Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Who, What, When, Where, Why and How of Cross-Media

13,669 views

Published on

A special presentation by Christy Dena for DIYDays: the conference part of the film distribution and discovery festival From Here to Awesome: http://www.DIYDays.com. (BTW: the fonts were not as originally designed -- slideshare reverts fonts it doesn't recognise.)

The Who, What, When, Where, Why and How of Cross-Media

  1. 1. The Who, What, when, Where, why and How of Cross-Media A special presentation by Christy Dena for www.DIYDays.com July 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>I had planned a really interesting and clever video presentation for you… </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>… but the technology gremlins have pinned me down, and are now cackling in my ear… </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>… so, you have this silent, conversational text instead  </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>… let’s start then: </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is cross-media?
  7. 7. <ul><li>… you may know ‘cross-media’ from terms such as transmedia storytelling, synergistic storytelling, multi-platform storytelling, alternate reality games, pervasive games, networked narrative environments… </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>… and a few others… </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>360 Content | 360 Experience | Alternate Reality Experiences | Alternate Reality Games | Augmented Reality Games | Big Games | Chaotic Fiction | Convergent Storytelling | Cross-Media Entertainment | Cross-Media Games | Cross-Media Storytelling | Cross-Platform Storytelling | Cross-Sited Narratives | Distributed Interactive Narratives | Distributed Narratives | Enhanced TV | Expanded Cinema | Extended Entertainment Experiences | Extended Reality Game | GPS Games | Immersive Games | Interactive Television | Intermedia Storytelling | Intermedial Storytelling | IPTV | iTV | Live Action Role-Playing Games (LARP) | Location-Based Games | Locative Arts | Locative Media | Location-Based Media | Mixed Reality Games | Mobile Narratives | Multimedia Stories | Multimedial Storytelling | Multi-Platform Entertainment | Multi-Platform Storytelling | Networked Narrative Environments | Networked Performance | Pervasive Games | Polymorphic Fictions | Telematic Arts | Telepresence Art | Transfiction | Transmedia Entertainment | Transmedia Storytelling | Transreality Games | Situated Narratives | Superfictions | Synergistic Storyscapes | Synergistic Storytelling | Ubicomp Games | Ubiquitous Games | Unfiction | Very Distributed Media Stories | Very Distributed Storytelling | XME | XMedia | XMedia Entertainment </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>… hehe… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Who is doing it?
  12. 12. <ul><li>Film Makers </li></ul><ul><li>TV Makers </li></ul><ul><li>Novelists </li></ul><ul><li>Playwrights </li></ul><ul><li>Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Marketers </li></ul><ul><li>Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Game Designers </li></ul><ul><li>Activists </li></ul><ul><li>Independents </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul>
  13. 13. How long have people been doing it?
  14. 14. <ul><li>… well a lot of people know about this one… </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Matrix (1999)
  16. 16. <ul><li>… and perhaps some of you know about this one… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Twin Peaks (1990)
  18. 18. <ul><li>… and maybe this one… </li></ul>
  19. 19. Tron (1982)
  20. 20. <ul><li>… but what about this one?… </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>… it is a hard one… </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>… It’s called ‘The World in 24 Hours’… </li></ul><ul><li>At 12 noon on September 27 1982, artists — in Amsterdam, Athens, Bath, Frankfurt, Honolulu, Istanbul, Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Sydney, Tokyo, Toronto, Vancouver, Vienna and Wellfleet — participated in a 24-hour telecommunications artwork. The artists participated through a variety of telecommunications technologies such as slow-scan television, fax, computer mailbox and telephone sound… </li></ul><ul><li>It was organized by Robert Adrian for Ars Electronic and is a form of what Roy Ascott calls ‘Telematic Art’… </li></ul>
  23. 25. These are the artworks that were being delivered via the ‘network’
  24. 26. <ul><li>… but cross-media goes back further, to artists like Dick Higgins, who championed ‘intermedia’… </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>… ’ Intermediality’ (imagine Higgins voice) is not distinct to the 1960s, but has ‘always been a possibility since the most ancient times’ and will remain ‘a possibility wherever the desire to fuse two or more existing media exists’… </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>… ah, “the desire to fuse two or more existing media”…that is part of the cross-media philosophy… </li></ul>
