The
Federalis
t Era:
1789-1801
AP U.S. History
Unit 10
THE FEDERALIST
ERA:
DOMESTIC Issues
I. America in 1790 Growing Pains
A. Population: 4 million Cities boomed but 90% rural
...
FEDERALIST ERA
Theme 1
Led by George
Washington and
Alexander Hamilton,
the first administration
under the Constitution
ov...
Washington arrives in NY to take the
oath of office
President George Washington
1789-1791
Lead by
strength of
character
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1. Abraham Lincoln
2. Franklin Roosevelt
3. George Washington
4. Theodore Roose...
THE FEDERALIST
ERA:
DOMESTIC Issues
President Washington's Administration
A. Unanimously elected by Electoral
College in 1...
B. Washington’s Cabinet
1. Precedent: relied on department
heads for advice & consulted
regularly with his cabinet
1. Stars of Washington’s cabinet
a. Secretary of State:
Thomas Jefferson
b. Secretary of the Treasury:
Alexander Hamilton
...
Bill of Rights
A. Debate between Federalists and Anti-
Federalists
B. Amendments to Constitution. How?
C. Federalists fear...
D. Bill of Rights = First ten amendments
to the Constitution
1. Freedom of speech, press, religion,
assembly, and petition...
6. Right to a fair and speedy trial in
criminal cases
7. Right to a trial in civil cases
8. No cruel and unusual punishmen...
IV. Judiciary Act of 1789
A. Organized the Supreme Court:
Chief Justice (John Jay) and 5
associate justices
B. Federal, di...
Theme 2:
The cabinet debate over Hamilton's
financial plan expanded into a wider
political conflict between Hamiltonian
Fe...
Hamilton’s Financial Plan revives the
Corpse of Public Credit
A. Economic goals (favored the wealthy)
B. Five major compon...
3. Tariffs (customs duties)
4. Excise taxes (whiskey)
5. Hamilton Battles
Jefferson for a Bank
a. Organization
b. Jefferson’s views:
-- "strict construction”
10th
Amendment sta...
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
BE FAT!
B ank of the U.S.
E xcise taxes
F unding at Par
A ssumption of State Debts
T ariffs
Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsslyvania
Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
1. Protesters’ reasons (economics and “freedom”)
2. Posed a...
Flag of the Whiskey BoysFlag of the Whiskey Boys
Washington summoned militia of several
states and lead the troops (half-way)
4. Result:
5. Significance:
Hamilton’s financial plan became
the cornerstone of America’s
financial system
Birth of the Political Party System
Jefferson V. Hamilton feud”
A. View of Founding Fathers
B. Federalists (Hamiltonians)
...
C. Jefferson -- Republicans
(Democratic-Republicans)
1. Gov't for the people
2. Appealed to middle class and
underprivileg...
History of Major American Political
Parties
(3rd Parties not included above)
c. 1792
c. 1816
c. 1825
1834
1854
Democratic-...
THEME #3
The French Revolution created a
severe ideological and political
division over foreign policy between
Federalists...
FOREIGN POLICY
I. French Revolution (1789)
A. Significance: Most important issue
separating Federalists & Republicans
B. M...
Storming the Bastille, 1789 This event signaled the outbreak of
the French Revolution.
The
beheading of
Louis XVI,
January 21,
1793
“Reign of
Terror”
The Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette, 1793 The bloody excesses of the
notorious guillotine disgusted many Americans and...
Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation
A. U.S. still obligated to France under
1778 Franco-American Alliance
1. Jeffersonian...
C. American reaction
1. Jeffersonians enraged (pro French)
2. Federalists supported it
D. Who benefited from U.S.
neutrali...
Embroilments with Britain A.
Indians on northwest & southwest
borders were hostile to U.S. settlers
B. General “Mad” Antho...
2. Treaty of Greenville, 1795
a. Cleared Amerindians out of 2/3
of Ohio and Indiana( treaty ? $$)
b. Britain abandoned its...
Embroilment on the Seas
A. Significance: most important cause for
the official creation of the Democratic-
Republican part...
D. Jay Treaty provisions: U.S. got very
little ( Jay had a “weak” hand)
1. Britain renewed pledge to
remove posts from U.S...
E. Jeffersonians reacted angrily
F. War with Britain was averted
Jeffersonians
burned effigies
of John Jay in
protest of t...
IV. Pinckney Treaty of 1795
(normalized relations with Spain)
A. Spanish motive: feared an
Anglo-American alliance and
sou...
