Tommy J


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Tommy J

  1. 1. Thomas Jefferson and the Declaration of Independence Like many of the Founding Fathers, he was well educated – The contradictions of Thomas Jefferson Thought slavery was evil --- owned slaves He was a Deist --- a closet theologian -
  2. 2. Meritocracy Thomas Jefferson had an affect on people, not by speeches, but by a presence. As one British officer put it, “If he was put besides any king In Europe, that king would appear to be his laquey.” 1774- Summary View of the Rights of British America 1. The concept of meritocracy - 2. Republicanism- 3. Individual rights- 4. Popular sovereignty- 5. Liberty-
  3. 3. Rule of Law 1770s recession – Rule of Law- the concept of respect for the law and – 1. The UK Coercive Act- 1774- Continental Congress- 1. It had 50 reps from 12 colonies a. Their plan- b. Patrick Henry- “I am not a Virginian, but an American.” 2. Committees of Safety – to enforce-
  4. 4. Road to the First Shots 5/5/1775- UK Parliament declare MA- 1. They authorized- 2. Patrick Henry at it again, “Give me liberty or give me death.” 3. Benjamin Franklin in UK- First shots - 4/19/1775 – The British “Redcoats” 1. Lexington and Concord -
  5. 5. Other Battles Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys – 1. With Benedict Arnold – 2. Bunker Hill- (Breed’s Hill)
  6. 6. Second Continental Congress 5/11/1775 – They realized that the only solution was independence. 1. The activities of the tireless Benjamin Franklin - 2. The activities of George Washington – the Coercive Act put him over – 3. Dunmore Proclamation-
  7. 7. Convincing the Public Thomas Paine - UK immigrant – 1. Common Sense- 1776- Britain brought in German and Russian mercenaries VA representative Richard Henry Lee – June 7, 1776
  8. 8. Declaration of Independence June 11, 1776 - 2 nd Continental Congress appoints a committee to write it 1. Benjamin Franklin sought support from – 2. Thomas Jefferson was in the lead to write the document – a. The text: “When in the course of human events . . .” 1. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” 3. What of the slavery issue?
  9. 9. More on the Declaration The core of the document is- July 4, 1776 – official title – The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America Benjamin Franklin quoted Cromwell: “Well, gentlemen, we must now hang together, or we shall most assuredly hang separately.” Colonies to states – How was it done? MA as the pattern . . .
  10. 10. Articles of Confederation This was the American government formed after independence 1. only did two things- 2. The role of the states-
  11. 11. The Revolutionary War Washington’s strategy – 1. UK army misconception- 2. Washington’s army- 3. Black troops - Frederick Wilhelm von Steuben- Other British issues in the war-
  12. 12. Strategies and Battles British Gen. Howe’s strategy- Brooklyn Heights- Battle at Trenton, NJ- British Gen. Burgoyne- coming from Canada 1. Saratoga - 1777- Howe Burgoyne
  13. 13. Getting Help from France 1778 - Benjamin Franklin yet again- Jacques-Donation de Chamont- Comte de Segur- King Louis XVI- 1. Overruled by- Duc Choiseuil-
  14. 14. Britain’s Southern Campaign Sir Henry Clinton- 5/1780- 1. His attack on Charleston, SC- Gen. Cornwallis- fights American Gen. Horatio Gates at Camden, SC 1. King’s Mountain battle- Dan Morgan- fights against Tories - Clinton Cornwallis
  15. 15. Cornwallis’ Error As part of the southern campaign, Cornwallis concentrated his forces 1. at a place called Yorktown - a. Gen. Clinton- 1. French Navy- a. Comte de Rochambeau- b. Adm. de Grasse- 1. Washington and Marquis de Lafayette- Rochambeau Lafayette
  16. 16. Peace in Paris Benjamin Franklin yet again with his “ Four Points ” In the final analysis- The revolution ended mercantilism- What happened to France?
