All About The President and Foreign Policy.

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All About The President and Foreign Policy.

  1. 1. Chapters 8, 9, 22.
  2. 2. Duties of the President  1. Commander in Chief.  2. Appoints executive heads.  3. All laws “Faithfully executed.”  4. May pardon or grand reprieves.  5. Has lawmaking powers.  6. State of the Union Address.  7. “Wild Card” emergency powers.
  3. 3. Term of Office  1. Twenty Second Amendment:  Limited to two terms.  A V.P. could be president for ten years.  Electing the President
  4. 4. Salary and Perks  1. $400,000 a year salary.  2. $100,000 travel allowance.  3. Air Force One-747 jet.  4. Armored Limo.  5. Free medical services.  6. White House-132 rooms.  7. Domestic staff of butlers/maids, carpenters, electricians, barbers, chiefs.  8. 148,000 lifetime retirement.  9. Lifetime Secret Service protection.
  5. 5. Presidential Qualifications Constitutional Requirements:  1. Natural born citizen.  2. At least 35 years old.  3. Lived in U.S. at least 14 years. Other Important Qualities:  1. Gov’t Experience.  2. Money. Fundraisers?  3. Political Beliefs.  4. Personal Traits.  6. Personal Growth.
  6. 6. Presidential Succession  Twenty Fifth Amendment-1967.  1. V.P., Speaker of the House, Senate Pro Tem, Sec. of State, Sec. of Treasury, etc. 18 on list.  2. How to replace V.P? Pres. Nominates and Senate confirms.  3. V.P has been replaced twice by this method.
  7. 7. Presidential Disability  1. Twenty Fifth Amendment Continued….  If the Pres. is incapacitated for any reason, the Cabinet, by a simple majority vote, can have the V.P. become the acting president.  George Bush Sr. was the acting Pres. for 24 hours because Reagan had surgery.
  8. 8. Chapter Nine-Presidential Leadership.  Factors that shape the power of each individual President:  1. Constitution  2. Personal energy.  3. Popularity or Mandate of the people.
  9. 9. Informal Sources of Power.  4.Personal exercise of power. George Washington.  5. Immediate needs of nation. Lincoln and Writ of Habeas Corpus.  6. Raised an army BEFORE Congress gave approval OR money.
  10. 10. Limits of Presidential Power.  1. Congress: Over ride veto’s, controls budgets, confirms nominations, confirms treaties War Powers Act, and impeachment/trial articles.  2. Federal Courts.  3. Bureaucracy.  4. PUBLIC OPINION.
  11. 11. Style of Leadership.  Leadership Styles And Qualities: 1. Understanding the public. Hoover v. Roosevelt. 2. Ability to communicate. Carter v. Reagan. 3. Sense of timing. Clinton(Welfare Reform.) v.G.W. Bush(Social Security Reform.)
  12. 12. Roles of the President.  1. Head of State.  2. Chief of State.  3. Chief legislator.  4. Economic planner.  5. Party leader.  6. Chief diplomat.  7. Commander in Chief.
  13. 13. Leadership Skills  1. Understanding the public.  2. Ability to communicate.  3. Sense of timing.  4. Open to new ideas.  5. Ability to compromise.  6. Political courage. John Adams.
  14. 14. Presidential Isolation  1. Special treatment.  2. Openness to contrary opinions.  3. Access to president. Donald Regan?(Defacto President?)  4. Isolation.  5. Staying in touch with the public.
  15. 15. Executive Privilege  1. E.P. allows the president and staff from having to testify before Congress OR give information such as documents/memo’s or other work products of the executive branch.  2. This keeps the the executive branch SEPARATE from Congress.  1. Limits of Executive privilege:  If there is a criminal investigation that involves the executive branch, Congress can subpoena people, documents, or work products.
  16. 16. Chapter 22-Foreign Policy and Defense
  17. 17. Goals of Foreign Policy  1. National security-9-11.  2. Free trade.  3. World peace.  4. Promote democracy/Huma n rights.  5. Concern for humanity. Foreign aid/disaster relief.
  18. 18. Foreign Policy A strategy developed by a country’s decision makers to achieve “national interest” objectives with respect to foreign countries
  19. 19. American Foreign Policy: Instruments, Actors, and Policymakers  1. Instruments of Foreign Policy.  Three types of tools:  Military  Economic  Diplomatic  Military is has been used often.  Economic is becoming quite powerful. Iran.  Diplomatic is the quietest of the tools.
