The Civil War


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The Civil War

  1. 1. The Civil War (1861 - 1865) Chapter 11
  2. 2. Why did the Civil War start?     Because Northerners and Southerners had serious differences of opinion about state’s rights, slavery, and economics. Northern leaders believed in the supremacy of the national government and were against the expansion of slavery. Southern leaders believed in states’ rights and the continuation of slavery. Each section developed differently creating opposing viewpoints about economic policies.
  3. 3. Preserving the Union    Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860. South Carolina voted to secede from the Union, followed by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas – they formed a new country called the Confederate States of America or “the Confederacy”. When they attacked the U.S. Army base at Fort Sumter, South Carolina, in April 1861, the long feared Civil War began.
  4. 4. Preserving the Union     President Lincoln believed preservation of the U.S. was the most important task. He did not believe the southern states had the right to secede and thought they were merely rebelling against the government. He never considered the Confederacy a separate country. When he called for a large volunteer army to preserve the Union, more states – Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee – joined the Confederacy.
  5. 5. North versus South    When southern forces opened fire on Union forces at Fort Sumter, they began a war that would last four years and take the lives of 821,000 soldiers. From the start, the Confederacy was at a disadvantage. The Southern economy differed greatly from the economy of the northern states, and in the end, the numerical and industrial superiority of the northern economy proved too much for the South to overcome.
  6. 6. Northern vs. Southern Economies Northern Economy Southern Economy Based upon Industry and Trade Agriculture Manufacturing Resources 92% of US Industrial output; generous resources to produce weapons and military supplies 8% of US Industrial output Employment and Property Ownership Many citizens worked for someone else and owned no property. Even in large-scale farming regions, machines reduced the need for agricultural workers. Most Southerners owned slaves, and the economy depended on production of a cash crop such as cotton, corn, rice, and tobacco which required human labor and depended on slavery
  7. 7. Northern vs. Southern Economies Northern Economy Southern Economy 34% of US exports; favored high 66% of US exports; favored low Exports & Views on Tariffs tariffs on imported foreign goods or no tariffs on imported goods to protect northern industries and jobs to keep the prices of manufactured goods affordable Food Production More than twice as much as the South produced Less than half as much as the North produced Railroads 71% of US railroads; efficient railway transport system. Capacity to transport troops, supplies, food, etc. 29% of US railroads; inefficient railway transport system. Poor capacity to transport troops, supplies, food, etc.
  8. 8. Habeas Corpus     Not all Northerners supported Lincoln’s efforts to preserve the Union – some were Confederate sympathizers. Throughout the war, in some states Lincoln suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus – the legal rule that anyone imprisoned must be taken before a judge to determine if the prisoner is being legally held in custody. The Constitution allows a president to suspend habeas corpus during a national emergency. Lincoln used his emergency powers to legalize the holding of Confederate sympathizers without trial and without a judge to agree they were legally imprisoned – over 13,000 Confederate sympathizers were arrested in the North.
  9. 9. Strengths of the North Northern Advantages  More railroads  More factories  Better balance between farming and industry  More money  A functioning government, an army, and a navy  Two thirds of the nation’s population
  10. 10. Strengths of the South Southern Advantages  Leadership: Most of the nation’s military colleges were in the South; most officers sided with the Confederacy.  Military tactics: Because the South was defending its borders, its army needed only to repel Northern advances rather than initiate military action.  Morale: Many Southerners were eager to fight to preserve their way of life and their right to selfgovernment.
  11. 11. War Strategies  Union Strategies  Union commanders wanted a military blockade of seceded states.  They hoped to gain control of the Mississippi River.  They planned to cut the Confederacy in two, along the Mississippi River
  12. 12. War Strategies  Confederate Strategies  Jefferson Davis hoped that Lincoln would let the Confederacy go in peace.  The South planned for a war of attrition – a type of war which one side inflicts continuous loses on the other in order to wear down its strengths.
  13. 13. Technologies and Tactics    Outdated muskets were replaced with more accurate rifles. Artillery improved with the invention of shells, devices that exploded in the air. Artillery often fired canisters, special shells filled with bullets.
