Students at Astor College
Dover, England, Great Britain
The Industrial Revolution was a period in time
which the world and the way we live went
through a lot of changes very quickly. Some of
the changes included…
Before the Industrial
Most people resided in small, rural communities.
Daily lives revolved around farming.
Life for the average person was difficult.
Family income was small.
Many people were malnourished.
Disease was common.
People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing,
furniture and tools.
Manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops,
using hand tools or simple machines.
Britain had a large quantity of coal which was
found to be an effective form of power.
Britain’s coal could be mined easily.
The coal mines were also close to the sea which
allowed the it to be easily shipped to other
Britain also had large quantities of iron.
Englishman Abraham Darby discovered a cheaper, easier
method to produce cast iron.
Iron was an essential material, used to make everything from
appliances, tools and machines, to ships, buildings and
Britain allowed its scientists, inventors and free thinkers
to work, discuss and debate openly without the threat of
the church or state.
This provided the atmosphere for a cascade of scientific
However, this was not the case across Europe where
people were censored by their church and state.
Britain was a politically stable society, as well as
the world’s leading colonial power
Colonies could serve as a source for raw
The were also a marketplace for manufactured
How did the Industrial
Revolution change Britain,
Europe and THE WORLD!
because of the developments
in steam and coal.
American Robert Fulton built
the first commercially
British engineer Richard
Trevithick built the first
railway steam locomotive.
British engineer John
McAdam developed a new
process for road
construction which made
roads easier to travel on.
Machines were created
that could turn out
huge quantities of
the spinning jenny
The power loom was
developed in the
1780s by English
Effects of the Industrial
The factories created more jobs.
The scientific advancements resulted in better
Children weren’t needed in the family business
as often which made time for education.
Capitalism allowed people to move social
classes and helped to create a middle class.
The spread of Industrialism
The British wanted to prevent their technology
and skilled workers from leaving Britain.
However, Industrialization spread from Britain to
other European countries, including Belgium,
France and Germany, and to the United States.
By the mid-19th century, industrialization was
well-established throughout the western part of
Europe and America’s northeastern region.