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Industrial society

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Industrial society

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Industrial society

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY
  2. 2. Industrial Era Social Class Relations: Landed Aristocracy • Landed aristocracy were 3/4 of British millionaires in 1850. • Eclipsed by captains of industry, they were only 1/4 of British millionaires in 1914. The fictional Grantham family of Downton Abbey.
  3. 3. Industrial Era Social Class Relations: Landed Aristocracy Some aristocrats invested in mining, rail, utilities, bonds, and business helping Britain's early industrial lead.
  4. 4. Industrial Era Social Class Relations: Landed Aristocracy Old money and new money merged. American heiress Consuelo Vanderbilt married Duke of Marlborough securing social status for the Vanderbilt family in New York high society of the Gilded Age while Marlborough gained a fortune in railroad stock.
  5. 5. Industrial Era Social Class Relations—Bourgeoisie • The middle class was less than 1/5 of British population, yet they controlled more than 1/4 of national wealth in 1900. • Victorian values of Christian morality, propriety, sobriety, self-discipline, thrift, cleanliness, sexual purity, and fidelity epitomized bourgeois culture.
  6. 6. Industrial Era Social Class Relations— Bourgeoisie • Industry needed white-collar engineers, accountants, managers, and clerks. Teaching, nursing, and dentistry became respectable professions.
  7. 7. Industrial Era Social Class Relations— Bourgeoisie White-collar work offered single women employment as • clerks • typists • secretaries • telephone operators • teachers • nurses • postal service workers
  8. 8. Industrial Era Social Class Relations— Bourgeoisie • Married women labored only in poor families. Victorian middle class women lived according the cult of domesticity which protected femininity and avoided factory and office work. • Women's place was managing the home, budgeting, raising the children, and providing moral guidance. Shopping for food and goods was conducted almost entirely by foot requiring frequent trips out.
  9. 9. Apartment living in Paris This drawing shows how different social classes lived close together in European cities about 1850. Passing the middle-class family on the first floor of this Paris apartment, the economic condition of the tenants declined until one reached abject poverty in the garret. (Bibliotheque nationale de France) Apartment living in Paris
  10. 10. Industrial Era Social Class Relations— Proletariat • 80% of the European population were skilled and unskilled workers, shopkeepers, artisans, peasants, and sharecroppers. Capital and Labour: In coal mines 'labourers are obliged to go on all- fours like dogs'. The labouring poor are locked away in misery, toiling to produce the wealth that enabled 'upper classes' to live in luxury.
  11. 11. Worker Housing in Manchester
  12. 12. Factory Workers at Home
  13. 13. Industrial Era Social Class Relations— Proletariat • Work conditions improved after 1850. Wages doubled by 1906. In 1870, French workers spent 75% of their income on food but only 60% by 1900. • Shorter hours gave time for children and recreation. Nonetheless, labor unions and socialist parties grew, and rhetoric heated. • By 1900 only 8% in Britain, 25% in Germany, and less than 50% in France still farmed. Union certificate This colorful certificate signifies membership in the first professional union in Britain, the Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
  14. 14. Working class home This charming engraving Sunday Morning, Workman's Home, Leather Lane depicts a new emphasis on emotional ties within ordinary working-class homes in 1875. Parents gave their children more love and better care. (Illustrated London News Library) Working class home
  15. 15. School for servants Although domestic service was poorly paid, there was always plenty of competition for the available jobs. As this photo shows, schools sprang up to teach young women the manners and the household skills that employers in the "servant- keeping classes" demanded. (Greater London Council Photograph Library) School for servants
  16. 16. Urbanization • New farm machines & falling price of food  unemployed farmers • Farmers move from country  cities to find work (taking new railroads to get there). Urban populations grew by 70% per decade. • London’s population • 1800: 1 million • 1850: 2.5 m • 1900: 6 m. Map of London, 1806 Map of London, 1900
  17. 17. Urbanization Rapid urban growth  miserable living conditions: tenements, pollution, poor sanitation, disease 1842: Edwin Chadwick reported on Manchester's filth. 1848: Britain’s first public health law was enacted after a major cholera outbreak.
  18. 18. Court for King Cholera This 1852 drawing tells volumes about the unhealthy living conditions of the urban poor in London. In the foreground, children play with a dead rat and a woman scavenges a dungheap. Cheap rooming houses provide shelter for the frightfully overcrowded population. (British Library) Court for King Cholera
  19. 19. Dore engraving of London This engraving by the French artist Gustave Dore (1832-83, the most popular and successful French book illustrator of the mid-nineteenth century) depicts the overcrowded and unsanitary conditions in industrial London in the nineteenth century. Because municipal authorities were unable to cope with the rapid pace of urbanization, the working class was forced to live in dwellings such as these row houses, which did not have adequate sanitation or recreational facilities. (Courtesy, Dover Publications) Dore engraving of London