  14. 14. The Emancipation Proclamation       It freed all slaves residing in territory that was in rebellion against the federal government which encouraged slaves to escape from the South. As the number of runaway slaves climbed, the South’s ability to produce cotton and food declined. The North began allowing African Americans to join the Union Army. This was the equivalent of giving the North a new army larger than the South’s to work behind the lines. Lincoln believed one reason southern whites were free to join the Confederate Army was b/c slaves were doing war work that, otherwise, whites would have to do. Besides preserving the Union, Northern troops were fighting for the belief that the US would abolish slavery throughout the nation.
  15. 15. Key Leaders of the Civil War   The Northern leaders thought it was illegal for the Southern states to secede – they considered the Confederates outlaws, not citizens of a separate country. Southern leaders put loyalty to their home states above everything else – they fought for the Confederacy to protect their homes, even though they may have had misgivings about secession.
  16. 16. Key Battles of the Civil War      Fort Sumter – April 1861 Fort Sumter was a federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, SC. Confederate forces staged a 24-hr bombardment against it and, by attacking federal property, had committed an act of open rebellion. To uphold the Constitution, Pres. Lincoln believed he had no choice but to call for troops to respond against the Confederacy. As a direct result, the Civil War began.
  17. 17. Key Battles of the Civil War  Antietam – September 1862  The Confederate forces invaded the North. The Union army learned of General Lee’s strategy. On September 17, 1862, the two armies met at Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg, Maryland. The Union forces had more than 75,000 troops, with nearly 25,000 in reserve. The Confederate forces numbered about 40,000. By the day’s end, the Union casualties numbered more than 12,000. The Confederate casualties were nearly 14,000, more than a third of the entire army. The Battle of Antietam became the bloodiest day of the Civil War.     
  18. 18. Key Battles of the Civil War     Gettysburg, Pennsylvania – July 1863 Confederate Gen. Lee hope that an invasion of Union territory would weaken Northern support for the war. A major Southern victory might convince Great Britain and France to aid the South. In the course of a three-day battle, 51,000 soldiers were killed – the deadliest battle of the Civil War.
  19. 19. The Gettysburg Address     On November 19, 1863, some 15,000 people gathered at Gettysburg to honor the Union soldiers who had died there just four months before. President Lincoln delivered a two-minute speech which became known as the Gettysburg Address. He reminded people that the Civil War was being fought to preserve a country that upheld the principles of freedom, equality, and selfgovernment. The Gettysburg Address has become one of the best-loved and mostquoted speeches in the English language. It expresses grief at the terrible cost of war and the importance of preserving the Union.
  20. 20. Key Battles of the Civil War      Vicksburg, Mississippi – May-July 1864 Union Gen. Grant laid siege to Vicksburg b/c the army that controlled its high ground over a bend in the Mississippi River would control traffic on the whole river. After a 7-week siege, Grant achieved one of the Union’s major goals – to control the Mississippi River. Confederate troops in Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana were cut off from the Confederacy. This Union victory, coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, was the turning point of the war.
  21. 21. Key Battles of the Civil War     Atlanta – July-September 1864 Union Gen. Sherman besieged Atlanta for 6 weeks before capturing the vitally important center of Confederate manufacturing and railway traffic. Sherman’s goal was to disrupt the Confederacy’s capacity to resupply its troops throughout the South. Union troops burned Atlanta to the ground and then marched to the Atlantic Ocean, destroying the railways, roads, and bridges along the path, as well as the crops and livestock his troops did not harvest and butcher to feed themselves.
  22. 22. Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address      Lincoln was reelected in 1864, Union victory of the war was certain, and Americans saw an end to slavery. Instead of boasting about that victory, Lincoln expressed sorrow that the states had not been able to resolve their differences peacefully. He urged Americans not to seek revenge on slaveholders, their supporters, and the Southern military. He urged the reconstruction of the South. He said the war was fought to preserve the Union as an indivisible nation of citizens who would no longer profit from taking their earnings from the labor of unpaid slaves.
  23. 23. Surrender at Appomattox     On April 2, 1865, Lee tried to slip around Grant’s army. He planned to unite his troops with those of General Johnston. Lee hoped that together they would be able to continue the war. On April 9, 1865, Lee’s forces came to the Virginia town of Appomattox Court House. They were surrounded by a much larger Union force. Lee’s officers suggested that the army could scatter and continue to fight as guerrillas—soldiers who use surprise raids and hit-and-run tactics. Lee rejected this idea. That afternoon Generals Lee and Grant met in a private home. Lee surrendered, and the two men signed the surrender papers.