assessment. This
study demonstrates the potential of using high resolution
imagery of Sentinel-2 for the identification, discrimination
and demarcation of cotton crop from other associated land
cover classes.
2. STUDY AREA AND DATA
2.1 Study Area
The study area is situated in the extreme west and southern
part of Haryana state consisting of major cotton growing
districts viz., Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind
and Sirsa (Figure 1) and covering total geographical area
around 18,278 Kilometresquare.Thestudyarealiesbetween
the 27 degree 37' to 30 degree 35' latitude and between 74
degree 28' to 77 degree 36'’ longitudes. The mean elevation
of the area is 190 to 210 above sea level with annual
precipitation of 32-53 mm. The climateof studyarea is semi-
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 947
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
arid, sub-tropical and continental in monsoon. The soil
texture of the study area varies from sand to sandy loam and
silt clay loamalong the ghaggar river belt. The study areahas
a diverse topography ranging from plains, alluvial bed of
ghaggar belt to sand dunes. The study area comprises of
types of unconsolidated alluvial deposits of Quaternary age
geographical formations. The70% of total geographical area
of the study area is covered by the agricultural fields. The
major crops grown in study area are Wheat, Mustard, Gram,
Paddy, Cotton, Citrus, Guava and Indian Jujube. The study
area coversalmost 80 % of total cottoncropareaoftheentire
state. The Cotton crop is grown during kharif season having
paddy and bajra as the main associated crops. Do not use
abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are
unavoidable.
Figure 1: The major cotton growing districts of Haryana
2.2 Data Used
Sentinel-2A MSI data is used for the identification and
discrimination of cotton crop in the major cotton growing
districts of Haryana viz., Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Fatehabad,
Hisar, Jind and Sirsa. This data was downloaded from the
Copernicus website
(https://scihub.copernicus.eu/dhus/#/home) from
September to October, 2022. Sentinel-2A having optical data
at temporal resolution of 5 days with spatial ground
resolution of 10 meter. Ground truth data was also used to
identify the signature of cotton and associated land cover
features for discriminating and classification.
3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Selection of Optimum Data
As classification of a particular crop requires majorly its
differentiation from associated crops. So differentiation of
particular crop with high accuracy requires the selection of
optimum data. The ancillary data related to cotton crop
phenology and multi-date high resolution satellite data
covering the all-main phenological stages of crop was used
to select the optimum data for the discrimination and
delineation of the cotton crop from other geo-spatial
features. Multi-date Sentinel-2A data for the study area was
also used to monitor the dynamics of vegetation areas like
forest, paddy and cotton crop and to select the optimum bio-
window for cotton crop identification. After the analysis of
multi-temporal satellitedata,itisobservedthedata acquired
in the month of September was the most appropriate for
identification and delineation of cotton crop from the other
land cover classes and also to derive vegetation vigour
variation within the cotton crop. The district boundary was
overlaid on the image to extract the crop mask. The
supervised classification technique was performed to
delineate the cotton crop.
3.2 Image Stacking and Database
The Sentinel-2A data was downloaded. After layer stacking
district boundary was overlaid for sub-setting the study
area. The ground truth data recording the information of all
land cover features was collectedusingGPSandthecollected
locations overlaid on satellite imagery were used to identify
the signature of crops. Figure 2 show the flow chart
depicting the methodology.
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 948
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
Figure 2: Methodology for crop classification and area
assessment
4. RESULT AND DESCUSSION
As mentioned in the Methodology crop identification and
classification was carried out using multi-spectral satellite
imagery. The collected Ground truth data was used to
identify the signature ofcottonandassociatedcropsand also
for checking the accuracy of classified mask.
After analysing the crop pattern and crop phenology the
satellite imagery acquired in the 1st fortnight of September
was selected for the crop identification and classification.
Firstly, unsupervised classification technique was carried
out on the multi-spectral dataset to identify the land use
classes and the agricultural crop mask was generatedforthe
study area. Within the crop mask, the signature of thecotton
and associated crops were identified using the ground truth
sites and then supervised classification approach by
selecting maximum likelihood classifierwasfollowedforthe
classification of imagery. The spectral profile of the Cotton
crop and associated land cover features is depicted in the
Figure 3. The Cotton crop can easily be discriminated from
the land cover classes like settlement, fallow land, water
bodies etc as illustrated in the spectral profiledepictedin the
Figure 3.
In the study area Bajra and Paddy are the main associated
crops. As the selected imagery coincides with the peak
vegetative stage of the Cotton crop so as depicted in the fig,
the cotton crop has high reflectance in the NIR region as
compared to its associated crops. The bajra crop has low
reflectance which further decreases in the imageryacquired
in 2nd fortnight of September. On the otherhandPaddycrop
also has low reflectance (Figure 3) which further may
increase slightly in the imagery acquiredinthe2ndfortnight
of September. The analysis shows that using the single date
multispectral imagery the desired crop can easily be
discriminated with its associated crops with acceptable
accuracy.
