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Europe, 1814-1914: Political Ideologies and Key Events

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Europe, 1814-1914: Political Ideologies and Key Events

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Europe, 1814-1914: Political Ideologies and Key Events

  1. 1. Europe, 1814-1914: Political Ideologies and Key Events
  2. 2. The Political Spectrum Classical Liberalism Conservativism Autocracy/ Reactionary Communism Socialism Radicalism/ Social Liberalism left-wing center right-wing
  3. 3. Political Ideologies—Conservatism • Conservatives upheld traditional Ancien Régime royal, aristocratic, and Church power and sought controlled, slow social change. • Reactionaries wanted to reverse political and social change and restore the old order.
  4. 4. The Concert of Europe • After Napoleon’s defeat, conservative Austrian Prince Klemens von Metternich organized the Congress of Vienna and called for military intervention to crush liberal revolutions to preserve legitimate monarchies, peace, and the balance of power. Klemens von Metternich
  5. 5. The Concert of Europe • Prussia, Austria, and Russia formed the Holy Alliance to suppress liberalism and secularism. The addition of Britain and France made the Concert of Europe.
  6. 6. The Concert of Europe • Concert powers intervened to suppress liberal revolutions.
  7. 7. Political Ideologies—Classical Liberalism • Classical liberalism believed in • popular sovereignty • constitutional limits to state power • guaranteed individual rights including freedom of speech, press, religion • laissez-faire economics • Many liberals wanted to limit suffrage to the wealthy by property qualifications and feared democratic mob rule.
  8. 8. The Political Spectrum Right-wing conservatives: • traditional feudal social order • divine right monarchy • Church • aristocracy Left-wing liberals: • constitutions • popular sovereignty republicanism • secularism • civil liberties • laissez-faire economics • limited suffrage for property- owning men left-wing right-wing
  9. 9. Political Ideologies—Radicalism • Anti-aristocratic middle class radicals wanted greater change. In addition to constitutions based on popular sovereignty and guaranteed individual rights, they wanted: • expanded suffrage for men without property • the abolition of aristocratic noble titles • The British 1832 Reform Act enfranchised the middle class. The working class Chartist movement (1836) unsuccessfully sought universal male suffrage.
  10. 10. The Political Spectrum • Mid-1800s to early 1900s: The economic dominance of the landed aristocracy was eclipsed by the new captains of industry. • As capitalism became the new status quo, laissez-faire economics shifted to the political right. • Ideologies for the equitable distribution of wealth (social liberalism, socialism, communism) emerged in the left wing appealing to the working classes.
  11. 11. Political Ideologies—Social Liberalism • Britain, 1905–1922: Liberal Party Prime Minister David Lloyd George founded the welfare state. • The People’s Budget raised taxes on income, inheritance, and land to fund social programs: • free school meals • affordable housing • unemployment insurance • old age pensions. • Unions were strengthened, and suffrage was expanded to poor men and women over age 30.
  12. 12. Political Ideologies—Utopian Socialism • Utopian Socialists founded experimental communities based on cooperation, not competition. • French Count Henri de Saint-Simon wanted a planned economy managed by “doers” (scientists, industrialists). He wanted war, poverty, and “parasites” (traditional elite) to disappear and a society of true equality to emerge based on “union of men engaged in useful work.”
  13. 13. Political Ideologies—Utopian Socialism • British Robert Owen transformed the New Lanark, Scotland, textile mill into a successful model industrial community. He later founded the failed communal village at New Harmony, Indiana.
  14. 14. Political Ideologies—Marxist Socialism, or Communism • Marxist Socialism called for an international proletariat revolution against the aristocracy and bourgeoisie. • Friedrich Engels reported on the Working Class in England (1844). • Karl Marx and Engels collaborated on the Communist Manifesto (1848) urging "Workers of the world, unite!" Das Kapital (1867–1883) elaborated Marxist theory. Interpreting history in economic terms, Marx predicted that socialism would replace capitalism. He called for the proletariat to overthrow capitalism and establish a classless society.