Pinckney Treaty, 1795
Disputed
territory
gained by
U.S.
Washington Refuses a Third Term
A. Partisan politics
1. Washington was seen as a Federalist
by 1796
2. He had reluctantly ...
C. Washington's Legacy
1. Kept U.S. out of overseas
entanglements and foreign wars
-- Over 100 years of isolationism
2. Ha...
4. Cabinet
5. Went outside the Supreme Court
to select a new Chief Justice
6. Two-term tradition
John Adams becomes
President
A. Adams vs. Jefferson
(Bitter campaign)
B. Adams: 71
Jefferson: 66
President John Adams
1797-1801
Federalist
Tough shoes to
fill-G.W.
Prickly aristocrat,
Hated by
Hamilton
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1. Abraham Lincoln
2. Franklin Roosevelt
3. George Washington
4. Theodore Roose...
Unofficial naval war with France
(“Quasi-War”) (1798-1800)
A. France condemned the Jay
Treaty and harassed U.S. ships,
sei...
A British political cartoon commenting on the XYZ Affair.
The XYZ Affair When President Adams’s envoys to Paris were asked...
C. War hysteria in U.S.
-- “Millions for defense
but not one cent for
tribute!”
D. “High Federalists”
E. Undeclared
hostil...
Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
1. French peace overtures( fearful of Britain)
2. Appointed new foreign minister:
many s...
Federalist Witch Hunt
A. Federalist (aristocratic) motive: silence
Democratic-Republicans during the war
(immigrants and w...
Sedition Act (1798)
1. Provisions: ($ or jail for impeding policies or
defaming gov’t official government)
2. Violation of...
IX.The Jefferson “Revolution of 1800”
A. Federalist handicaps
B. Election of 1800
C. Significance:
D. 12th Amendment (1804)
Election of 1800Election of 1800
Jefferson: 73
Adams: 65
E. Virginia and Kentucky
Resolutions (Madison & Jefferson)
Extreme States Rights Argument
1. Premise: Nullification
2. Com...
Federalist Versus Democratic-Republicans
A. Federalists built enduring political and
financial foundations (Hamilton)
B. D...
C. Preserved democratic gains of
Revolution; held back anarchy
D. Federalist demise result of inability to
adapt to change...
Thomas Jefferson at Natural B ridge, by
Caleb Boyle,
ca. 1801 A great statesman, Jefferson
wrote his own epitaph: “Here wa...
Jefferson ( D-R) vs. Hamilton (Federalists)
MEMORY DEVICE
FOR THE
FEDERALIST ERA
BB ig Bill of Rights
JJ olly Judiciary Act
HH amilton Hamilton’s Financial Plan
FF inds French Revolution
NN ervous Neutra...
XI. Review
A. Domestic Policy
1. Bill of Rights/ Judiciary Act
2. Hamilton’s financial plan
3. Jeffersonian opposition to
...
B. Foreign Policy
1. French Revolution creates split into
two political parties
a. Neutrality Proclamation, 1793
b. Jay Tr...
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  • U.S. Treasury Department building with the statue of Alexander Hamilton in front
  • www.lexrex.com
  • Wikipedia Commons (public domain)
  • http://www.ng.mil/resources/photo_gallery/heritage/lawsunion.html
  • Image is in the public domain
  • public domain 1895
  • Painting by Howard Chandler Christy public domain
  • Image is in the public domain
  • Image is in the public domain
  • http://kalarhythms.org/images/flags-maps-usa/usa-map-1790.gif
  • Wikipedia Commons (public domain)
  • U.S.S. Constellation Wikipedia Commons (public domain)
  • Image is in the public domain
  • http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/OnlineLibrary/photos/iconic/icon-ev/est-usn.htm
  • Source: Wikipedia Commons
  • LOAPUSH 10

    1. 1. The Federalis t Era: 1789-1801 AP U.S. History Unit 10
    2. 2. THE FEDERALIST ERA: DOMESTIC Issues I. America in 1790 Growing Pains A. Population: 4 million Cities boomed but 90% rural and 95% East of Appalachian Mountains B. U.S. was recovering from a depression C. Challenges by Britain and Spain threatened the unity of the U.S.
    3. 3. FEDERALIST ERA Theme 1 Led by George Washington and Alexander Hamilton, the first administration under the Constitution overcame various difficulties and firmly established the political and economic foundations of the new federal government.