Figure 3: Mean DN values of different crops as seen in
multi-spectral data
After classification district wise area under the cotton crop
was estimated as depicted in table 1. The crop classified
mask overlaid on the satellite imagery is depicted in Figure
4. The present study emphasis the potential of single date
multispectral data for crop discrimination,classificationand
area estimation.
The district wise estimated cotton area is given in Table 1.
Table 1: District-wise Cotton Area of Year 2022-23
Sr. No. District Area (000’ ha)
1 Bhiwani 67.09
2 Charkhi Dadri 25.32
3 Fatehabad 50.28
4 Hisar 105
5 Jind 49.56
6 Sirsa 130.2
Total (6 District) 427.45
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 949
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Figure 4: Cotton crop mask Overlaid on the satellite Imagery
(f)
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 950
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
5. CONCLUSIONS
The present study emphasis the potential of single date
multi-spectral data for the crop identification and
classification. As Each agricultural crop has the variations in
its growing pattern and in phenological stages thus showing
the wide variation in the reflectance values in the NIR and
visible region. This characteristic generates distinct
signature of each crop in the multi-spectral data. After
analysing the crop phenology and reflectance in multi-
spectral data the crops can easily be discriminated and
classified. The results of the study indicates that the cotton
crop area can easily be estimated using single date
multispectral data for the major growing districts covering
around 85% of the total cotton crop area of the state.
The generated crop map may be very helpful for making
assessment regarding the cropconditionandhealthbyusing
temporal satellite data using various vegetation indices.The
accurate crop mask will be very helpful for making the crop
loss assessment in any natural weather calamities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors acknowledge European Space Agency (ESA)for
satellite data and Director HARSAC for lab facility.
REFERENCES
[1] Chu, T., Chen, R., Landivar, J. A., Maeda, M. M., Yang, C., &
Starek, M. J. (2016). Cotton growth modeling and
assessmentusingunmanned aircraftsystemvisual-band
imagery. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 10(3),
036018-036018.
[2] Ma, Y., Zhang, Q., Yi, X., Ma, L., Zhang, L., Huang, C., ... &
Lv, X. (2021). Estimation of cotton leaf area index (LAI)
based on spectral transformation and vegetation index.
Remote Sensing, 14(1), 136.
[3] Kussul, N., Lavreniuk, M., Skakun, S., & Shelestov, A.
(2017). Deep learning classification of land cover and
crop types using remote sensing data. IEEE Geoscience
and Remote Sensing Letters, 14(5), 778-782.
[4] Li, M., Zang, S., Zhang, B., Li, S., & Wu, C. (2014). A review
of remote sensing image classification techniques: The
role of spatio-contextual information. European Journal
of Remote Sensing, 47(1), 389-411.
[5] Jamuna, K. S., Karpagavalli, S., Vijaya, M. S., Revathi, P.,
Gokilavani, S., & Madhiya, E. (2010, June). Classification
of seed cotton yield based on thegrowthstagesofcotton
crop using machine learning techniques. In 2010
International Conference on Advances in Computer
Engineering (pp. 312-315). IEEE.
[6] Kamilaris, A., & Prenafeta-Boldú, F. X. (2018). Deep
learning in agriculture: A survey. Computers and
electronics in agriculture, 147, 70-90.
