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Lab 1 Introduction to Computer


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Introduction to Computer

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Lab 1 Introduction to Computer

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Instructor : Mrs Halimaton Sa’adiah Ariffin E-mail : Telephone : 06-7987039, Office : MPG, Level 2. No. 1
  2. 2. 1.Information Technology 2.Information Communication Technology 3.Information System 4.Computer 5.Data and Information 6.Components of Computer 7.Classification of computer 8.Assignment
  3. 3. information technology is the use of computers and software to manage information. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY 10/21/2014 3 ICT Skill COMMUNICATION ICT refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This includes the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums. INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY Process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information. TECHNOLOGY Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem INFORMATION Conveys meaning and is useful to people
  4. 4. 10/21/2014 4 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) A System is a set of components that interact to achieve a common goal. An information System (IS) is a collection of hardware, software, data, people and procedures that work together to produce quality information.
  5. 5. PEOPLE People are involved in every aspect of an information system. Users are people who are affected by the information system. If people are going to survive in to day's society they must be users of information. Users can be classified as direct users and indirect users. Computer Uses • Business • Entertainment • Education • Medicine Direct users Direct users of information systems are people who interact with and are in control of the system. All of the providers of the information services are direct users. Example : system analyst, system managers, operators and data entry personnel. Indirect Users Indirect users of an information system never use the system, but its use by other people and affects them. Example : supermarkets use an information system to complete an inventory of goods. When we buy our groceries we are not using the information system, but its use has affected the service we are receiving.
  6. 6. SOFTWARE Software refers to a set of instructions that tells the computer on what to do. These instruction sets also called programs which provide a means for us to interact with and use the computer, all without computer programming skills. Computer has two basic types of software : 1.System software 2.Application software System Software • A collection of programs • Enables the application software to interact with the hardware • Background software that helps the computer manage its own resources Application Software • “End-user” software where you use them to do tasks at home, school and work. • Two major categories  General purpose (writing letters, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations)  Special purpose (editing photos, specialized business, computer-aided design)
  7. 7. 10/21/2014 7 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) An electronic device For data Processing 1.It gathers data (or allows user to input data) 2.It process data into information 3.It outputs data or information 4.It stores data and information Computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store the results for future use. Computer can performs four major functions :
  8. 8. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 8 IN COMPUTER TERMS Data is a collection of unprocessed items (raw facts) , which can include text, numbers, images, audio and video. Example : 1.Names (Aril Iskandar) 2.Date of Birth (11 Mei 1987) 3.Place of Birth (Perak - 08) 4.Picture ( ) , 5.etc . Information is data that has been organized or presented in a meaningful fashion and is useful to people. Example : 1.My Card 2.Poster 3.Database Record
  9. 9. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 9 A computer processes data into information. In this simplified example, the item ordered, item price, quantity ordered, and amount received all represent data. The computer processes the data to produce the cash register receipt (information).
  10. 10. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 10 Computers process data into information in binary language. Binary language consist of just two digits : 0 and 1 (bit) Eight binary digits (or bits) combine to create one byte. (8 bits = 1 byte) In computers, each letter of the alphabet, each number and each special character consists of a unique combination of eight bits, or a string of eight 0s and 1s.
  11. 11. HOW MANY BITS & BYTES IN THE WORD OF ICT? 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 11
  12. 12. I C T •I = 01001001 (8 BITS) •C = 01000011 (8 BITS) •T = 01010100 (8 BITS) 8 BITS = 1 BYTE 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 12
  13. 13. I C T •I = 01001001 (8 BITS) •C = 01000011 (8 BITS) •T = 01010100 (8 BITS) 8 BITS = 1 BYTE TOTAL BITS = (8X3) = 24 BITS = 3 BYTES 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 13
  14. 14. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 14 Hardware is the electronic, and mechanical components of a computer that you can physically touch. All hardware on the computer helps the computer to perform its various tasks. These components include : 1.Input devices 2.Output devices 3.A system Unit 4.Storage Devices 5.Communication Devices
  15. 15. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 15 Processing ? Storage?
  16. 16. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 16 Input Devices is any hardware component that allows you to enter data (text , images , sounds) and instructions (user responses , commands) into a computer. Six widely used input devices are the : 1.Keyboard 2.Mouse 3.Microphone 4.Scanner 5.Digital camera 6.PC video camera (Web Cam)
  17. 17. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 17 Computer Keyboard contains keys you press to enter typed data and commands into the computer. Mouse is a small handheld device to control movement of a small symbol on the screen (pointer), and you make responses and commands by any selections from the screen. Microphone allows a user to speak into the computer to enter data (input sounds) and instructions.
  18. 18. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 18 Ergonomic Computer Keyboards To minimize muscle strain and a host of related problems. An ergonomic keyboard is designed to make typing easier and lessen the strain that your hands may suffer, such as "Carpal Tunnel Syndrome". Rollup Keyboards Typically the material is either silicone or polyurethane. These devices are meant to be rolled up, rather than folded, as folding can damage the circuitry. OTHER TYPES???
  19. 19. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 19 Scanner converts printed material (such as text and pictures) into a digital form the computer can use. Digital Camera you take pictures and then transfer the photographed images to the computer or printer instead of storing the images on a traditional film. PC Video Camera is a digital video camera that allows users to create movie or take still photographs electronically.
