Chapter 23 AP The Gilded Age

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Chapter 23 AP The Gilded Age

  1. 1. Chapter 23 Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
  2. 2. The “Bloody Shirt” Elects Grant <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ulysses S. Grant – elected in 1868 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Bloody Shirt” – Civil War Hero </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen votes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Democrats <ul><li>“ Ohio Idea” – federal war bonds redeemed in greenbacks </li></ul><ul><li>Horatio Seymour – against “Ohio Idea” </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Era of Good Stealings <ul><li>Jim Fisk </li></ul><ul><li>Jay Gould </li></ul><ul><li>Tweed Ring </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Nast </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Carnival of Corruption <ul><li>Crédit Mobilier scandal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Whiskey Ring <ul><li>was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Liberal Republican Revolt of 1872 <ul><li>Urged purification </li></ul><ul><li>Horace Greeley </li></ul><ul><li>Grant re-nominated </li></ul>
  8. 8. Depression, Deflation, and Inflation <ul><li>Panic of 1873 </li></ul><ul><li>Hard/sound money </li></ul><ul><li>Soft/cheap money </li></ul>
  9. 9. Resumption Act <ul><li>provided for the redemption of United States paper currency, (greenbacks) in gold beginning in 1879. This sound money program reduced the amount of paper money in circulation and restored confidence in it </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ Crime of ’73” <ul><li>a much debated shift from a bi-metallic standard to a gold standard. Western miners and others such as farmers called this the &quot;Crime of '73&quot; </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Contraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less money in circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greenback Labor Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advocated issuing large amounts of money, believing this would help people, especially farmers by raising prices and making debts easier to pay. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Bland-Allison Act of 1878 <ul><li>enacted in response to the Crime of '73, demonetizing silver. </li></ul><ul><li>would re-allow the coinage of silver </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pallid Politics in the Gilded Age <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puritan roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict moral code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lutheran and Catholic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toleration of differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less government regulation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Republicans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midwest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small town Northeast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>veterans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern industrial cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immigrants </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Mark Twain </li></ul><ul><li>Spoils system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>patronage </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Republicans <ul><li>Stalwarts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Roscoe Conkling </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Half-breeds <ul><li>James G. Blaine </li></ul><ul><li>Civil service reform </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876 <ul><li>Republican </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rutherford B. Hayes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Democrats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel J. Tilden </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction <ul><li>Hayes becomes President </li></ul><ul><li>Democrats want Reconstruction ended </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Birth of Jim Crow in the Post-Reconstruction South <ul><li>“ Redeemers” </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecropping </li></ul><ul><li>Tenant farming </li></ul><ul><li>Crop-lien system </li></ul>
  21. 21. Jim Crow <ul><li>Legal codes of segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) </li></ul><ul><li>Lynching </li></ul>
  22. 22. Class Conflicts and Ethnic Clashes <ul><li>Panic of 1873 </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad strike </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese workers </li></ul><ul><li>Denis Kearney </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark - 1898 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Garfield and Arthur <ul><li>Republican Old Guard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>against Hayes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Winfield S. Hancock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic candidate </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Republican dark-horse elected in 1880 </li></ul><ul><li>James A. Garfield </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assassinated in 1881 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by Charles J. Guiteau </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Chester A. Arthur <ul><li>passed Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Blaine-Cleveland Mudslingers of 1884 <ul><li>James G. Blaine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruined by phrase “Rum, Romanism, and Rebellion” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Grover Cleveland <ul><li>Democrat </li></ul><ul><li>Illegitimate son </li></ul><ul><li>Mugwumps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican reformers turned to Cleveland </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. “Old Grover” Takes Over <ul><li>First Democrat in 28 years </li></ul><ul><li>Laissez-faire </li></ul><ul><li>Merit system </li></ul><ul><li>Military pensions </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cleveland Battles for a Lower Tariff <ul><li>Tariffs increased during the war </li></ul><ul><li>Pork-barrel bills </li></ul>
  30. 30. Benjamin Harrison <ul><li>Republican </li></ul><ul><li>Elected in 1888 </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Billion Dollar Congress <ul><li>Thomas B. Reed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domineering Speaker of the House </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. William McKinley <ul><ul><li>McKinley Tariff </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. The Drumbeat of Discontent <ul><li>Populists – 1892 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>James B. Weaver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 electoral votes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homestead Strike </li></ul>
  34. 34. The South <ul><li>Tom Watson </li></ul><ul><li>Poll taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Grandfather clause </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cleveland Depression <ul><li>Cleveland elected (again) in 1893 </li></ul><ul><li>Adlai Stevenson </li></ul>
  36. 36. William Jennings Bryan <ul><ul><li>Pro-silver </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act <ul><li>J.P. Morgan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bankers loaned government 65 million in gold </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Cleveland Breeds a Backlash <ul><li>“ forgettable presidents” </li></ul>

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