  17. 17. Indians and Slaves Indians who sided with the British- Proclamation of 1763- Slaves #s- lifespan in America vs. Africa- 1. Slave territory- Slow process of outlawing slavery elsewhere-
  18. 18. Patriots vs. Loyalists This was America’s first Civil War you don’t hear about. There were actually three groups- 1. Benjamin Franklin’s oldest son (Gov. of NJ)- 2. Loyalist strongholds- 3. Who was on each side? 4. North Carolina situation- 1. Loyalist David Fanning vs. Patriot Gov. Tom Burke 5. 1000 black loyalists 6. 80,000 loyalists-
  19. 19. The Final Details of the Revolution The loyalists who stayed- 12-year-old future president Andrew Jackson- 1783 Mutiny of Washington’s Troops- 1. Maj. John Armstrong
  20. 20. Constitutional Convention The leaders’ elitism- Alexander Hamilton- 1. believed in Hobbes idea- 2. wanted big government – 1783 Peace with Britain- Land Ordinance of 1787- the process for creating states- 1. the existing states gave up- Articles of Confederation- this was the government during the Revolution
  21. 21. The Founders’ Finest Hour James Madison- Helped create VA constitution 1. He read Sir Francis Bacon – Of Honor and Reputation 2. One gift: “the free exercise of religion” Virginia Plan- Madison’s concept of Popular Sovereignty- 1. Madison coined the phrase “We the People”
  22. 22. The Convention Begins Who was there? Hamilton claimed lawyers were “disinterested” in self-gain! Historical background – 1000 year English tradition of compromise The Great Struggle: State power vs. federal power
  23. 23. Veterans Stand Up Shay’s Rebellion- MA vet and farmer 1. Farm foreclosures – 2. MA legislature- Back at the Convention- VA Plan wins out Connecticut Compromise AKA Great Compromise- 1. House of Reps.- 2. Senate-
  24. 24. Slavery Issue and Executive Art. 1 S. 9 – bans slavery in 1808 The 3/5 Rule- The Presidency- 1. How elected- 2. What powers?-
  25. 25. Ratification of the Constitution Federalists vs. Antifederalists 1. States used popular special election conventions 2. Use of media by both sides Federalists - Hamilton, Madison, John Jay, et al 1. Federalists Papers - a. Separation of Powers- b. Federalism -
  26. 26. Anti-Federalists Members: Patrick Henry, George Mason, John Hancock, Sam Adams Their fear: Federal domination. Big government would fall into the hands of special interests who would oppress the people. Amos Singletary of MA- “These lawyers . . . and monied men, that talk so finely . . . make us poor illiterate people swallow down the pills, expect to get into Congress themselves . . . to be the managers . . . and get all the powers and the money . . . like the great Leviathan.” Constitution had no Bill of Rights * Their alternative: Swiss canton-style sovereign states
  27. 27. Final Phase Federalists said a Bill of Rights would be added to Constitution Madison drafted the Bill of Rights with 10 Amendments 1 st Amendment: <ul><li>Individual rights not mentioned protected and reserved </li></ul><ul><li>10. States rights not mentioned protected and reserved </li></ul>
  28. 28. The Question of Citizenship DC and the states deal on citizenship- Immigrants- Suffrage varied from state to state- 1789 Judiciary Act- created tiered system of courts 1. Judicial review came later-
  29. 29. Religion in the Constitution In the 1780s, it was the heyday of the secular enlightenment Washington- Franklin- Jefferson- Madison- John Adams- What does the 1 st Amendment “establishment clause” mean?- 1. One day after passing the first amendment- 2. Jefferson saw religion as-
  30. 30. The Presidency First president- John Adams- Alexander Hamilton- 1. Tariffs- 2. Taxes- 3. National Bank- Bank of the United States- a. Thomas Jefferson on this bank- 1. Who he believed that should have power- All agreed that if the people did not have private property-
  31. 31. Regionalism and Partisanship Why the South disliked the North- Hamilton and his strange background- 1. He actually felt the elites should keep, “the turbulent and uncontrollable masses” is subjugation Jefferson in response created- Washington rebuffed by Congress- 1. 1 st Cabinet meetings-
  32. 32. Washington’s Second Term James Madison- Aaron Burr et al- Media opposition- “ National Gazette ” Ed Genet- French Rev. ambassador- 1. Washington’s position on it- Jay’s Treaty 1794- 1. Captain Robert Gray- Named Columbia River
  33. 33. Washington’s Farewell Address No “Spirit of Party” The Constitution- Keep away from- U.S. not a secular state- “Religion and morality are indispensable supports”
  34. 34. The Second President John Adams- 1. Continued Washington’s foreign policy of- 2. His personal thoughts- XYZ Affair- French foreign office underlings 1. France hated Jay’s Treaty-
  35. 35. Key Chief Justice John Marshall- 1. Capitalist : new use of the Supreme Court- 2. Laissez-faire- 3. Marbury v. Madison 1803- a. Judicial Review- 4. Fletcher v. Peck 1810- 5. Gibbons v. Ogden 1824- a. Commerce clause 6. McCulloch v. Maryland 1819-
  36. 36. Early Limits on Free Speech Alien and Sedition Acts- 1. French Jacobins-
  37. 37. Jefferson’s Presidency Election of 1800 – Jefferson vs. Adams 1. House of Representatives-
  38. 38. Jefferson’s Contradictions Father-in-law John Wayles- Notes on the State of Virginia- Why he didn’t free his slaves- Monticello-
  39. 39. A Famous Duel Aaron Burr’s plot- 1. Alexander Hamilton’s action- July 11, 1804
  40. 40. First Foreign War Tripolitan War 1803-1805- Barbary pirates- William Eaton-
  41. 41. Louisiana Purchase New Orleans- Napoleon’s amazing response- 820,000 Sq. miles, 530 million acres The legal question-
  42. 42. Lewis and Clark Meriwether Lewis William Clark Sacagawea - 11/8/1805-
  43. 43. Embargoes Napoleon’s Continental System- Non-Importation Act 1806- Embargo Act 1807-
  44. 44. A New President and War James Madison- Tension with UK continues over blockades, etc . . . Declaration of War with Britain Canada Lack of participation Oliver Hazard Perry- “We have met the enemy and they are ours” 1. American vessels-
  45. 45. 1812 High Tech Stuff Robert Fulton- UK Col. Shrapnel- The war in 1814- Madison’s error- Fort McHenry UK troops invade-
  46. 46. Jackson at War Andrew Jackson the man- 1 st duel at 21- 2 other duels- Jackson and the Indians- U.S. tactics- UK tactics-
  47. 47. Indian Wars Shawnee Chief Tecumseh- More UK tactics Ft. Mims- result of a failed white/Indian ally attack on Creeks Jackson’s Payback at Tallushatchee - Then at Talladega - Horseshoe Bend- 4/14/1814- Creek Chief Red Eagle- Treaty of Ft. Jackson-
  48. 48. Last Battle in 1815 Battle of New Orleans 1. Jackson now turns attention to UK 2. Britain’s plan gone awry- Why this battle was critical- End result of war-