© 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 951

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Identification, Discrimination and Classification of Cotton Crop by Using Multispectral imagery using complete enumeration approach over Haryana state

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 Identification, Discrimination and Classification of Cotton Crop by Using Multispectral imagery using complete enumeration approach over Haryana state Om Pal1, Hemraj1 1Haryana Space Application Centre, Hisar, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract - The accurate and timely crop production forecast plays a pivotal role in management for taking the decision related to import, export etc. by the policy makers which may be very helpful for enhancing productivity, resource allocation, and sustainable land management. The crop production forecast comprisesmainlycropareaandyield assessment. In recent years, crop classification and area assessment using remote sensing and GIS techniques have gained prominence due to theirnon-invasiveandcost-efficient nature. The use of multi-spectral data operating in the visible and near infrared region of electromagnetic spectrum is widely used for the crop area, health and condition assessment. This research paper presents an in-depth exploration of cotton crop classification and area estimation using single date multi-spectral imagery by employing complete enumeration approach in major cotton growing districts of Haryana. The study investigates the potential of optical data for accurate cotton crop identification and monitoring. The paper discusses the methodology, data acquisition, feature extraction, classification algorithms, and showcasing their applicability in different agricultural contexts. Through an extensive review of existing literature and empirical analysis, the study suggests the implication of supervised classification technique and the role of remote sensing and GIS based technology in enhancing agricultural crop management. Key Words: Agriculture, Cotton crop, Optical data, Supervised Classification, GIS, Area estimation 1. INTRODUCTION Cotton, a vital cash crop, plays a crucial role in the global economy by providing raw material for the textile industry. Temporal monitoring the growth stages and crop health assessment of cotton crop is essential for optimizing yield and resource utilization. Traditional methods of crop assessment using field survey is labour-intensive and often may be lacking of accuracy due to human intervention. In recent years, remote sensing technologies coupled with advanced machine learning techniques have emerged as powerful tools for crop classificationandmonitoring.Optical data from satellite and drone-based sensors provide valuable information about the spectral reflectanceofcrops. These temporal data sources offer insights into various physiological and biochemical changes within the plants. Multispectral and hyperspectral data, as well as vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), have been widely utilized in crop classification studies [1], [2]. Machine learning algorithms have shown remarkable success in analysing optical data for crop classification. Maximum Likelihood, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Random Forest, Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and k-Nearest Neighbors (k-NN) are commonly employed for feature extraction and classification [3], [4]. Accurate identification of cotton growth stages is crucial for timely crop assessment. Optical data can assist in distinguishing between stages such as planting, emergence, flowering, boll development, and senescence. Machine learning models trained on annotated datasets can accurately classify these stages [5]. Early detection of pestinfestationsanddiseasesis vital for preventing yield losses. Optical data can reveal stress indicators and anomalies in cotton fields. Integration of spectral data with machine learning algorithms enables the assessment of health conditions, facilitating targeted treatment [6]. Geographical information system and satellite-based imageries are helpful for identification and demarcation of cotton crop from other associated land cover features thus capable of generating the crop map which is used as basic input for further crop health and yield assessment. This study demonstrates the potential of using high resolution imagery of Sentinel-2 for the identification, discrimination and demarcation of cotton crop from other associated land cover classes. 2. STUDY AREA AND DATA 2.1 Study Area The study area is situated in the extreme west and southern part of Haryana state consisting of major cotton growing districts viz., Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind and Sirsa (Figure 1) and covering total geographical area around 18,278 Kilometresquare.Thestudyarealiesbetween the 27 degree 37' to 30 degree 35' latitude and between 74 degree 28' to 77 degree 36'’ longitudes. The mean elevation of the area is 190 to 210 above sea level with annual precipitation of 32-53 mm. The climateof studyarea is semi- © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 947
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 arid, sub-tropical and continental in monsoon. The soil texture of the study area varies from sand to sandy loam and silt clay loamalong the ghaggar river belt. The study areahas a diverse topography ranging from plains, alluvial bed of ghaggar belt to sand dunes. The study area comprises of types of unconsolidated alluvial deposits of Quaternary age geographical formations. The70% of total geographical area of the study area is covered by the agricultural fields. The major crops grown in study area are Wheat, Mustard, Gram, Paddy, Cotton, Citrus, Guava and Indian Jujube. The study area coversalmost 80 % of total cottoncropareaoftheentire state. The Cotton crop is grown during kharif season having paddy and bajra as the main associated crops. Do not use abbreviations in the title or heads unless they are unavoidable. Figure 1: The major cotton growing districts of Haryana 2.2 Data Used Sentinel-2A MSI data is used for the identification and discrimination of cotton crop in the major cotton growing districts of Haryana viz., Bhiwani, Charkhi Dadri, Fatehabad, Hisar, Jind and Sirsa. This data was downloaded from the Copernicus website (https://scihub.copernicus.eu/dhus/#/home) from September to October, 2022. Sentinel-2A having optical data at temporal resolution of 5 days with spatial ground resolution of 10 meter. Ground truth data was also used to identify the signature of cotton and associated land cover features for discriminating and classification. 