  15. 15. The Political Spectrum Classical Liberalism Conservativism Autocracy/ Reactionary Communism Socialism Radicalism/ Social Liberalism left-wing center right-wing working class middle class upper class rule by force constitutional rule rule by force
  16. 16. The Political Spectrum • Anarchism opposed all forms of state control. Liberalism Conservativism Autocracy/ Reactionary Communism Socialism Radicalism left-wing center right-wing
  17. 17. Political Ideologies—Anarchism • Anarchism opposed state control and sought a society without government. • French Pierre Joseph Proudhon condemned concentrated wealth in What Is Property? (1840). He believed that planned societies were not feasible and called for people to act ethically of their own free will making government unnecessary.
  18. 18. Political Ideologies—Anarchism • Anarchists called for propaganda of the deed—uncoordinated individual attacks against governments—that led to the assassinations of seven heads of state and frequent bombings.
  19. 19. 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 19101810 1914:TripleEntenteofFrance,Russia,andGreatBritain; WorldWarIerupted;andIrishHomeRuledelayed 1814-1815:Napoleondefeated;CongressofVienna 1820s-1830s:Liberalrevoltssuppressed 1830:GreekIndependence;BelgiumRevolution 1846:IrishPotatoFamine/Hungry’40s 1848:“SpringtimeofNations”Revolutions 1852:SecondFrenchEmpireborn 1853-1856:CrimeanWar 1861:AbolitionofRussianserfdom;USCivilWarbegan 1867:DualMonarchyofAustria-Hungaryformed 1870:Italyunited 1871:Franco-PrussianWar;Germanyunited 1878:BalkanindependencefromOttomanEmpire 1882:TripleAllianceofGermany,Austria-Hungary,andItaly 1890s-1910s:Pan-Germanism;Anti-Semitism 1905:Russo-JapaneseWar;RussianRevolutionof1905 1912-1913:BalkanCrises
  20. 20. Nationalism—Ethnic States • Nationalism based citizenship on jus sanguinis (law of blood) of common ethnic ancestry and celebrated a people’s language, faith, culture, and history. • It believed political borders should match ethnic mother/father/homelands .
  21. 21. Nationalism—Ethnic States • It encouraged the formation of ethnic political nation-states through: • the unification of disparate people (Germans, Italians, Slavs) into a single political state • the breakup of multiethnic empires (Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian) into several states
  22. 22. 19c Nationalism Unification of: • Italy (1870) • Germany (1871) Independence Movements: • Austrian-Hungarian Empire • Russian Empire • Ottoman Empire • British Empire
  23. 23. Nationalism—Unifying • Germany: J.G. Herder celebrated German language, patriotism. J.G. Fichte recognized German volksgeist (national spirit). The Grimm Brothers studied German folk culture.
  24. 24. Nationalism—Unifying • Italy: Carbonari member Giuseppe Mazzini founded liberal Young Italy (1831) to expel Austrians and establish an Italian republic. He inspired copycats Young Germany, Young Poland, Young Turks, and Young Europe.
  25. 25. Nationalism—Unifying • Balkans: Pan-Slavists wanted to unite all Slavs. They were most active among Southern Slavs ruled by Austrian and Ottoman Empires.
  26. 26. Nationalism—Liberating • Greece, 1821–1830: Romantic Lord Byron led Britain, France, and Russia to support the Greek War of Independence from the Turks.
  27. 27. Nationalism—Liberating • The Dutch United Provinces and the Austrian Netherlands were united in 1815 to be a strong anti-French buffer state. • Belgium, 1830: The French-speaking Catholic south won independence from the Dutch-speaking Protestant north in the Belgian Revolution.
  28. 28. 1830 Revolution in Belgium Belgians rose up to declare their independence from Holland. In Poland and Italy similar uprisings, combining nationalism with a desire for self-governance, failed. This painting illustrates the popular nature of the Belgian uprising by bringing to the barricades men, women, and children from both the middle and the working classes. (Musees Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique) 1830 Revolution in Belgium
  29. 29. Irish Potato Famine • Irish Catholics were stripped of landownership beginning mid-1600s. By 1800s most lived in dire poverty under absentee British landlords. • 1781–1845: Irish population doubled to 8 million due to potato farming. 1–2 acres were sufficient to feed a family.