    4. 4. Washington arrives in NY to take the oath of office
    5. 5. President George Washington 1789-1791 Lead by strength of character
    6. 6. Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. Abraham Lincoln 2. Franklin Roosevelt 3. George Washington 4. Theodore Roosevelt 5. Harry Truman 6. John Kennedy 7. Thomas Jefferson 8. Dwight Eisenhower 9. Woodrow Wilson 10. Ronald Reagan 11. Lyndon Johnson 12. James Polk 13. Andrew Jackson 14. James Monroe 15. Bill Clinton 16. William McKinley 17. John Adams 18. George H.W. Bush 19. John Quincy Adams 20. James Madison 21. Grover Cleveland 22. Gerald Ford 23. Ulysses Grant 24. William Taft 25. Jimmy Carter 26. Calvin Coolidge 27. Richard Nixon 28. James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan
    7. 7. THE FEDERALIST ERA: DOMESTIC Issues President Washington's Administration A. Unanimously elected by Electoral College in 1789. -- Significance of Washington's reputation
    8. 8. B. Washington’s Cabinet 1. Precedent: relied on department heads for advice & consulted regularly with his cabinet
    9. 9. 1. Stars of Washington’s cabinet a. Secretary of State: Thomas Jefferson b. Secretary of the Treasury: Alexander Hamilton c. Cabinet characterized by the ongoing feud between Jefferson and Hamilton d. Secretary of War Henry Knox
    10. 10. Bill of Rights A. Debate between Federalists and Anti- Federalists B. Amendments to Constitution. How? C. Federalists feared that another constitutional convention might reverse their victory 1. Madison drafted 12 amendments 2. Modeled after George Mason’s bill of rights in Virginia
    11. 11. D. Bill of Rights = First ten amendments to the Constitution 1. Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition 2. Right to bear arms 3. No quartering of troops 4. No illegal search and seizure 5. Life, liberty, or property cannot be taken without due process of law
    12. 12. 6. Right to a fair and speedy trial in criminal cases 7. Right to a trial in civil cases 8. No cruel and unusual punishment 9. Individuals have more rights than those stated in the Constitution 10. Powers not mentioned in the Constitution belong to the states
    13. 13. IV. Judiciary Act of 1789 A. Organized the Supreme Court: Chief Justice (John Jay) and 5 associate justices B. Federal, district, and circuit courts C. Attorney General
    14. 14. Theme 2: The cabinet debate over Hamilton's financial plan expanded into a wider political conflict between Hamiltonian Federalists and Jeffersonian Republicans -- the first political parties in America.
    15. 15. Hamilton’s Financial Plan revives the Corpse of Public Credit A. Economic goals (favored the wealthy) B. Five major components: 1. Funding at Par -- Purpose: Bolster national credit 2. Assumption of State Debts a. Motive: tie the states closer to the federal government b. North-South struggle over assumption c. Compromise (logrolling): ( D.C.)
    16. 16. 3. Tariffs (customs duties) 4. Excise taxes (whiskey)
    17. 17. 5. Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank a. Organization b. Jefferson’s views: -- "strict construction” 10th Amendment states rights issue c. Hamilton's views: -- "loose construction” (broad construction) -- "elastic clause“-- implied powers ("necessary & proper") d. Washington's decision
    18. 18. Hamilton’s Financial Plan BE FAT! B ank of the U.S. E xcise taxes F unding at Par A ssumption of State Debts T ariffs
    19. 19. Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsslyvania Whiskey Rebellion (1794) 1. Protesters’ reasons (economics and “freedom”) 2. Posed a threat to the power of the federal government The tarring and feathering of a whiskey tax collector
    20. 20. Flag of the Whiskey BoysFlag of the Whiskey Boys
    21. 21. Washington summoned militia of several states and lead the troops (half-way)
    22. 22. 4. Result: 5. Significance:
    23. 23. Hamilton’s financial plan became the cornerstone of America’s financial system
    24. 24. Birth of the Political Party System Jefferson V. Hamilton feud” A. View of Founding Fathers B. Federalists (Hamiltonians) 1. Gov't by upper-classes 2. Distrusted common people 3. Supported strong central gov't 4. Fed. gov't should help business; not interfere 5. Nat’l debt was a blessing 6. Pro-British in foreign policy
    25. 25. C. Jefferson -- Republicans (Democratic-Republicans) 1. Gov't for the people 2. Appealed to middle class and underprivileged 3. “The government that governs least governs best” 4. National debt was a curse 5. Primarily agrarians 6. Believed in freedom of speech 7. Pro-French in foreign policy
    26. 26. History of Major American Political Parties (3rd Parties not included above) c. 1792 c. 1816 c. 1825 1834 1854 Democratic-Republicans Federalists (Jeffersonians) (Hamiltonians) Death of the Federalists One-party Rule: Republicans “Era of Good Feelings” Democratic-Republicans National Republicans (Jacksonians) (Followers of Clay) Democrats Whigs To Present To Present Republicans
    27. 27. THEME #3 The French Revolution created a severe ideological and political division over foreign policy between Federalists and Republicans. The foreign-policy crisis coincided with domestic political divisions that culminated in the bitter election of 1800, but in the end power passed peacefully from Federalists to Republicans.
