• In sociology, social institutions, such as
economy and government, are the 'bike parts'
and the overall society is the 'bicycle.' Social
institutions are established sets of norms and
subsystems that support each society's
WHAT IS A SOCIAL INSTITUTION?
• Social institution is a group of social positions,
connected by social relations, performing a social
• Any institution in a society that works to socialize
the groups of people in it.
• Ex. universities, governments, families,
• And any people or groups that you have social
• It is a major sphere of social life organized to
meet some human need.
CHARACTERISTICS AND FUNCTIONS OF
• Palispis (1996) pointed out the following
characteristics and functions.
1. Institutions are purposive. Each of them has the
satisfaction of social needs as its own goal or
2. Relatively permanent in their content. The
pattern roles and relations that people enact in
a particular culture become traditional
enduring. Although institutions are subject to
change, the change is relatively slow.
3. Institutions are structured. The components
tend to band together, reinforce one another.
This is because social roles and social relations
are in themselves structured combinations of
4. Institutions are a unified structure. They
function as a unit.
5. Institutions are necessarily value-laden. Their
repeated uniformities, patters and trends become
codes of conduct. Most of these codes
subconsciously exert social pressures. However,
others are in form of rules and laws.
1. Institutions simplify social behavior for the
individual person. The social institutions provide
every child with all the needed social and
cultural mechanisms through which he can grow
2. Institutions provide ready-made forms of social
relations and social roles for the individual. The
principal roles are not invented by the
individuals, they are provided by the
3. Institutions also act as agencies of
coordination and stability for total culture. The
ways of thinking and behaving that are
institutionalized “make sense” to people.
4. Institutions tend to control behavior. They
contain the systematic expectations of the
• Social Institutions can take many forms,
depending on a social context.
• It may be a family, business, educational, or
1. THE FAMILY
• The smallest social institution with the unique
• It is the basic unit of Philippine society and the
educational system where the child begins to
learn his ABC.
• The basic agent of socialization because it is
here where the individual develops values,
behaviors, and ways of life through interaction
with members of the family.
• The Filipino family is usually an extended one
and therefore, big.
• In spite of the family planning programs and
population efforts promoted all over the
country, many Filipinos have more children
than would be justified by those who are
concerned with population growth.
• In the Filipino family, kinship ties are extended
to include the “compadre’ or sponsors.
Compadres and comadres are regarded as
relatives and closer ties are formed.
• Parents gets sponsors (ninong and ninang) in
the baptism of their child and wedding of a
son or daughter.
• In the Asian family, a great difference exists in
the roles of man and woman. A woman’s
position in the home and society are much
lower than that of man.
• A much higher regard is attributed to the
Filipino woman, especially with the changing
roles and functions of the family.
FUNCTIONS OF THE FAMILY
• Of all the institutions, the family is the most
important. It performs the following functions:
1. Reproduction of the race and rearing of the
young – a unique function cannot be done by
any other institution.
2. Cultural transmission of enculturation – the
culture of the family is acquired from the father
and the mother.
3. Socialization of the child – in the family, the
child learns his role and status.
4. Providing affection and sense of security.
5. Providing the environment for personality
development and growth of self-concept in
relation to others.
6. Providing social status – each individual in
the family inherits both material goods and
social ecognition defined by ascribed status.
KINDS OF FAMILY PATTERNS
The Family may be classified in different ways.
According to structure, there are two types.
• Conjural or nuclear family. This is the primary
or elementary family consisting of husband,
wife and children.
• Consanguine or extended family. It consists of
married couple, their parents, siblings,
grandparents, uncles, aunts, and cousins.
• According to terms of marriage, there is
monogamy and polygamy. Polygamy means
plural marriage. There are three types of
1. Polyandry where one woman is married to
two or more men at the same time.
2. Polygamy where one man is married to two
or more women at the same time.
3. Cenogamy where two or more men mate
with two or more woman in group marriage.
• As line in descent, the family may be
patrilineal, matrilineal, or bilineal.
• Patrilineal – when the descent is recognized
through the father’s line.
• Matrilineal – mother’s line
• Bilineal – both father’s and mother’s line.
• According to place of
residence, the family may be
1. Patrilocal when the newly
married couple lives with
the parents of the husband.
2. Matrilocal when the newly
married coupld lies with the
parents of the wife
3. Neolocal when the newly
married pair maintains a
separate household and live
• With reference to authority or who is
considered head, the family may be classified
1. Patriarchal when the father is considered the
head and plays a dominant role.
2. Matriarchal when the mother or female is
the head and makes the major decisions.
3. Equalitarian when both father and mother
share in making decisions and are equal in
• Definition: a system
consisting of the roles and
norms that ensure the
knowledge, values, and
patterns of behavior from
one generation to the
• Schooling is formal
education, which involves
instruction by specially
trained teachers who
A Change in Education
• In some preindustrial societies, education is
largely informal and occurs mainly within the
• The basic purpose of education is the transmission of
knowledge. While before education was a family
responsibility, along with the community and the
church, industrial changed it dramatically.
• Schools become necessary when cultural complexity
created a need for specialized knowledge and skill
which could not be easily acquired in the family, church
• the complexity of modern life has not diminished the
teaching function of the family, but it has added the
need for many types of instruction which require
specialized educational agencies like school, college or
• Are schools to prepare students for college,
for vocation, or to achieve high scores on
• Some say schools come down to either
preparing students to adjust to society or
equipping them to change and improve
• Not only do people hold widely divergent
views regarding the goals of schools, but these
views seem to vary depending on the times.
What are the Functions of Schools?
• The primary function is to move young people in
the mainstream of society.
• The school is the place for the contemplation of
reality, and our task as teachers, in the simplest
terms, is to show this reality to our students, who
are naturally eager about them.
• At home we teach reality to children in a
profoundly personal, informal, and unstructured
• There are also teachers who facilitate learning,
who teach children and youth certain types of
acceptable behavior, and sees to it that children
develop aspects: physically, emotionally, socially
• The intellectual purposes of schooling include
to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading
writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific
to inculcate allegiance to the existing political
order (patriotism). To teach children the basic
laws of society.
socialize children into the various roles,
behaviors, and values of the society.
The key ingredient in the stability of any
To prepare students for their later
occupational roles and select, train, and
allocate individuals into the division of labor.