  30. 30. Irish Potato Famine • 1845–1851: Fungal blight destroyed potato crops. 1 million died from starvation and disease. 2 million emigrated to Britain, the United States, Canada, and Australia. • Ireland was the only European nation with declining population.
  31. 31. McDonald, The Discovery of Potato Blight in Ireland, 1847 An Irish family has dug up its potato harvest and discovered to its horror that the blight has rotted the crop. Like thousands of Irish families of the time, this family now faces the starvation and the mass epidemics of the Great Famine. (Dept of Folklore, University College Dublin) McDonald, Discovery of Potato Blight
  32. 32. Nationalism—Liberating • Ireland, 1800–1922: Daniel O'Connell sought repeal of the Act of Union (1800) binding Ireland to Britain. Charles Stewart Parnell fought for Irish Home Rule. • Irish self-government won in 1914 but postponed during World War I. "No Home Rule" poster Posters like this one helped foment pro-British, anti-Catholic sentiment in the northern Irish counties of Ulster before the First World War. "No Home Rule" poster
  33. 33. 1848 Revolutions—Springtime of Nations • 1846–1848: Famine increased grain prices during the “Hungry ’40s”. • Reduced consumer spending led to industrial job losses. Economic misery and long-term repression sparked the 1848 revolutions during the “Springtime of Nations.”
  34. 34. 1848 Revolutions—Springtime of Nations Middle and working classes sought: • elimination of feudal institutions • establishment of liberal, unified nation-states • republican governments based on popular sovereignty • universal male suffrage • limits to church and state power • free press • individual rights • increased worker control of production
  35. 35. 1848 Revolutions • France, February 1848: The bourgeois- friendly “Citizen King” Louis-Philippe’s popularity faded as working class conditions deteriorated. • In February 1848 the National Guard joined a protest by middle class liberals and workers. Louis-Philippe abdicated. 1830-1848 – Louis-Philippe
  36. 36. Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People This has been called the first political painting in modern art. It idealizes and glorifies the idea of liberty. Lady Liberty holds a musket in one hand and waves the tricolor flag of the French Revolution in the other, leading the people in their armed revolt. Of special note are the menacing figure with the sword, on the left, who represents the underclass, and the street urchin brandishing pistols. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People
  37. 37. Constitutional Government, Denmark On March 21, 1848, 15,000 Danes, marched on the palace to demand constitutional rights. Unlike in the French capital, this event was peaceful and led to the establishment of constitutional government. This painting honors the new parliament that came into being after the liberal constitution was adopted in 1849. (Statens Museum fur Kunst, Copenhagen) Constitutional Government, Denmark
  38. 38. 1848 Revolutions • Austria, March 1848: Metternich was forced to resign. Liberals set up an assembly to draft a constitution. • Hungarians led by Lajos Kossuth demanded home rule, as did Czechs. • The Austrian government abolished peasant feudal dues. Lajos Kossuth
  39. 39. 1848 Revolutions • Germany, March 1848: Friedrich Wilhelm IV promised a new Prussian assembly during a revolt in Berlin. • The Frankfurt Assembly drafted a liberal constitution for a unified Germany. • Frederick William IV refused the crown because it would limit his authority. Disappointed German liberals moved to the United States.
  40. 40. 1848 Revolutions • Alphonse de Lamartine helped establish the Second French Republic with universal male suffrage. Socialist Louis Blanc set up “right to work” national workshops for the unemployed funded by land taxes.
