Roll No.:- 11510
has been the world’s industrial
Revolution stared in England in
way for the emergence of new
historical stage in terms of transformation
of science and technology.
revolution happened in the industrial
sectors due to new scientific and
technological intentions by boosting up the
quantity and quality and quantity of
of industry and economy in
between the 1780s and the 1850s is the first
Features of the first industrial revolution
Development of new machinery and
Massive scale of production.
Building of steam, railways and ships.
Later historians accepted Toynbee's explanation of
Between 1780s to 1820 the following
development and the changes occurred in
Remarkable economic growth, growth of
cotton, iron industries and coal mining.
Building of roads and canals growth of foreign
Growth of foreign trade.
Britain was the first country to witness
Various factors were responsible for this.
Unification of wales and Scotland with
Introduction of common laws.
ECONOMIC FACTORS RESPONSIBLE
FOR THE REVOLUTION WERE:
• Stable market and uniform tax system on the
• Increased prices
• Money used as medium of exchange
People received their wages are salaries not as
• Had choice to spend their earnings
REASONS FOR THE AGRICULTURAL
Bigger landlords bought up small farmers .
Enclosed common village lands .
Increased food production .
Result of the enclosure .
Landless farmers were forced to look for jobs
in nearby towns .
London was the largest city in England
Hub of markets
Other large cities were close to it .
was a city of global trade .
Global trade shifted from Mediterranean ports
of Italy and France to the Atlantic ports
Holland and Britain .
Because the principal source of loans for
international trade and replaced Amsterdam.
ARE CHEAPER MODE OF
FACILIATED TRANSPORTATION FOR
IN 1724 , RIVERS IN ENGLAND PROVIDED
1160 MILES OF NAVIGABLE WATER .
The key factors of the industrial revolution in
the 1780s and 1850s
Migration of poor people to towns .
Banks provided loans for industries .
Good transport network .
26000 inventions recorded in 18th
More than half were recorded for the period
of the iron industry
Transportation of spinning and weaving
Development of steam power
Coming of the railways
output in the British iron industry
quadrupled between 1800 and 1830.
In 1820 to make one ton of pig-iron,8 tons
of coal was required.
But in 1850,just by using 2tons of coal.it
was possible to make one ton iron.
being transported from India to
England used wool and flax to weave
From 17th century onwards, the east India
company imported cotton cloth from India.
Later started importing raw cotton that was
women in england.
the early 18th century, spinning had
been a slow and laborious process.
10 spinner required to supply sufficient
yarn to keep a single weaver busy.
spinners were occupied all days
weavers had to wait idly to receive yarn.
Technological invention speed up the
1780s the cotton industry
symbolized British industrialization .
Most of laborers in the industry were
women and children
inside a coal mine.
Steam power first used in mining industries
Floating in mines was a serious problem.
transport coal to cities .
Transporting the bulk and weight of coal by
road much slower and more expensive .
As the for coal grew constantly many
canals were built to transport it by barges
were usually built by big land
This increase the value of the
mines, quarries or forests on their lands.
Canal created new market.
first English canal, the wisely canal was
built in 1761 by James Bindley.
Period from 1788 to 1796 known as the
From 1760 to 1796,twenty five new canal
building. Projects were began.
The “canal mania”-1788 to 1796.
46 new projects were begun.
Over the next 60 years more than 4,000 miles
of canal were built.
industrial revolution to a second
Railways emerged as a new means of
The invention of the railways took the
entire process of industrialization to a
the cities of Stockton and
Darlington in 1825.
Covered a distance of 9 miles at speeds of
up to 24kph.
About 6,ooomiles of railways was opened
in Britain between 1830 and 1850.
The next railway line connected Liverpool
and Manchester in 1830.
“little railway mania” from 183337, 1400 miles of line was built.
The bigger “mania "of 1844-47, another
9,500 miles of line was sanctioned.
of the industrialists changed.
Rich people invested their money during
Wealth, incomes and productive efficiency
Common people experienced the following changes
New addresses due to frequent migration
Poor working conditions in factories
Lower life expectancy
Death of young people like
Deaths were caused by diseases
In 1832 more than 31,000 people
people died at young age.
Children lived only up to the age of five.
Death were caused by diseases like
cholera and typhoid.
In 1832 more than 31,000 people died due
Many workers died in the industrial areas.
Children before the
Rural poor children
worked at home and in
Were under the control of parents and
Women before industrialization
Were involved in farm work
Spun yarns on spinning wheels in their
and women were forced to work
in the factories
With unbroken hours of the same kind of
Under strict discipline
Received sharp forms of punishment.
Had to earn money to supplement men’s
preferred to employ women
Women and children did not agitate
against the poor working conditions and
They were employed in large number in
the cotton textile industry Lancashire and
Women were main workers in silk ,lace
making, and knitting industries.
like the cotton spinning jenny
was designed for child workers
following health hazards in the
factories: Had to work long hours of work.
Had to clean the machines on Sunday.
Did not get healthy atmosphere in the
Caught their hair in machines.
Crushed their hands.
place to work in.
Accidents were common.
Roofs covered in or these could be
Had to reach deep coal face
through narrow path.
his novel hard times, Charles
dickens[1812-1870],wrote a fictional
account of an industrial town he aptly
called coke town.
The most sever contemporary critic of
the horrors of industrialization for the
[1885-1930 ] , British
essayist and novelist.
Descried the changes in a village in
the coal –belt about which he had
heard form older people.