    28. 28. FOREIGN POLICY I. French Revolution (1789) A. Significance: Most important issue separating Federalists & Republicans B. Most Americans were initially pleased C. Reaction to "Reign of Terror": Jeffersonians & Federalists D. World War: U.S. -- “Who shall we support?”
    29. 29. Storming the Bastille, 1789 This event signaled the outbreak of the French Revolution.
    30. 30. The beheading of Louis XVI, January 21, 1793 “Reign of Terror”
    31. 31. The Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette, 1793 The bloody excesses of the notorious guillotine disgusted many Americans and soured them on the promises of the French Revolution.
    32. 32. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation A. U.S. still obligated to France under 1778 Franco-American Alliance 1. Jeffersonian view: 2. Washington's view: B. Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 1. Significance: 2. Provisions:
    33. 33. C. American reaction 1. Jeffersonians enraged (pro French) 2. Federalists supported it D. Who benefited from U.S. neutrality?
    34. 34. Embroilments with Britain A. Indians on northwest & southwest borders were hostile to U.S. settlers B. General “Mad” Anthony Wayne led U.S. forces to victory 1. Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794
    35. 35. 2. Treaty of Greenville, 1795 a. Cleared Amerindians out of 2/3 of Ohio and Indiana( treaty ? $$) b. Britain abandoned its posts in the Old Northwest territory
    36. 36. Embroilment on the Seas A. Significance: most important cause for the official creation of the Democratic- Republican party B. Britain had been harassing U.S. interests 1. Frontier posts 2. Attacks on shipping 3. Impressment of sailors C. Federalists were unwilling to go to war A U.S. sailor is impressed into service on a British naval ship
    37. 37. D. Jay Treaty provisions: U.S. got very little ( Jay had a “weak” hand) 1. Britain renewed pledge to remove posts from U.S. 2. Britain agreed to pay damages to U.S. shipping 3. Britain refused future guarantees to U.S. shipping 4. U.S. agreed to pay off Revolutionary debts to British merchants John Jay
    38. 38. E. Jeffersonians reacted angrily F. War with Britain was averted Jeffersonians burned effigies of John Jay in protest of the Jay Treaty
    39. 39. IV. Pinckney Treaty of 1795 (normalized relations with Spain) A. Spanish motive: feared an Anglo-American alliance and sought to appease the U.S. B. Provisions: 1. Free navigation of Mississippi River and right of deposit at New Orleans 2. Spain yielded disputed region north of Florida to the U.S.
    40. 40. Pinckney Treaty, 1795 Disputed territory gained by U.S.
    41. 41. Washington Refuses a Third Term A. Partisan politics 1. Washington was seen as a Federalist by 1796 2. He had reluctantly run for and served a second term B. Farewell Address 1. Warned against evils of political parties 2. Warned against foreign alliances
    42. 42. C. Washington's Legacy 1. Kept U.S. out of overseas entanglements and foreign wars -- Over 100 years of isolationism 2. Hamilton’s Financial Plan 3. Westward expansion: a. New states: Vermont, Kentucky, & Tennessee b. Treaty of Greenville
    43. 43. 4. Cabinet 5. Went outside the Supreme Court to select a new Chief Justice 6. Two-term tradition
    44. 44. John Adams becomes President A. Adams vs. Jefferson (Bitter campaign) B. Adams: 71 Jefferson: 66
    45. 45. President John Adams 1797-1801 Federalist Tough shoes to fill-G.W. Prickly aristocrat, Hated by Hamilton
    46. 46. Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. Abraham Lincoln 2. Franklin Roosevelt 3. George Washington 4. Theodore Roosevelt 5. Harry Truman 6. John Kennedy 7. Thomas Jefferson 8. Dwight Eisenhower 9. Woodrow Wilson 10. Ronald Reagan 11. Lyndon Johnson 12. James Polk 13. Andrew Jackson 14. James Monroe 15. Bill Clinton 16. William McKinley 17. John Adams 18. George H.W. Bush 19. John Quincy Adams 20. James Madison 21. Grover Cleveland 22. Gerald Ford 23. Ulysses Grant 24. William Taft 25. Jimmy Carter 26. Calvin Coolidge 27. Richard Nixon 28. James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan
    47. 47. Unofficial naval war with France (“Quasi-War”) (1798-1800) A. France condemned the Jay Treaty and harassed U.S. ships, seized merchant ships, insulted U.S. -- Saw it as a step towards a British-American alliance
    48. 48. A British political cartoon commenting on the XYZ Affair. The XYZ Affair When President Adams’s envoys to Paris were asked to pay a huge bribe as the price of doing diplomatic business, humiliated Americans rose up in wrath against France. Here an innocent young America is being plundered by Frenchmen as John Bull looks on in amusement from across the English Channel.