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Selection of Optimum Data As classification of a particular crop requires majorly its differentiation from associated crops. So differentiation of particular crop with high accuracy requires the selection of optimum data. The ancillary data related to cotton crop phenology and multi-date high resolution satellite data covering the all-main phenological stages of crop was used to select the optimum data for the discrimination and delineation of the cotton crop from other geo-spatial features. Multi-date Sentinel-2A data for the study area was also used to monitor the dynamics of vegetation areas like forest, paddy and cotton crop and to select the optimum bio- window for cotton crop identification. After the analysis of multi-temporal satellitedata,itisobservedthedata acquired in the month of September was the most appropriate for identification and delineation of cotton crop from the other land cover classes and also to derive vegetation vigour variation within the cotton crop. The district boundary was overlaid on the image to extract the crop mask. The supervised classification technique was performed to delineate the cotton crop. 3.2 Image Stacking and Database The Sentinel-2A data was downloaded. After layer stacking district boundary was overlaid for sub-setting the study area. The ground truth data recording the information of all land cover features was collectedusingGPSandthecollected locations overlaid on satellite imagery were used to identify the signature of crops. Figure 2 show the flow chart depicting the methodology. © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 948
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 Figure 2: Methodology for crop classification and area assessment 4. RESULT AND DESCUSSION As mentioned in the Methodology crop identification and classification was carried out using multi-spectral satellite imagery. The collected Ground truth data was used to identify the signature ofcottonandassociatedcropsand also for checking the accuracy of classified mask. After analysing the crop pattern and crop phenology the satellite imagery acquired in the 1st fortnight of September was selected for the crop identification and classification. Firstly, unsupervised classification technique was carried out on the multi-spectral dataset to identify the land use classes and the agricultural crop mask was generatedforthe study area. Within the crop mask, the signature of thecotton and associated crops were identified using the ground truth sites and then supervised classification approach by selecting maximum likelihood classifierwasfollowedforthe classification of imagery. The spectral profile of the Cotton crop and associated land cover features is depicted in the Figure 3. The Cotton crop can easily be discriminated from the land cover classes like settlement, fallow land, water bodies etc as illustrated in the spectral profiledepictedin the Figure 3. In the study area Bajra and Paddy are the main associated crops. As the selected imagery coincides with the peak vegetative stage of the Cotton crop so as depicted in the fig, the cotton crop has high reflectance in the NIR region as compared to its associated crops. The bajra crop has low reflectance which further decreases in the imageryacquired in 2nd fortnight of September. On the otherhandPaddycrop also has low reflectance (Figure 3) which further may increase slightly in the imagery acquiredinthe2ndfortnight of September. The analysis shows that using the single date multispectral imagery the desired crop can easily be discriminated with its associated crops with acceptable accuracy. Figure 3: Mean DN values of different crops as seen in multi-spectral data After classification district wise area under the cotton crop was estimated as depicted in table 1. The crop classified mask overlaid on the satellite imagery is depicted in Figure 4. The present study emphasis the potential of single date multispectral data for crop discrimination,classificationand area estimation. The district wise estimated cotton area is given in Table 1. Table 1: District-wise Cotton Area of Year 2022-23 Sr. No. District Area (000’ ha) 1 Bhiwani 67.09 2 Charkhi Dadri 25.32 3 Fatehabad 50.28 4 Hisar 105 5 Jind 49.56 6 Sirsa 130.2 Total (6 District) 427.45 © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 949
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Figure 4: Cotton crop mask Overlaid on the satellite Imagery (f) © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 950
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 10 Issue: 08 | Aug 2023 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 5. CONCLUSIONS The present study emphasis the potential of single date multi-spectral data for the crop identification and classification. As Each agricultural crop has the variations in its growing pattern and in phenological stages thus showing the wide variation in the reflectance values in the NIR and visible region. This characteristic generates distinct signature of each crop in the multi-spectral data. After analysing the crop phenology and reflectance in multi- spectral data the crops can easily be discriminated and classified. The results of the study indicates that the cotton crop area can easily be estimated using single date multispectral data for the major growing districts covering around 85% of the total cotton crop area of the state. The generated crop map may be very helpful for making assessment regarding the cropconditionandhealthbyusing temporal satellite data using various vegetation indices.The accurate crop mask will be very helpful for making the crop loss assessment in any natural weather calamities. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors acknowledge European Space Agency (ESA)for satellite data and Director HARSAC for lab facility. REFERENCES [1] Chu, T., Chen, R., Landivar, J. A., Maeda, M. M., Yang, C., & Starek, M. J. (2016). Cotton growth modeling and assessmentusingunmanned aircraftsystemvisual-band imagery. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 10(3), 036018-036018. [2] Ma, Y., Zhang, Q., Yi, X., Ma, L., Zhang, L., Huang, C., ... & Lv, X. (2021). Estimation of cotton leaf area index (LAI) based on spectral transformation and vegetation index. Remote Sensing, 14(1), 136. [3] Kussul, N., Lavreniuk, M., Skakun, S., & Shelestov, A. (2017). Deep learning classification of land cover and crop types using remote sensing data. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 14(5), 778-782. [4] Li, M., Zang, S., Zhang, B., Li, S., & Wu, C. (2014). A review of remote sensing image classification techniques: The role of spatio-contextual information. European Journal of Remote Sensing, 47(1), 389-411. [5] Jamuna, K. S., Karpagavalli, S., Vijaya, M. S., Revathi, P., Gokilavani, S., & Madhiya, E. (2010, June). Classification of seed cotton yield based on thegrowthstagesofcotton crop using machine learning techniques. In 2010 International Conference on Advances in Computer Engineering (pp. 312-315). IEEE. [6] Kamilaris, A., & Prenafeta-Boldú, F. X. (2018). Deep learning in agriculture: A survey. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 147, 70-90. © 2023, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 8.226 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 951