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Industrial Revolution


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Industrial Revolution

  1. 1. By, Ashiq Muhammed.A Roll No.:- 11510 K.V.Pattom(Shift1)
  2. 2.  Britain nation. has been the world’s industrial
  3. 3.  Industrial Revolution stared in England in the 1700s.
  4. 4.  Paved way for the emergence of new historical stage in terms of transformation of science and technology.  + =
  5. 5.  This revolution happened in the industrial sectors due to new scientific and technological intentions by boosting up the quantity and quality and quantity of production.
  6. 6.  Transformation of industry and economy in between the 1780s and the 1850s is the first industrial revolution.  Features of the first industrial revolution revolution .  Development of new machinery and technologies.  Massive scale of production.  Building of steam, railways and ships.
  7. 7.  Businessman
  8. 8. Friedrich Engels in Germany. George Michelet Arnold Toynbee in France in England
  9. 9. Paul mantoux Eric Hobsbawn T.S.Ashton Later historians accepted Toynbee's explanation of industrial revolution.
  10. 10. Between 1780s to 1820 the following development and the changes occurred in england.  Remarkable economic growth, growth of cotton, iron industries and coal mining.  Building of roads and canals growth of foreign trade.  Growth of foreign trade.  Britain was the first country to witness modern industrialization.  Various factors were responsible for this. 
  11. 11.  Political stability  Unification of wales and Scotland with england.  Introduction of common laws.
  12. 12. ECONOMIC FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE REVOLUTION WERE: Single currency • Stable market and uniform tax system on the trade goods • Increased prices • Money used as medium of exchange People received their wages are salaries not as goods • Had choice to spend their earnings • •
  13. 13. REASONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION  Bigger landlords bought up small farmers .  Enclosed common village lands .  Increased food production .  Result of the enclosure .  Landless farmers were forced to look for jobs in nearby towns .
  14. 14. London was the largest city in England  Hub of markets  Other large cities were close to it .
  15. 15.  London was a city of global trade .  Global trade shifted from Mediterranean ports of Italy and France to the Atlantic ports Holland and Britain .  Because the principal source of loans for international trade and replaced Amsterdam.
  17. 17. The key factors of the industrial revolution in the 1780s and 1850s  Migration of poor people to towns .  Banks provided loans for industries .  Good transport network .
  18. 18.  Around 26000 inventions recorded in 18th century  More than half were recorded for the period 1782-1800
  19. 19.  Transportation of the iron industry  Transportation of spinning and weaving  Development of steam power  Coming of the railways
  20. 20.  LEAD  COPPER  TIN
  21. 21. the 18th century there was a society of usable iron  Traditional smelting process  Iron is drawn out from ores as pure liquid metal by the process of smelting  Till
  22. 22.  Too fragile transport its impurities produced poor quality of iron  Could not generate high temperature
  23. 23.  The Darby’s of shropshire solved the in the method of smelting iron ore.  Brought about a revolution in the metallurgical industry.  Abraham Darby (1677-1717) invented the blast in 1709.
  24. 24.  The blast furnace replaced the use of charcoal with coke.  Coke was derived from coal by removing the sulphur and impurities.
  25. 25. Darby III (1750-91) built the first iron bridge in the world in coal Brooke late in 1779 using the blast furnace method.
  26. 26.  Place of iron ore deposits in industrial england.
  27. 27. Places of coal mines in industrial england
  28. 28.  The output in the British iron industry quadrupled between 1800 and 1830.  In 1820 to make one ton of pig-iron,8 tons of coal was required.  But in 1850,just by using 2tons of was possible to make one ton iron.
  29. 29.  Cotton being transported from India to england.  England used wool and flax to weave cloth.  From 17th century onwards, the east India company imported cotton cloth from India.  Later started importing raw cotton that was women in england.
  30. 30. the early 18th century, spinning had been a slow and laborious process.  10 spinner required to supply sufficient yarn to keep a single weaver busy.  Till
  31. 31.  While spinners were occupied all days weavers had to wait idly to receive yarn.  Technological invention speed up the process.
  32. 32.  During 1780s the cotton industry symbolized British industrialization .  Most of laborers in the industry were women and children
  33. 33.  Workers inside a coal mine.  Steam power first used in mining industries .  Floating in mines was a serious problem.
  34. 34.  To transport coal to cities .  Transporting the bulk and weight of coal by road much slower and more expensive .  As the for coal grew constantly many canals were built to transport it by barges on canal.
  35. 35.  Canals were usually built by big land owners.  This increase the value of the mines, quarries or forests on their lands.  Canal created new market.
  36. 36.  The first English canal, the wisely canal was built in 1761 by James Bindley.  Period from 1788 to 1796 known as the “canal mania”  From 1760 to 1796,twenty five new canal building. Projects were began.  The “canal mania”-1788 to 1796.  46 new projects were begun.  Over the next 60 years more than 4,000 miles of canal were built.
  37. 37.  Taking stage . industrial revolution to a second
  38. 38.  George Stephenson railways.  Railways emerged as a new means of transportation.  The invention of the railways took the entire process of industrialization to a second stage.
  39. 39.  Connected the cities of Stockton and Darlington in 1825.  Covered a distance of 9 miles at speeds of up to 24kph.  About 6,ooomiles of railways was opened in Britain between 1830 and 1850.  The next railway line connected Liverpool and Manchester in 1830.
  40. 40.  During “little railway mania” from 183337, 1400 miles of line was built.  The bigger “mania "of 1844-47, another 9,500 miles of line was sanctioned.
  41. 41.  Life of the industrialists changed.  Rich people invested their money during this period.  Wealth, incomes and productive efficiency increased.
  42. 42. Common people experienced the following changes • Broken families • New addresses due to frequent migration • Poor working conditions in factories
  43. 43. • • • • Lower life expectancy Death of young people like children Deaths were caused by diseases In 1832 more than 31,000 people died.
  44. 44.  Many people died at young age.  Children lived only up to the age of five.  Death were caused by diseases like cholera and typhoid.  In 1832 more than 31,000 people died due to cholera.  Many workers died in the industrial areas.
  45. 45.  Children before the  Rural poor children industrialization worked at home and in the farm  Were under the control of parents and relatives  Women before industrialization  Were involved in farm work  Reared livestock  Gathered firewood  Spun yarns on spinning wheels in their homes
  46. 46.  Children and women were forced to work in the factories  With unbroken hours of the same kind of work  Under strict discipline  Received sharp forms of punishment.  Had to earn money to supplement men’s meager works.
  47. 47.  Industrialists preferred to employ women and children.  Women and children did not agitate against the poor working conditions and lower wages  They were employed in large number in the cotton textile industry Lancashire and Yorkshire .  Women were main workers in silk ,lace making, and knitting industries.
  48. 48.  Machinery like the cotton spinning jenny was designed for child workers
  49. 49.  Faced following health hazards in the factories: Had to work long hours of work.  Had to clean the machines on Sunday.  Did not get healthy atmosphere in the factories.  Caught their hair in machines.  Crushed their hands.
  50. 50.  Maimed hand of children in the factories.
  51. 51.  Danger place to work in.  Accidents were common.  Roofs covered in or these could be an explosion.  Had to reach deep coal face through narrow path.
  52. 52.  In his novel hard times, Charles dickens[1812-1870],wrote a fictional account of an industrial town he aptly called coke town.  The most sever contemporary critic of the horrors of industrialization for the poor.
  53. 53.  D.h.lawrence [1885-1930 ] , British essayist and novelist.  Descried the changes in a village in the coal –belt about which he had heard form older people.