  20. 20. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 20 Output Devices is any hardware component that conveys information to one, or more people. They enable you to send processed data out of your computer. This can take the form of text, pictures (graphics), sounds (audio), and video. Three commonly used output devices : 1.Printer 2.Monitor (display screen) 3.Speakers
  21. 21. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 21 Printer produces text and graphics on a physical medium such as paper. Monitor displays text, graphics, and videos on screen. Speakers allow you to hear music, voice and other audio (sounds).
  22. 22. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 22 System Unit is a case that contains the central electronic components of the computer that are used to process data. The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the motherboard. Two main components on the motherboard: 1.Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2.Memory
  23. 23. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 23 Central Processing Unit is the electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer. It is sometime referred to as the brains of the computer because it can perform 3 billion tasks a second without error, making them extremely powerful components. RAM (Random Access Memory) Electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions. RAM keeps data and instructions temporarily (Volatile Storage) . Its contents are erased when the computer is shut off. RAM can hold multiple programs simultaneously.
  24. 24. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 24 Storage Devices records (writes) and/or retrieve (reads) items to and from storage media. Example of storage devices : 1.Floppy disk drive 2.USB flash drives 3.CD / DVD drives 4.Hard disks 5.Card reader / writer
  25. 25. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 25 A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on storage media. Example of storage media : 1.Floppy disks 2.USB flash drives 3.Hard disks 4.CDs 5.DVDs 6.Memory cards CD : Compact Disc DVD : Digital Versatile Disc USB : Universal Serial Bus
  26. 26. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 26 Capacity is the number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold. Storage terms used by manufacturers to define the capacity of storage media. Storage Term Approximate Number of Bytes Byte (B) 1 byte (8 bit) Kilobyte (KB) 1 thousand Megabyte (MB) 1 million Gigabyte (GB) 1 billion Terabyte (TB) 1 trillion Example : A reasonably priced USB flash drive can store up to 256 MB of data (approximately 256 million bytes) A typical hard disk has 160 GB (approximately 160 billion bytes) of storage capacity.
  27. 27. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 27 Communication occur over transmission media. Transmission media such as satellites, cellular radio networks, are wireless, which means they have no physical lines or wires. Other non-wireless transmission media are cables and telephone lines.
  28. 28. 10/21/2014 ICT Skill 28 Communication Devices is a hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data, instructions and information to and from one or more computers. A widely used communication device is modem. Modem enables the computer to access other computers and the Internet via telephone lines, cables. Most inside in the system unit.
  29. 29. 10/21/2014 29 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Supercomputers Mainframe computers Minicomputers Microcomputers
  30. 30. 10/21/2014 30 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Supercomputers is the ultrafast, most powerful computer and the most expensive. The fastest supercomputers are capable of processing more than 100 trillion instructions in a single second. Can be a single computer or a series of computers working in a parallel as a single computer. Stored in special, secure rooms. Different between mainframe is a supercomputer focuses on performing a few set of instruction as fast as possible, whereas a mainframe executes many instructions concurrently Example : 1.Weather forecasting 2.Nuclear energy research
  31. 31. 10/21/2014 31 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Mainframe computer is a large , expensive , powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of clients at the same time. Mainframes store huge amounts of data, instructions, and information. Large corporations or government agencies that handle a high volume of data. For example, an airline use mainframe to handle airline reservations, banks manage customer accounts. Usually stored in a special secure rooms that have a control climate.
  32. 32. 10/21/2014 32 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Minicomputers/midrange servers is a centralized computer that served from a handful to several hundred "dumb" terminals. Minicomputer is size of one or several four drawer file cabinets with hardware and software. Handle the computing needs of 4 to approximately 200 client computer in a smaller organization.
  33. 33. 10/21/2014 33 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Microcomputers is computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit. They are physically small compared to mainframe and minicomputers Four types of microcomputer : 1.Desktop computer 2.Notebook or laptop 3.Tablet PC 4.Handheld
  34. 34. 10/21/2014 34 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Desktop computer is designed so the system unit, input devices, output devices and any other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table. In some models, the monitor sits on top of the system unit, which is placed on the desk. The more popular style of system unit is the tall and narrow tower, which can sit on the floor vertically.
  35. 35. 10/21/2014 35 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Laptop is a portable, personal computer designed to fit on your lap. Laptop computers are thin and lightweight, yet can be as powerful as the average desktop computer. On a typical notebook computer, the keyboard is on top of the system unit, and the display attaches to the system unit with hinges (joint). Most laptop computers can operate on batteries or a power supply or both.
  36. 36. 10/21/2014 36 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Netbook can perform the majority of the functions of a desktop or laptop, but is extremely mobile, miniature laptops, with screens rarely exceeding 10 or 12 inches. Primarily mobile Web browsing tools. They do not have some of the functionalities offered by a desktop or laptop. Tablet are equipped with sensors, including cameras, microphone, touch screen with finger or stylus gestures replacing computer mouse and keyboard
  37. 37. 10/21/2014 37 ICT Skill (TCL 0822) Handheld computer / ultra personal computer (uPC) / handtop computer is a computer small enough to fit in one hand. The screens on handheld computers are small. Industry-specific handheld computers serve mobile employees : 1.Parcel delivery people 2.Whose jobs require them to move from place to place