  41. 41. 1848 Revolutions • The middle class was shocked by socialist agendas and allied with conservatives to strengthen the police and increase censorship. • French middle class teamed with the conservative Party of Order to crush a workers' revolt during June Days. • December: Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte elected president of France in a national plebiscite. 1848 – Louis-Napoleon
  42. 42. 1848 Revolutions • The Austrian army crushed revolts in Vienna and Prague. 300,000 Russian troops reestablished order in Hungary. • Franz Josef (r. 1848–1916) took the throne of Austria and reestablished absolute monarchy. • Absolutism was reestablished in Prussia too. 1848-1916 – Franz Josef
  43. 43. Revolutionary Justice in Vienna As part of the conservative resurgence, in October 1848 the Austrian minister of war ordered up reinforcements for an army that was marching on Hungary. In a last defiant gesture, the outraged revolutionaries in Vienna seized the minister and lynched him from a lamppost for treason. The army then reconquered the city in a week of bitter fighting. (Mary Evans Picture Library/Photo Researchers) Revolutionary Justice in Vienna
  44. 44. Revolutions in Transylvania This is a detail of a larger painting depicting Ana Ipatescu, of the first group of revolutionaries in Transylvania against Russia. (National Historical Museum Budapest/ The Art Archive) Revolutions in Transylvania
  45. 45. The Second French Empire • 1852: Louis-Napoleon was constitutionally barred from a second presidential term. He led a coup, proclaimed himself Napoleon III of the Second French Empire, and censored his critics. • Reforms: Public works, railroads, and housing were built; lines of credit were opened; Paris was redeveloped; bread prices were lowered; and labor disputes were mediated. The middle class saw the state as a safeguard against socialism.
  46. 46. Portrait of Napoleon III This portrait of Napoleon III is an example of official art glorifying the French emperor, who reigned from 1852 to 1870. He is framed by a Roman statue on his right and the imperial eagle on his left, both symbols of strength and glory. (Giraudon/Art Resource, NY) Portrait of Napoleon III
  47. 47. The Crimean War • 1853–1856: Russia preyed on the Ottoman Empire, the “Sick Man of Europe.” The Turks were supported by Britain and France. • First military use of telegraph, war photography.
  48. 48. The Crimean War • Disease killed about 125,000 men. Nurse Florence Nightingale campaigned for better battlefield medicine.
  49. 49. The Crimean War • Russia’s defeat led Tsar Alexander II to recognize the need for Russian modernization. He pushed liberal reforms, including serf emancipation (1861). However, most Russians remained impoverished tenant peasants. • Austrian support for the Allies destroyed its good relations with Russia. The weakened Concert System let Germany and Italy unify unopposed. Alexander II
  50. 50. Italian Unification • Italy was under Austrian control after 1815.
  51. 51. Italian Unification • 1820s–1840s: Liberal secret societies were dedicated to Risorgimento (Rising Again). • Giuseppe Mazzini started Young Italy (1831) to establish a constitutional republic but failed to do so during the 1848 revolutions.
  52. 52. Italian Unification • 1859–1860: Victor Emmanuel II and Prime Minister Camillo Cavour of Piedmont-Sardinia allied with the French to drive Austria out of northern Italy. Camillo Cavour, 1852
  53. 53. Italian Unification • Giuseppe Garibaldi’s romantic nationalistic Red Shirts captured southern Italy. Garibaldi set sail for Sicily in May 1860, with 1000 poorly armed, red-shirted followers, to help the island overthrow its Bourbon ruler.
  54. 54. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel This painting/fresco depicts the historic meeting between Giuseppe Garibaldi and King Victor Emmanuel in 1860. This meeting sealed the unification of northern and southern Italy in a unified state. With only the sleeve of his red shirt showing, Garibaldi offers his hand--and his conquests--to the uniformed king and his modern monarchical government. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel
  55. 55. Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel RIGHT LEG IN THE BOOT AT LAST Garibaldi: “If it won’t go on, sire, try a little more powder.” Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel
  56. 56. Italian Unification • Victor Emmanuel II was crowned king of Italy (r. 1861–1878). Venice (1866) and the Papal State (1870) were added, and the capital moved to Rome.
  57. 57. German Unification 1815-1871: Three Germanies 1. Prussia 2. Austria 3. Independent German states
  58. 58. German Unification German Question: • Austria wanted unification of all Germans into one Greater Germany. • Prussia backed a smaller Germany excluding Austria.
  59. 59. German Unification • Kleindeutsch (Little Germany) led by Prussia • Grossdeutsch (Big Germany) led by Austria
  60. 60. German Unification • Friedrich List championed the Zollverein custom union (1834).
  61. 61. German Unification • After the Frankfurt Assembly (1848) failed when Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the crown, Otto von Bismarck undertook unification not by liberal “speeches and votes” but by conservative “iron and blood.” Otto von Bismarck
  62. 62. German Unification • “The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.” • “Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied.” • “The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions— that was the mistake of 1848-1849—but by blood and iron.” Otto von Bismarck
  63. 63. German Unification • Prussia launched three wars of unification vs. Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870–1871).