  20. 20. • Created in 1947 • Members include: • The President & Vice President • Secretary of State & Secretary of Defense • Director of CIA & Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff • (Advisors to statutory members- subject to change) • The staff is headed up by the National Security Advisor • Other relevant Cabinet Secretaries invited as required National Security Council (NSC)
  21. 21. American Public Congress Foreign Policy Bureaucracies White House Staff President Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy? How much power & influence does each have on FP?* NSC
  22. 22. History of American Foreign Policy.  1. Isolationism. G. Washington’s Farewell Address. 1796.  2. “No entangling alliances.”  3. Monroe Doctrine 1823. Told Europe to Stay out of South America.  4. U.S. AND England wanted access to S. American markets.  5. Alford Mahan-Great White Fleet. 1880’s- 1890’s.  6. Spanish-American War 1898.  7. U.S. is now a colonial power. Cuba, Philippines, Guam, and Hawaii(Not part of war.)
  23. 23. U.S. a World Power World War One  1. U.S. European policy: No ONE European country to dominate.  2. Germany was violating “Freedom of the seas.”  3. Pre WW1 Trade:  Germany 1914-170m. 1916-0  England 1914-825m  1916-3.2 BILLION. Outcome of WW1  1. U.S. bitter about post WW1 European attitudes/behavior.  2. U.S. returns to isolationism.  3. No more U.S. involvement in European wars!
  24. 24. America First! Rise of Fascism  1. Europe goes to war 1939.  2. Majority of Americans are still isolationists.  3. C. Lindberg leader of A.F.  4. U.S. Starts Lend- Lease program. December 7th, 1941  1. Pearl Harbor bombed by Japan.  2. America no longer isolationist.  3. “We have awoken a sleeping giant.” Yamamoto.
  25. 25. Post WW2 Foreign Policy Outcomes:  1. U.S. becomes a “Super Power.”  2. Strongest and most advanced technology based military. Atomic Bomb.  3. Worlds largest, robust economy.  4. Most stable gov’t. Cold War  1. Soviet Union had HUGE conventional army.  2. USSR took control of ALL Eastern Europe.  3. U.S. feared for Western Europe. U.S. largest trading partner.  4. A-Bomb 1949. RED SCARE BEGINS!
  26. 26. Truman Policy of Containment-1948  1. Pledged the U.S. to fight the spread of communism.  2. This fight would use economic, military, and political power.  3. NATO v. WARSAW Pack.
  27. 27. Soviet Threat What was the military instrument of Containment?
  28. 28. OR COLD WAR U.S. And NATO. Soviet Union And Warsaw Pact. -Democracy: -Individual Freedom/Human Rights. -Market economy/Free Enterprise. -Totalitarianism: -Individuals serve the state. -Communist/Command economy.
  29. 29. A New Cold War? Crimea.
  30. 30. Cold War Highlights/Low Lights. Speed Bumps of The Cold War.
  31. 31. Iron Curtain-1946 Winston Churchill.
  32. 32. Berlin Crisis. 1948.  1. Germany was divided into four zones after WW2.  2. U.S., Soviet, French, and Great Britain.  3. Berlin was also divided into four zones.  4. Berlin was surrounded in the Soviet zone.  5. Stalin blockaded Berlin-wanted to force West out.
  33. 33. Berlin Airlift 1948
  34. 34. Marshall Plan  1. Billions of U.S. dollars were sent to Western Europe to help them rebuild.  2. This was done to help build a barrier to Soviet communism.  3. NATO or North Atlantic Treaty Organization was also created.
  35. 35. Who Lost China? 1949
  36. 36. Soviets Explode A Bomb 1949!
  37. 37. Arms Race.1945-1991.  1. Trillions of dollars were spent on national defense to keep up or stay ahead of the Soviet Union.  2. Much of U.S. foreign aid went to arm our allies.  3. U.S. has many foreign bases to help hem in USSR.  4. One example of this arms race? NEXT….
  38. 38. B-70 Bomber. Mach 3.
  39. 39. MIG 25. “Foxback.”
  40. 40. F 15 “Foxback” Killer.
  41. 41. Secret’s Out! 1976
  42. 42. Korean War 1950-1953 45,000 Killed. Korean War
  43. 43. Sputnik 1957-Major Shock!
