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The Mexican Revolution
“Porfiriato”
Porfirio Díaz was one of the generals of
the Liberal army who was President of
Mexico from 1877 until 1911, a...
David Siquieros Mural: "Don Porfirio [Diaz] and his Courtesans". 1957-65
Although President Díaz brought many benefits to ...
The Rebellion Begins
During the first
years of the 20th
century, a new
generation of
educated, young
Mexicans that did
not...
The Revolution Begins!
General Victoriano Huerta
General Huerta established a
military dictatorship in Mexico!
For almost 11 years, civil war
rag...
Emiliano Zapata
wanted massive
land reforms that
were expressed in
his motto “Tierra y
Libertad” (Land
and Liberty).
Emili...
Pancho Villa
Villa lead and fought in a
decades worth of battles for
the cause with his army
known as "The Dorados"
(The G...
The revolutionaries, including Francisco Villa in the north,
and Emiliano Zapata in the south, began a struggle to
overthr...
Mexican Revolution
Soldaderas March
Las Soldaderas were women
"fighters" who made significant
contributions to both the federal and
rebel arm...
The Mexican Revolution mobilized large segments of the
population, both men and women. The Villista forces included
railro...
A Step Toward Democracy?
On April 10, 1919, Zapata was tricked into a
meeting with one of Carranza's generals who
wanted t...
Alvaro Obregon
Obregón defeated Pancho Villa’s cavalry in a
series of bloody battles in 1915 and became
president in 1920....
Pancho Villa
1. In Jan., 1916, a group of Americans
were shot by bandits in Chihuahua, and
on Mar. 9, 1916, some of Villa'...
July 20, 1923 Villa Assassinated
Revolutionary Results
Some Real Changes:
•1917 Mexican Constitution
•Land reforms, limited foreign ownership of
key resour...
General Lazaro Cardenas
A most significant political development
in Mexico since the Revolution came
with the election of ...
Party of the Institutionalized
Revolution (PRI)
• Revolutionary leaders wanted to institutionalize the new regime.
• Creat...
The Institutional Revolutionary Party
(PRI)
Diego Rivera
Nationalism and
Indigenism take
hold in Mexico.
Attempts were
made to
“Indianize” Mexico.
Stressed
nationalis...
Indian WarriorIndian Warrior
Blood of the Martyrs fertilizing the earth
Frozen Assets
Dividing the Land
The exploiters
The Agitator
The Arsenal - Frida Kahlo distributes arms
Diego Rivera, Leon Trotsky, and Andre Breton in 1937
Man at the Crossroads 1934. Painted by Diego Rivera. Fresco. This
painting had been contracted to be made in the RCA build...
Epic of The Mexican People Today and Tomorrow
Economy
• For many years, Mexico followed a policy of economic
nationalism. The government imposed high tariffs to protect...
NAFTA
• NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement)
• Members were the countries of _________, __________, and
___________...
CHALLENGES
Many Mexicans hoped that free trade would attract foreign
investment and create new jobs. Based on this cartoon...
CHALLENGES
Zapatistas
Calling themselves Zapatistas in honor of
Emiliano Zapata, some nearly 2000 masked
rebels attacked and captured...
POLITICAL CHANGE
1. Based on this cartoon, what role has the PRI played in Mexican
politics?
2. Explain how the cartoon an...
1. To what is the cartoonist comparing the PRI? Why?
2. Based on this image, what (or who) is going to bring about
change?
Vicente Fox
Member of the National Action Party (PAN) was elected
president at the end of 2000, thus ending the PRI’s domi...
Felipe Calderon
Mr. Calderon's decision to pursue the drug
cartels and traffickers seems to be the
defining element of his...
Enrique Peña Nieto
57th
President of Mexico
His election marked the return of
the PRI after a twelve-year hiatus.
His elec...
Mexican Revolution
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Mexican Revolution

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Mexican Revolution

  1. 1. The Mexican Revolution
  2. 2. “Porfiriato” Porfirio Díaz was one of the generals of the Liberal army who was President of Mexico from 1877 until 1911, a period known as the Porfiriato because the figure of Porfirio Díaz dominated it. During this period, the economy grew; new railways and telephone networks were built; new banks opened; industry, mining, agriculture and commerce expanded. Major concessions led to foreign control over large sectors of the economy
  3. 3. David Siquieros Mural: "Don Porfirio [Diaz] and his Courtesans". 1957-65 Although President Díaz brought many benefits to Mexico, he was a dictator - a President who abused his power. Under Díaz, a few land owners became very wealthy, but the majority of Mexicans remained poor.