  64. 64. German Unification Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871: • Napoleon III of France was captured at the Battle of Sedan and deposed.
  65. 65. German Unification Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871: • Prussians occupied Paris. • Wilhelm I was crowned Kaiser at Versailles. Kaiser Wilhelm I The ultimate blow to French pride was the proclamation of the German Empire in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.
  66. 66. German Unification Franco-Prussian War, 1870–1871: • Alsace-Lorraine was annexed, and Germany became the dominant continental power.
  67. 67. German Social Reforms • German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck created the first welfare state to undercut political support for Socialists. • The Sickness Insurance Law (1883) provided health insurance. • The Accident Insurance Law (1884) paid for medical treatment and provided 2/3 of wages if fully disabled. • The Old Age Pension Law (1889) provided annuity for workers over 70.
  68. 68. The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary Multiethnic: • German Austrians = 25% of population • Hungarians = 20% • Slavic minorities (Czechs, Poles, Ukrainians, Serbs, Croatians, others) = 50%, • Italians = 3% • 11 major languages spoken
  69. 69. The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary • 1867–1918: Hungary gained domestic self-rule but shared foreign policy with Austria. • Liberal freedoms were adopted. • Slavs desired greater autonomy.
  70. 70. The Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary • 1890s–1910s: Georg Schönerer pushed Pan- Germanism. • Mayor of Vienna Karl Lueger’s Christian Socialism appealed to the lower middle classes and skilled labor. • Both were anti-Semitic and influenced Adolf Hitler.
  71. 71. Cover page of Die Wehr One of many nationalist movements, the German Army League ran organized campaigns for increases in German army expenditures. Their newspaper enjoyed a circulation of over 300,000. This engraving from the cover page of a 1914 edition of their newspaper suggests that just as Germans had to rally for the fatherland in 1813 and 1870, so they may again have to defend it. (From The German Army League, Marilyn Shevin Coetzee (Oxford University Press)) Cover page of Die Wehr
  72. 72. The Third French Republic • 1870–1940: The Third French Republic survived until Nazi occupation. • It was beset by the Boulanger Affair, Panama Canal Affair, and Dreyfus Affair. Alfred Dreyfus
  73. 73. Dreyfus being shunned Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was falsely accused and convicted of treason. Dreyfus receives an insulting guard of dishonor from soldiers whose backs are turned. Top army leaders were determined to brand Dreyfus as a traitor. Dreyfus being shunned
  74. 74. From the postcard series "Museum of Horror" showing Dreyfus
  75. 75. Anti-Semitism and Zionism • The myth of the cursed, eternally Wandering Jew came to represent the stateless Jewish community in the nationalistic era. • Jews blamed for assassination of Tsar Alexander II (1881). Russian anti-Semitic pogroms killed about 250,000 Jews. • French Dreyfus Affair convinced Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl to call for a Jewish State (1896), which began the Zionist movement. Theodor Herzl
  76. 76. Anti-Semitism and Zionism • British Houston Stewart Chamberlain’s Foundations of 19th Century (1899) claimed civilization was saved from Jewish corruption when Aryan Germans invaded the Roman Empire. Chamberlain feared race-mixing. • Members of the Jewish Rothschild family were the world’s richest bankers reinforcing conspiracy theories. Russian secret police chief’s Protocols of Elders of Zion (1903) reported false global domination plot by Jews. “Rothschild,” a Jewish banker with the world in his hands. by C. Léandre; France, 1898
  77. 77. “The biggest usurer in the world”, Vienna, Austria 1910 Anti-Semitism and Zionism • British Houston Stewart Chamberlain’s Foundations of 19th Century (1899) claimed civilization was saved from Jewish corruption when Aryan Germans invaded the Roman Empire. Chamberlain feared race-mixing. • Members of the Jewish Rothschild family were the world’s richest bankers reinforcing conspiracy theories. Russian secret police chief’s Protocols of Elders of Zion (1903) reported false global domination plot by Jews.
