Definition The Industrial Revolution consisted in changes in economy , society and culture, perhaps the most important changes in Human History. These changes first took place in England after 1750 and then spread to Europe.
FACTORS OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Agricultural Revolution Changes of Demographic mentality revolution.
Agricultural Revolution It consisted in : Improvement of agricultural methods: Crop rotation instead of a fallow year. This method was called Norfolk four-course system. Invention of new machines which helped improve labor like the horse-pulled hoe or the Seed Drill. New plants for feeding the cattle. Enclosures- the bigger landowners “enclose” their land instead of the open field system in order to improve the yield.
Norfolk four-coursesystemMethod of agricultural organizationestablished in Norfolk county,England, and in several countriesbefore the end of 17th century; itwas characterized by an emphasison fodder crops by absence of afarllow year.
Consequences of the AgriculturalRevolution Increased food production People are healthier and more resistant to Better fed population diseases Landowners earn more money and they invest in industry and in the stock market The stock of labor moves workers from lands to industry
Demographic Revolution It consisted in : Consequences: - decrease of death Increase of hand- rates workers - high birth rates Increase ofThanks to: consumers. d- Disappearance of epidemics Increase of- Invention of vaccines demand for- Improved Hygiene products and food
New mentality, new ideas Economic Liberalism- started in Scottish Universities with Adam Smith. According to Economic Liberalism “work” was considered a positive value. Protestantism encouraged hard work. Universities start scientific studies, very important for the new inventions in agriculture and Industry.
Economic Liberalism Its an economic philosophy that promotes The “Laissez faire, laissez passer” Economic Supply and No government Freedom Demand intervention• Social and • Economic • In economy, Political model of price government freedom to determination interventionjust guarantee Free in a market in justice and market security
Phases in Industrial Revolution First Industrial Revolution: From 1750 onwards. Second Industrial Revolution: From 1870 onwards.
First Industrial RevolutionGreat Britain- 2nd half 18th CenturyWest Europe- first half 19th Century Before Industrial Revolution After Industrial Revolution. Workshops Factories Craftsmen that make Workers who use machines to handiwork make a product No fixed working hours Long, fixed working hours Human or animal workforce Machines The craftsman makes the Assembly-line work whole product, from beginning to end New source of energy: coal Sources of energy: wind, water, men, animals
Great Britain, craddle of IndustrialRevolution Great Britain had better conditions than other countries: Growing population. Agricultural advances A big market and capital for investment thanks to the Colonial Empire. Possibility to obtain cheap cotton. Universities which promoted scientific studies Abundant raw materials like coal, copper, and iron Invention of the Steam Engine
The leading industries in the FirstIndustrial Revolution The most important industries were: Textile Industry Iron and Steel industry
Steam Engine, by James Watt, 1763The most important invention of the Industrial Revolution because itcaused many other developments to happen. The steam enginewas used for extraction of coal, cotton mills, steam ships, trains,steam tractors…
Textile Industry Spinning Jenny It was located in Lancashire.Cotton was brought from India and Egypt and then it was converted into clothes in the mills (factories) The first invention was The Flying Shuttle,1733, (on the right) by John Kay, but many other inventions, like the Spinnig Jenny, accelerated cotton production
The Steel Industry It uses coal as an energy source It produces iron and steel , used to produce machines, trains, ships, railways … The Steel industry used the Steam Engine.
Transportation Revolution The Steam Engine was applied to transportation and it sparked a revolution in this area: The Steamboat was invented in 1807 by Fulton. In 1847 it was possible to cross the Atlantic Ocean in 15 days
Transportation Revolution Because of the Suez Canal the trip from London to India became 40% shorter On the right , one of the first steamboats
Transportation Revolution: The Train The Steam Engine was applied to the train locomotive, invented by Stephenson in 1814 1830- First railway from Manchester to Liverpool. Consequences: trips were shorter,safer and cheaper and it was possible to transport more products and people could travel greater distances. It meant more labour for industry and bigger cities. A lot of products from far places were brought by train. The train stimulated the Steel Industry. The train spread through all Europe in the following years.
Consequences of TransportationRevolution Bigger Markets Specialization of world economy: countries which have Industry and countries which sell raw materials Diet became better and as a result, death rates decreased Migrations Growth in active population.