  44. 44. U-2 Frances Gary Powers Shot Down. 1960
  45. 45. Berlin Wall 1961
  46. 46. Bay of Pigs. 1961.
  47. 47. Cuban Missile Crisis-1962.  1. Soviets place nuclear missile in Cuba.  2. U.S. demands removal. Places an embargo around Cuba.  3. Closest the worlds been to nuclear war.
  48. 48. J.F.K. Doodle
  49. 49. Vietnam War 1960-1975 56,000 Killed
  50. 50. Détente’1969- 1979
  51. 51. Yom Kippur War, 1973. Defcon 4
  52. 52. Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan. 1979.
  53. 53. Soviet Paranoia-1983.  1. Soviets convinced that U.S would pull a surprise attack.  2. U.S.S.R. nearly attacked U.S FIRST.  3. An attack would have lead to nuclear war.
  54. 54. Soviet “Bear Trap.” 1979- 1988.  1. Soviet Army ground down by Afghan fighters. “USSR’s Vietnam.”  2. U.S. supplied Afghan rebels AND Osama Bin Laden.  3. Bin Laden tried to repeat this victory with the U.S. 911.
  55. 55. End of the Soviet Union-1991.  Increasing Soviet military expenses to compete with the United states.  Rising nationalism in Soviet republics. Only 50% of USSR ethnic “Russian.”  Economic inefficiency.  Gorbachev “Glasnost” and “Perestroika” (openness and economic restructuring)
  56. 56. Role of Ronald Reagan  1. Challenged moral legitimacy of the Soviet Union; for example, speech at Berlin Wall (“Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” and “Evil Empire.”)  2. Increased U.S. military and economic pressure on the Soviet Union.  4. Biggest Military build up in world history.  5. U.S. spent six percent of GDP on defense.  USSR: 33 percent!
  57. 57. New World Order-1991.  1. “Peace Dividend.”  2. Invasion of Panama. 1989.  3. Persian Gulf War I.  4. 9-11 and the war on terrorism.  5. Invasion of Afghanistan. 2001.  6. Iraq. 2003.
  58. 58. B – 2 Bomber. Two Billion Each! QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  59. 59. A New World Order! 1991.
  60. 60. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Towers Attack. Pentagon Attack.
  61. 61. The New Global Agenda  1. Terrorism-9/11:  The most troublesome national security issue today.  Takes many forms and is difficult to defend against in an open society.  The U.S. works on improved security measures and on punishing those that support terrorism.
  62. 62. Why Is Foreign Policy So Important To Our Economy? The U.S. has many needs from other parts of the world to fuel our economy.
  63. 63. OIL – Where Does it Come From? Venezuela 6.2% Mexico, Central & South America 9.6% Nigeria 2.8% Algeria/Libya 3.9% UK/Norway 0.9% Iran 10.2% Qatar/UAE 8.7% Russia/PRC/Kazak. 6.7% Source: DoE, Energy Info Admin for 2006, includes Canadian oil sands reserves Saudi Arabia 20.4% Canada 13.7% USA 1.6%
  64. 64. Oil Consumption by Nation
  65. 65. Selected Strategic Minerals Net U.S. Import Reliance-2005* Bauxite & Alumina Australia Jamaica Guinea Suriname Cesium Canada Chromium South Africa Kazakhstan Russia Zimbabwe Cobalt Finland Norway Russia Canada Columbium Brazil Canada Estonia China 100% 100% 69% 78% 100% Fluorspar China Mexico South Africa Graphite China Mexico Canada Brazil Manganese Gabon South Africa China Australia Nickel Canada Norway Russia Australia 100% 100% 100% 54% Platinum South Africa U.K. Germany Canada Rubidium Canada Strontium Mexico Germany Tantalum Australia Canada Titanium South Africa Ukraine Australia Canada 91% 100% 100% 91% 63% *Listed countries reflect the major U.S. import sources during 2001-2004. [Source: Mineral Commodity Summaries, 2006. Dept of Interior, USGS at http://minerals.usgs.gov/min erals/pubs/mcs/2006]
  66. 66. F-100 Engine Dependence on Imported Metals (F-15 and F-16 aircraft) Titanium 5,366 lbs 63% Cobalt 910 lbs 78% Tantalum 3 lbs 91% Columbium 171 lbs 100% Aluminum 720 lbs 100% Chromium 1,656 lbs 69% Nickel 5,024 lbs 54% (Note: Metals indicated are used in more than one place in engine)

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