  78. 78. Alliance Systems • 1871: Bismarck practiced realpolitik. He declared Germany a "satisfied power" and established alliances to maintain a stable peace. • 1882: Germany, Austria, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance.
  79. 79. Alliance Systems • 1888: Kaiser Wilhelm II dismissed Bismarck. Kaiser Wilhelm II
  80. 80. Alliance Systems • 1894: Fear of Germany led Russia to ally itself with France. • 1914: The intensifying German-British imperial rivalry and naval arms race led Britain to join France and Russia in the Triple Entente.
  81. 81. Mass Politics • The British Reform Acts of 1832, 1867, and 1884 expanded suffrage from 10% of adult males to a majority. • Mid-1800s Britain: Conservatives (evolved from Tories) were led by Benjamin Disraeli. Liberals (evolved from Whigs) were led by William Gladstone. The parties competed for voter loyalty by passing popular reform. Keir Hardie founded the Labour Party (1900).
  82. 82. Labor Unions and Movements • Unions were legalized in Britain (1872), France (1884), and Germany (1897). • General strikes hit Britain (1842), Belgium (1894), and Russia (1905).
  83. 83. Labor Unions and Movements • Russian Social Democratic Party (1898) was an illegal revolutionary socialist party. Vladimir Lenin's What Is to Be Done? (1902) called for disciplined, centralized party activists to be the "vanguard of the proletariat.“ • Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) was the largest German party by 1912. Rosa Luxembourg called for Mass Strike (1906).
  84. 84. Women's Rights and Suffrage • Emmeline, Christabel, and Sylvia Pankhurst led militant British Women's Social and Political Union (1903) known for hunger strikes, breaking windows, and burning empty buildings. • Attention-seeking suffragette Emily Davison was trampled to death after leaping in front of King George V's horse at Epsom Derby (1913).
  85. 85. Russian Revolution of 1905 • 1905: Russia suffered a humiliating defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.
  86. 86. Russian Revolution of 1905 • 1905: Russia suffered a humiliating defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.
  87. 87. Russian Revolution of 1905 • 1905: Russia’s defeat sparked the liberal Revolution of 1905. A new constitution was adopted, and the legislative Duma was formed.
  88. 88. 1905 "Freedom" poster This peasant woman, who appears as the symbol of radical demands in the Russian countryside in the revolution of 1905, holds aloft a red socialist banner that reads "Freedom!" This vibrant drawing is on the first page of a new review featuring political cartoons from the rapidly growing Russian popular press. (New York Public Library, Slavonic Division) 1905 "Freedom" poster
  89. 89. Balkan Crises • 1878: Russia championed Pan-Slavism and helped Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria win independence. • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia- Herzegovina.
  90. 90. Uprising in Bulgaria poster This 1879 lithograph, Free Bulgaria, depicts Bulgaria in the form of a maiden--protected by the Russian eagle, breaking her chains, and winning liberty from the Ottoman Empire. Semi-autonomy in 1879 was followed by unification under Alexander of Battenberg. (St. Cyril and Methodius National Library, Sofia) Uprising in Bulgaria poster
  91. 91. Balkan Crises • Balkan Wars, 1912–1913: Bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, and Montenegro drove the Turks from Macedonia and Albania and then turned on each other.
  92. 92. 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 19101810 1914:TripleEntenteofFrance,Russia,andGreatBritain; WorldWarIerupted;andIrishHomeRuledelayed 1814-1815:Napoleondefeated;CongressofVienna 1820s-1830s:Liberalrevoltssuppressed 1830:GreekIndependence;BelgiumRevolution 1846:IrishPotatoFamine/Hungry’40s 1848:“SpringtimeofNations”Revolutions 1852:SecondFrenchEmpireborn 1853-1856:CrimeanWar 1861:AbolitionofRussianserfdom;USCivilWarbegan 1867:DualMonarchyofAustria-Hungaryformed 1870:Italyunited 1871:Franco-PrussianWar;Germanyunited 1878:BalkanindependencefromOttomanEmpire 1882:TripleAllianceofGermany,Austria-Hungary,andItaly 1890s-1910s:Pan-Germanism;Anti-Semitism 1905:Russo-JapaneseWar;RussianRevolutionof1905 1912-1913:BalkanCrises

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