  4. 4. The Rebellion Begins During the first years of the 20th century, a new generation of educated, young Mexicans that did not belong to Díaz' group desired change. For the first time in thirty-three years other political parties were formed.
  5. 5. The Revolution Begins!
  6. 6. General Victoriano Huerta General Huerta established a military dictatorship in Mexico! For almost 11 years, civil war raged across Mexico as various rebel groups fought for power. The most important insurgent leaders of the Constitutionalist Movement were Venustiano Carranza, Francisco Villa, and Emiliano Zapata.
  7. 7. Emiliano Zapata wanted massive land reforms that were expressed in his motto “Tierra y Libertad” (Land and Liberty). Emiliano Zapata wanted massive land reforms that were expressed in his motto “Tierra y Libertad” (Land and Liberty). Emiliano Zapata
  8. 8. Pancho Villa Villa lead and fought in a decades worth of battles for the cause with his army known as "The Dorados" (The Golden Boys). The name was ironic considering that they were mostly makeshift Revolutionaries who were recruited from village to village where Villa and his men would pillage to have water, food and women. During the course of the Revolution in Mexico, Villa seemed to be blessed never sustaining life threatening injuries. Pancho Villa led peasant rebels in the north and attacked the Federal Army.
  9. 9. The revolutionaries, including Francisco Villa in the north, and Emiliano Zapata in the south, began a struggle to overthrow President Huerta.
  10. 10. Mexican Revolution
  11. 11. Soldaderas March Las Soldaderas were women "fighters" who made significant contributions to both the federal and rebel armies of the Mexican Revolution. Though few actually engaged in combat, their assistance to male soldiers in fighting the war were monumental.
  12. 12. The Mexican Revolution mobilized large segments of the population, both men and women. The Villista forces included railroad workers, cowboys, and townsfolk who took up arms against the army.
  13. 13. A Step Toward Democracy? On April 10, 1919, Zapata was tricked into a meeting with one of Carranza's generals who wanted to "switch sides." The meeting was a trap, and Zapata was killed as he arrived at the meeting. In 1920, he tried to install a President that was favorable to him. Alvaro Obregon, who was a candidate for president, rebelled. Steady insurgent military pressure forced Huerta to resign in July, 1914. When this happened, Venustiano Carranza then assumed power. Under Carranza's presidency a new Constitution was adopted in 1917. The new Constitution took into account individual and social rights, particularly to protect the workers and the peasants, and was very nationalistic.
  14. 14. Alvaro Obregon Obregón defeated Pancho Villa’s cavalry in a series of bloody battles in 1915 and became president in 1920.. Since 1920, with the Civil War over, a new “Revolutionary Elite” ruled Mexico. However, the Revolution had devastated the nation. 1.5 million were killed, major industries destroyed, ranching and farming were disrupted. Since 1920, with the Civil War over, a new “Revolutionary Elite” ruled Mexico. However, the Revolution had devastated the nation. 1.5 million were killed, major industries destroyed, ranching and farming were disrupted.
  15. 15. Pancho Villa 1. In Jan., 1916, a group of Americans were shot by bandits in Chihuahua, and on Mar. 9, 1916, some of Villa's men raided the U.S. town of Columbus, N.Mex., killing some American citizens. It is not certain that Villa participated in these assaults, but he was universally held responsible. 2. Wilson ordered a punitive expedition under General Pershing to capture Villa dead or alive. The expedition pursued Villa through Chihuahua for 11 months but failed in its objective. Carranza violently resented this invasion and it embittered relations between Mexico and the United States.
  16. 16. July 20, 1923 Villa Assassinated
  17. 17. Revolutionary Results Some Real Changes: •1917 Mexican Constitution •Land reforms, limited foreign ownership of key resources •Guaranteed rights of workers •restrictions on clerical education and church ownership of property •educational reforms •Workers organized and were represented in government
  18. 18. General Lazaro Cardenas A most significant political development in Mexico since the Revolution came with the election of General Lázaro Cardenas as president in 1934. His government carried out considerable land reform, he reorganized labor, and, most significant of all, he nationalized the oil industry. After Cardenas, the pace of reforms slowed. Although Mexico is a democracy, one party has dominated the country since 1929 until very recently. Petroleos MexicanosPetroleos Mexicanos
  19. 19. Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (PRI) • Revolutionary leaders wanted to institutionalize the new regime. • Created a One-Party System known as the PRI. • Incorporated labor, peasant, military, and middle class sectors. • They controlled politics sometimes through the use of repressive means. • Limited the President to a one six-year term. Partido Revolucionario Institucional
  20. 20. The Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
  21. 21. Diego Rivera Nationalism and Indigenism take hold in Mexico. Attempts were made to “Indianize” Mexico. Stressed nationalism, glorified the past, and denounced Western capitalism.