  20. 20. Rat-killing as a sport Some harsh forms of entertainment turned up in the industrial period. As this engraving shows, scores of working-class spectators came to see the celebrated dog "Billy" kill one hundred rats at one time at the Westminster Pit in London in 1822. (British Library) Rat-killing as a sport
  21. 21. Urbanization • 1854: Louis Pasteur introduced the germ theory of disease. • Louis Pasteur's germ theory (1870) led to safe milk and packaged foods, Joseph Lister's surgical antiseptics, and Robert Koch's 1905 Nobel Prize for isolating tuberculosis bacillus. Louis Pasteur doing science stuff.
  22. 22. Sanitation • 1860s–1870s: Water and sewage systems were built. • Thomas Crapper popularized the flush toilet. Crystal Palace (1851) visitors could "spend a penny" to use a public toilet. • Frankfurt boasted sewers that flushed waste “From the toilet to the river in half an hour.” Thomas Crapper’s toilet allowed people to give a crap to the sewers.
  23. 23. Sanitation • The British Public Health Act of 1875 mandated running water in new housing. Regular hot baths and showers followed. Trash was collected and incinerated.
  24. 24. Urbanization • European population grew due to a falling death rate. • Increased food supply boosted immunity. More children reached adulthood. People lived longer. Viral outbreaks fell and vaccinations checked smallpox. • War claimed fewer victims from 1815 to 1914. Edward Jenner developed a vaccine for smallpox in 1796.
  25. 25. Urbanization 1880s–1890s: German doctors introduced new vaccines. 1910: The urban death rate was same as or less than rural death rate. 1914: 80% of Britons, 60% of Germans, 45% of French, and 30% of Eastern Europeans were living in urban areas.
  26. 26. Urbanization • Population of Europe, 1851: 266 million • Population of Europe, 1910: 460 million
  27. 27. Emigration • 1820–1920: 60 million Europeans left—71% to North America, 21% to Latin America, and 7% Australia. • About half went to the United States including 5.5 million Germans, 4.4 million Irish, 4.2 million Italians, and 3.7 million Austro-Hungarians. • 1/3 of the Norwegian and 1/4 of the Swedish populations emigrated.
  28. 28. Emigration • 1880: Italian, Greek, Hungarian, Polish, Slavic, and Jewish emigration was on the rise. The assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia (1881) triggered Jewish pogroms. 40% of Russian emigrants were Jews. • 1910: Immigrants were 14.7% of U.S. population.
  29. 29. Urban growth, Vienna This 1873 chromolithograph by G. Veith gives a panoramic view of the Ringstrasse, a broad and handsome boulevard that had replaced the old ramparts of Vienna after they were pulled down in 1857. Within the Ring--which was lined with public buildings--lay the old city, clustered round the cathedral of St. Stephen. (Museen der Stadt, Vienna) Urban growth, Vienna
  30. 30. Urban landscape, Madrid This wistful painting of a square in Madrid on a rainy day, by Enrique Martinez Cubella y Ruiz (1874-1917), includes a revealing commentary on public transportation. Coachmen wait atop their expensive hackney cabs for a wealthy clientele, while modern electric streetcars that carry the masses converge on the square from all directions. (Museo Municipal, Madrid/The Bridgeman Art Library International) Urban landscape, Madrid
  31. 31. Urbanization • 1853–1870: Napoleon III hired Georges Haussmann to redesign Paris. Razing old slums for broad boulevards opened traffic, improved housing, created parks and open spaces, and made assembling revolutionary barricades difficult. • Aqueducts doubled the amount of available fresh water. Sewers carried filth away.
  32. 32. The long, straight avenues that continue to dominate Paris (pictured here around 1870) were a key feature of Baron Haussmann’s rebuilding plans.
  33. 33. An overview of Paris, centring on the Étoile area that Haussmann redesigned.
  34. 34. Paris lit up by electricity The electric light bulb was invented in the United States and Britain, but Paris made such extensive use of the new technology that it was nicknamed the "City of Lights." To mark the Paris Exposition of 1900, the Eiffel Tower and all the surrounding buildings were illuminated with strings of light bulbs while powerful spotlights swept the sky. (Civica Raccolta delle Stampe Achille Bertarelli, Milanoi) Paris lit up by electricity
  35. 35. Urbanization Transportation: Horse-drawn public rail (1806) gave way to steam (1825). Horse-drawn buses (1825) were later driven by steam (1831), electric trolley (1882), and combustion motor (1895). 1870s: Public transit was introduced via horse-drawn streetcars. Electrified streetcars ferried 6.7 billion passengers/year by 1910.
  36. 36. Urbanization • Street Lighting: Gas (London, 1807) and then kerosene (Ukraine, 1853) were used to light the streets.
  37. 37. Urbanization • Electric arc lamps showcased at the Paris Exposition (1881). A carbon arc streetlamp of the type used in Victorian Britain.
  38. 38. Urbanization Housing: British factory owners built company towns— New Lanark and Saltaire. Local governments closed slums (1885) and built housing estates (1890).
  39. 39. Urbanization • Public Parks: Princes Park, Liverpool, UK (1842), was funded privately. Peel Park, Manchester, Britain (1846), was funded publically. • At City Park, Budapest, Vajdahunyad Castle (1896) opened to celebrate Hungary's 1000th anniversary, and visitors soaked at Széchenyi Bath (1913). • Sweden established the first European national park (1909).

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