    49. 49. C. War hysteria in U.S. -- “Millions for defense but not one cent for tribute!” D. “High Federalists” E. Undeclared hostilities U.S. Frigate Constellation captures French Frigate Insurgente, February 1799
    50. 50. Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party 1. French peace overtures( fearful of Britain) 2. Appointed new foreign minister: many shocked 3. Napoleon's motive: (Europe first Louisiana future Empire) 4. Convention of 1800 5. Significance: cancelled alliance with France, friendly split= Louisiana Purchase:
    51. 51. Federalist Witch Hunt A. Federalist (aristocratic) motive: silence Democratic-Republicans during the war (immigrants and working class) B. Alien Acts (1798) 1. Who were the targets? 2. Provisions: a. New residency requirement (14 yrs.) b. Deportation, by the President (expansion of Executive powers) for those who criticized the government
    52. 52. Sedition Act (1798) 1. Provisions: ($ or jail for impeding policies or defaming gov’t official government) 2. Violation of the 1st Amendment 3. Indictments of Jeffersonians ( set to expire in 1801) Popular support existed initially for both the Alien and Sedition Acts
    53. 53. IX.The Jefferson “Revolution of 1800” A. Federalist handicaps B. Election of 1800 C. Significance: D. 12th Amendment (1804)
    54. 54. Election of 1800Election of 1800 Jefferson: 73 Adams: 65
    55. 55. E. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions (Madison & Jefferson) Extreme States Rights Argument 1. Premise: Nullification 2. Compact Theory of government 3. Short and long-term results (Going to be used by South in civil war argument)
    56. 56. Federalist Versus Democratic-Republicans A. Federalists built enduring political and financial foundations (Hamilton) B. Diplomats kept U.S. out of war and signed advantageous treaties with Britain, France, and Spain.
    57. 57. C. Preserved democratic gains of Revolution; held back anarchy D. Federalist demise result of inability to adapt to changes in US 1. Westward movement dictated fresh policies. (Hinterland anti-federalist) 2. Unwilling to adjust and appeal to the common people.
    58. 58. Thomas Jefferson at Natural B ridge, by Caleb Boyle, ca. 1801 A great statesman, Jefferson wrote his own epitaph: “Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, Author of the Declaration of Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia.” Lackey and weak voiced appealed to middle class, “underprivileged,” Agrarians “traitor to his class” --? Demanded weak Central Government “necessary evil” “merchants are not special Rule by the “people” education prior to suffrage Landless and uneducated threat to republic Championed Freedom of press and speech
    59. 59. Jefferson ( D-R) vs. Hamilton (Federalists)
    60. 60. MEMORY DEVICE FOR THE FEDERALIST ERA
    61. 61. BB ig Bill of Rights JJ olly Judiciary Act HH amilton Hamilton’s Financial Plan FF inds French Revolution NN ervous Neutrality Proclamation JJ efferson Jay Treaty EE ntering Election of 1796 XX –Men’s XYZ Affair QQ uarters Quasi War AA ngering Alien and Sedition Acts WW hite Washington’s Legacy
    62. 62. XI. Review A. Domestic Policy 1. Bill of Rights/ Judiciary Act 2. Hamilton’s financial plan 3. Jeffersonian opposition to Hamilton 4. Westward Expansion 5. Alien and Sedition Acts --Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 6. Washington’s legacies
    63. 63. B. Foreign Policy 1. French Revolution creates split into two political parties a. Neutrality Proclamation, 1793 b. Jay Treaty, 1795 2. Pinckney Treaty, 1795 3. Quasi-war with France, 1798-1800 a. XYZ Affair, 1797 b. Convention of 1800 C. “Revolution of 1800”

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