  22. 22. Indian WarriorIndian Warrior
  23. 23. Blood of the Martyrs fertilizing the earth
  24. 24. Frozen Assets
  25. 25. Dividing the Land
  26. 26. The exploiters
  27. 27. The Agitator
  28. 28. The Arsenal - Frida Kahlo distributes arms
  29. 29. Diego Rivera, Leon Trotsky, and Andre Breton in 1937
  30. 30. Man at the Crossroads 1934. Painted by Diego Rivera. Fresco. This painting had been contracted to be made in the RCA building (Rockfeller Center) in New York City in 1932. Before being able to complete the fresco, Rockfeller, seeing the revolutionary connotations within, demanded Rivera take Lenin out of the painting. Rivera refused to censor his work, and the entire Fresco was destroyed. Rivera would later reproduce a smaller version of this Fresco in Mexico City.Film Clip start at 4:31 Film Clip start at 4:31
  31. 31. Epic of The Mexican People Today and Tomorrow
  32. 32. Economy • For many years, Mexico followed a policy of economic nationalism. The government imposed high tariffs to protect local industries. By 1974, Mexico borrowed heavily from foreign nations to develop its oil industries. • By the 1980s, Mexico was in a debt crisis. • More recently, Mexico moved toward free trade, or trade that had low tariffs and no restrictions.
  33. 33. NAFTA • NAFTA (North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement) • Members were the countries of _________, __________, and ________________. • NAFTA would abolish most tariffs on goods traded among the three member nations. • Goal - Expand economy by building closer ties with U.S. and Canada. Mexico Canada the United States Film Clip
  34. 34. CHALLENGES Many Mexicans hoped that free trade would attract foreign investment and create new jobs. Based on this cartoon, what is the concern of some in the United States?
  35. 35. CHALLENGES
  36. 36. Zapatistas Calling themselves Zapatistas in honor of Emiliano Zapata, some nearly 2000 masked rebels attacked and captured four towns in Chiapas in 1994. They demanded work, land, housing, food, health care, and education. Film Clip Choosing Zapata as a symbol of the movement, the Zapatistas tried to show that the basic problems of a fair society remained unsolved and that the revolution was incomplete.
  37. 37. POLITICAL CHANGE 1. Based on this cartoon, what role has the PRI played in Mexican politics? 2. Explain how the cartoon anticipates a change in Mexican politics.
  38. 38. 1. To what is the cartoonist comparing the PRI? Why? 2. Based on this image, what (or who) is going to bring about change?
  39. 39. Vicente Fox Member of the National Action Party (PAN) was elected president at the end of 2000, thus ending the PRI’s dominance of the political system of more than half a century. A charismatic reformer, President Fox is credited as playing a vital role in Mexico’s democratization, and with strengthening the country’s economy. During his tenure, he succeeded in controlling inflation and interest rates, and in achieving the lowest unemployment rate in all of Latin America.
  40. 40. Felipe Calderon Mr. Calderon's decision to pursue the drug cartels and traffickers seems to be the defining element of his presidency. More than 30,000 people have died in drug- related violence since 2006: A sign for some the gangs are being squeezed, while others see the rising murder rate in parts of Mexico as an indication of the traffickers' power. The issue of illegal migration, and the treatment of Mexicans on the border, is a source of abiding tension between the US and Mexico. President Calderon has argued for immigration reform in the US, where there are an estimated 12 million illegal immigrants. Mr. Calderon's term in office also coincided with the global economic downturn. Given its close trading relationship with its northern neighbor, Mexico is exposed to US weaknesses.Film Clip
  41. 41. Enrique Peña Nieto 57th President of Mexico His election marked the return of the PRI after a twelve-year hiatus. His election marked the return of the PRI after a twelve-year hiatus. Marches against Peña Nieto drew tens of thousands of people across Mexico, who protested that during its time in power, the PRI became a symbol of corruption, repression, economic mismanagement and electoral fraud. Peña Nieto promised that his government would be much more democratic, modern and open to criticism. He also pledged to continue the fight against organized crime and drug trade and that there would be no pacts with criminals.[ Marches against Peña Nieto drew tens of thousands of people across Mexico, who protested that during its time in power, the PRI became a symbol of corruption, repression, economic mismanagement and electoral fraud. Peña Nieto promised that his government would be much more democratic, modern and open to criticism. He also pledged to continue the fight against organized crime and drug trade and that there would be no pacts with criminals.[

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