The 2nd Industrial Revolution From 1870 onwards there was a new phase in Industrialization lead by Great Britain but shared with new industrial powers as the USA, Japan or Germany. New power sources and industries appeared as a result.
Energy sources: electricity ELECTRICITY applied to: All kind of machines Transports : train,tram Communications: telephone, telegraph Urban Lighting.1879 Thomas Edison invented a light bulb. After 1900, electric domestic inventions(oven, vacuum cleaner…)
Energy sources : oil or petrol Internal combustion engine, used for cars Ships and planes( first flight : Wright brothers in 1903)
New industries Steel Industry- Bessemer converter: the Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for mass-production of steel. New metals such as aluminium Chemical Industry- originally based on synthetic dyes and aspirin, then fertilizers, concrete, plastics, dynamite…
New materialsConcrete, glass and elevatorsmade it possible to buildskyscrapers like this one inChicago.
New industrial organization Mass production. To achieve this goal Henry Ford invented the assembly line which eliminated unnecessery human motions in the process. The savings from mass production methods allowed the price of model T (on the photo) to decline from $786 in 1910 to $360 in 1916.
How to understand what an assembly-line is,watching “Modern Times” by Charles Chaplin
New industrial organization This is the era of High Capitalism. Companies needed more capital and they could obtain it by: the growth of banking and share-holding
New society: a class-based society The estate-based society dissapeared after the French Revolution With industrialisation new social groups appeared: Industrial bourgeoisie Industrial proletariat Characteristics of a class-based society: dynamic, open, legal equality, based on wealth
New social groups: the bourgeoisie With industrialization the power of bourgeoisie increased because they were the main protagonists.There were three groups: - High bourgeoisie- they owned the Banks and main Industries Middle bourgeoisie- liberal professions as lawyers, doctors, journalists, engineers Low bourgeoisie- small commerce, employments…
New social groups: proletariat orworking class. The proletariats sell their workforce for a wage. They work under unhealthy conditions , with no vacations, miserable wages. Long working hours Child/women labor was usually used in factories and mining.
Liberty leading the people- Eugene DelacroixDelacroix illustrated the 1830 Revolution in Paris, the last time thatbourgeoisie and workers fought together. From 1830 onwards theywill fight against each other.
WORKERS´MOVEMENT Due to the bad conditions in their jobs, workers began to organise themselves in order to obtain improvements and a more fair system than Capitalism.
The beginnings ofworkers´movement Luddism- workers destroyed the machines,because they consider them the cause of their problems. The English government had to implement strict laws, including the death penalty, in order to stop this movement. Trade Unions- group of workers from the same industry that demanded better conditions. Chartism- workers that participate in political society to obtain better conditions from the parliament.
Marxism, Communism andSocialism In 1848 Marx and Engels wrote “The Communist Manifesto”. They wanted a clasess society. Marx believed that Liberalism was a dictatorship of bourgeoisie because this class exploited the proletariat.
Marx: what did he propose? Marx thought that History is always a class struggle between the dominant class and the dominated class; at his time this meant between the bourgeoisise and proletariat. The only way to change this society would be a revolution. The revolution would lead to a socialist society through the dictatorship of the proletariat. The final step would be a classless society or a communist society with equal opportunities for everybody.
Anarchism The main thinkers were Kropotkin, Bakunin and Proudhon. Individual freedom, rejection of all types of authority, free association in which society would organise from bottom up. They don´t participate in political life. The most radical anarchists used terrorism and violent methods. Other groups created unions in order to improve working conditions.
Marxism and Anarchism Capitalism and bourgeoisie power against anarquismo marxism
Communist and Socialists parties 1864, London. Meeting of European and US representatives. They formed “The first International”, the main leader was Marx but he didn´t agree with Bakunin and the anarchists who were expeled. 1889, Paris, Second International. The marxists were divided between Communist(they just wanted the revolution and no political participation in parliaments), and Socialists :while they were waiting for the revolution they participated in Parliaments and they acheived many improvements in working conditions.
Traballo realizadopor Nuria Castelo FernándezProfesora do IES Leiras Pulpeiro - Lugo 4º da ESO