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The second industrial revolution

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The second industrial revolution

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The second industrial revolution

  1. 1. THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION coal, iron, steam  oil, steel, internal combustion, electricity, rapid communication
  2. 2. The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870s-1910s run by: • oil = joins coal as a fuel source • steel = stronger than iron  better machines, etc.; skyscrapers • internal combustion engine = automobiles, airplanes • electricity = power source, lighting, 24/7 factories • rapid communication = telegraph, telephone, radio
  3. 3. The Second Industrial Revolution— Research and Development • Corporate research and development labs and technical university education emphasized chemistry and engineering. • Germany spent as much on education as on the military. • U.S. patents tripled, and German patents quadrupled from 1875 to 1905. Thomas Edison’s Laboratory Ft. Myers, Florida, 1912
  4. 4. The Second Industrial Revolution—Biology • William Buckland's 1824 article on dinosaurs and Charles Lyell's 1830 estimate of Earth's age of at least 2 billion years challenged biblical Genesis.
  5. 5. The Second Industrial Revolution— Biology • Germans discovered Neanderthal remains (1856). Older conceptions of Neanderthals assumed they were much more primitive than humans. This reconstruction appeared in The Illustrated London News in 1909.
  6. 6. The Second Industrial Revolution—Biology • Charles Darwin proposed natural selection in Origin of Species (1859).
  7. 7. The Second Industrial Revolution—Biology • Louis Pasteur's germ theory (1870) led to safe milk and packaged foods, Joseph Lister's surgical antiseptics, and Robert Koch's 1905 Nobel Prize for isolating tuberculosis bacillus.
  8. 8. The Second Industrial Revolution—Chemistry • John Dalton's atomic theory (1805) led to Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table and Alfred Nobel's dynamite in 1869.
  9. 9. The Second Industrial Revolution— Chemistry • German chemists made soaps, pharmaceuticals, chlorine, sulfuric acid, synthetic dyes, artificial flavors, and fertilizers. • Photography and silent films used photosensitive chemicals on celluloid. • Rayon, a synthetic fabric, was commercially marketed in 1905. BASF-chemical factories in Ludwigshafen, Germany, 1881
  10. 10. The Second Industrial Revolution— Steel • British Henry Bessemer mass- produced steel in a blast furnace (1856).
  11. 11. The Second Industrial Revolution—Steel • American William Le Baron Jenney built the first steel skyscraper (1884). French Gustav Eiffel used wrought iron for the Eiffel Tower (1889).
  12. 12. The Second Industrial Revolution—Steel • By 1914, the United States produced ~40% of global steel, more than Germany, Britain, and France combined.
  13. 13. The Second Industrial Revolution— Land Transportation • British engineer Thomas Hancock and American inventor Charles Goodyear vulcanized rubber tires (1844).
  14. 14. The Second Industrial Revolution—Land Transportation • Nikolaus Otto's gasoline-fueled internal combustion engine (1868) drove Carl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's automobiles (1880s).
  15. 15. The Second Industrial Revolution— Land Transportation • 1880s: Steam- and electric- powered street and cable cars were common in cities. A telephone tower in Stockholm, Sweden, with 5000 connected lines. It was used between 1887 and 1913.
  16. 16. The Second Industrial Revolution—Land Transportation • Rudolf Diesel's engine (1893) powered electric and water plants, mining and drilling equipment, factories, and oil pipelines in addition to trucks, ships, and boats.
  17. 17. The Second Industrial Revolution—Land Transportation • The London Underground (1863) and Paris Métro (1900) subways and the Mt. Cenis (1873) and Simplon (1906) tunnels in the Alps drove through the earth.
  18. 18. The Second Industrial Revolution—Sea Transportation • Steel plates (1858) spurred rapid shipbuilding improvements climaxing in the tragic voyage of SS Titanic (1913).
  19. 19. The Second Industrial Revolution— Sea Transportation • The Suez (1869), Kiel (1895), and Panama (1914) canals carved new sea routes.
  20. 20. The Second Industrial Revolution— Sea Transportation • 1870s: Refrigerated railcars and ships carried meat and fruit long-distance, even from Australia to Britain.
  21. 21. The Second Industrial Revolution—Sea Transportation • Experimental submarines appeared in 1860s and first saw combat during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). The Ottoman submarine Abdül Hamid (1886) was the first submarine to fire a torpedo while submerged.
  22. 22. The Second Industrial Revolution—Sea Transportation • Battleship HMS Dreadnought (1906) launched naval arms race between Britain and Imperial Germany.
  23. 23. The Second Industrial Revolution—Air Transportation • French hot-air balloons were launched in 1783. Henri Giffard took a 15-mile flight (1852) in a dirigible driven by steam engine.
  24. 24. The Second Industrial Revolution—Air Transportation • British George Cayley studied physical principles of heavier-than-air flight and designed the first glider to carry a human aloft (c. 1849).
  25. 25. The Second Industrial Revolution—Air Transportation • German Ferdinand von Zeppelin's airship conquered the sky (1900). Zeppelins flew 1588 commercial flights by World War I.
  26. 26. The Second Industrial Revolution—Air Transportation • Americans Orville and Wilbur Wright flew a plane (1903).
  27. 27. The Second Industrial Revolution—Electricity • Alessandro Volta made the battery (1800).
  28. 28. The Second Industrial Revolution—Electricity • British Michael Faraday built an electrical generator (1831) improved by German electrical engineer Werner von Siemens.
  29. 29. The Second Industrial Revolution— Electricity • British power plants came two years after Edison's light bulb (1879).
  30. 30. The Second Industrial Revolution—Electricity • Appliances such as refrigerators, fans, and vacuum cleaners were in affluent homes by 1900.
  31. 31. The Second Industrial Revolution— Newspapers • London Times was able to printed 1100 newspaper copies per hour by 1814. • The penny press reduced costs and made news accessible to the masses. British Charles Knight’s Penny Magazine circulated 200,000 copies in first year (1832). • British newspaper circulation grew over 300% from 1836 to 1854.
  32. 32. The Second Industrial Revolution—Newspapers • Newspapers moved from elitist to popular tones and adopted political biases. • Pall Mall Gazette editor William Thomas Stead pioneered investigative and tabloid journalism and pressured lawmakers to enact reform legislation by swaying public opinion.
  33. 33. The Second Industrial Revolution— High-speed Communication • Postal Service: Rowland Hill's Uniform Penny Post delivered letters anywhere in United Kingdom regardless of distance.
  34. 34. The Second Industrial Revolution—High-speed Communication • Samuel Morse's telegraph (1844) enabled high-speed long-distance communication. Undersea telegraph cables tethered Britain to France (1850) and Ireland to Canada (1858).
  35. 35. The Second Industrial Revolution— High-speed Communication • Scotsman Alexander Graham Bell patented the telephone (1876).
  36. 36. The Second Industrial Revolution—High-speed Communication • The French Lumière brothers thrilled audiences with silent film (1895).
  37. 37. The Second Industrial Revolution— High-speed Communication • Italian Guglielmo Marconi transmitted the first transatlantic radio message (1901).

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