  27. 29. <ul><li>… but if you really think about it, cross-media dates back to a long time ago… </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>… ok, maybe not that far, but a while ago… </li></ul>
  29. 32. 40,000 years ago, all stories (law) were communicated through multiple cultural channels…never one in isolation… … and one core concept, an essence that remained constant…
  30. 33. <ul><li>… that was in Australia  … </li></ul>
  31. 34. Where is it being done?
  32. 35. <ul><li>… the USA isn’t the only place… </li></ul>
  33. 36. Australia Fat Cow Motel Jupiter Green PS Trixi
  34. 43. <ul><li>… to name a few… </li></ul>
  35. 44. Why are people doing it?
  36. 45. <ul><li>… good question… </li></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>… some do it to because they think it will make them money… </li></ul>
  38. 47. <ul><li>… some for activism… </li></ul>
  39. 48. <ul><li>… some for fun… </li></ul>
  40. 49. <ul><li>… some for research… </li></ul>
  41. 50. <ul><li>… some for art… </li></ul>
  42. 51. <ul><li>… and some because their producer or teacher told them to… </li></ul>
  43. 52. How do I do it?
  44. 53. <ul><li>… ah, that is the million dollar question… </li></ul>
  45. 54. <ul><li>… that is actually only something you can answer… </li></ul>
  46. 55. <ul><li>… but I’ll give you some hints…based on what other great pioneers have been doing… </li></ul>
  47. 56. <ul><li>… first: look around… </li></ul>
  48. 57. <ul><li>… what is a potential storytelling device?... </li></ul>
  49. 58. <ul><li>… there are more than you think….I’ll show you what others have been playing with… </li></ul>
  50. 59. <ul><li>… Internet, email…yeah, you knew that… </li></ul>
  51. 60. <ul><li>… what about Google Maps?… </li></ul>
  52. 62. Six to Start is behind this one…
  53. 63. <ul><li>… chatbots?… </li></ul>
  54. 64. This is the ‘Ari Gold Interview’, by Deep Focus
  55. 65. <ul><li>… Photoshop?… </li></ul>
  56. 67. <ul><li>… My Damn Channel’s ‘You Sucjk at Photoshop’ is so funny… </li></ul>
  57. 68. <ul><li>… how about QR codes?… </li></ul>
  58. 70. <ul><li>… that is the ‘Integral’ music video by the Pet Shop Boys… </li></ul>
  59. 71. <ul><li>… SMS of course… </li></ul>
  60. 72. This is a SMS from Hoodlum’s ‘PS Trixi’ for Yahoo!7
  61. 73. <ul><li>… what about GPS?… </li></ul>
  62. 74. This is Jeff Knowlton, Naomi Spellman, Brandon Stow and Jeremy Hight’s ‘34 North 118 West ’
  63. 75. … and how about Blast Theory’s ‘Can You See Me Now?’
  64. 76. <ul><li>… mobile dramas and webisodes are a favourite… </li></ul>
  65. 78. <ul><li>… and books… </li></ul>
  66. 80. <ul><li>… ah yes, and graphic novels… </li></ul>
  67. 82. <ul><li>… the Scratch n’ Sniff was funny… </li></ul>
  68. 84. <ul><li>… oh yeah, and voting for an ending with stamps was an inspired move for Singapore Post’s interactive drama ‘Yours Always’ … </li></ul>
  69. 86. <ul><li>… other wacky storytelling devices were used in 42 Entertainment’s ARG for the Halo storyworld: ‘I Love Bees’… </li></ul>
  70. 88. <ul><li>… and the payphones… </li></ul>
  71. 90. <ul><li>… what about the Graveyard?!!… </li></ul>
  72. 91. 42 Entertainment’s ‘Last Call Poker’ for Activision’s GUN Image from Jane McGonigal’s NEXT presentation
  73. 92. … and the phones buried inside the cakes for The Dark Knight…
  74. 93. … and the playing cards too…
  75. 94. <ul><li>… ah, and t-shirts, in many ARGs, including the clues embedded in Nine Inch Nails’ ‘Year Zero’… </li></ul>
  76. 96. <ul><li>… and billboards…like the ones used for ‘Find 815’ by Hoodlum for ABC’s ‘Lost’… </li></ul>
  77. 98. <ul><li>… and stencils, like the ones distributed across streets for ‘She Loves the Moon’ by the Strangers… </li></ul>
  78. 100. <ul><li>… and the sticker novel distributed all over the world… </li></ul>
  79. 101. Nick Montfort and Scott Rettberg’s ‘Implementation’
  80. 102. <ul><li>… and skywriting in 42 Entertainment’s ‘Vanishing Point’… </li></ul>
  81. 104. <ul><li>… how about a car?… </li></ul>
  82. 105. Campfire, GMD Studios, McKinney-Silver’s ‘Art of the Heist’
  83. 106. <ul><li>… and the helicopter!… </li></ul>
  84. 107. Mind Candy’s ‘Perplex City’
  85. 108. <ul><li>… lets try some normal stuff again eh?...how about online flash games… </li></ul>
  86. 109. http://www.gorillaz.com/DirtyHarry/DirtyHarry.html
  87. 110. <ul><li>… that is the game version of the ‘Dirty Harry’ music video by Gorillaz…cool… </li></ul>
  88. 111. <ul><li>… here’s another… </li></ul>
  89. 113. <ul><li>… the ‘Chain Factor’ casual game that is part of an ARG created by area/code for a special episode of CBS’ ‘Numb3rs’… </li></ul>
  90. 114. <ul><li>… and there is the good ol’ favourite for those with the big bucks… </li></ul>
  91. 116. <ul><li>… but this one is out there… </li></ul>
  92. 118. <ul><li>… it hasn’t happened yet…but I’m crossing my fingers… </li></ul>
  93. 119. What do I do on these media?
  94. 120. <ul><li>… ok, you’re probably getting impatient…there are three key approaches: </li></ul>
  95. 121. replicate
  96. 122. <ul><li>… you replicate when you repurpose your content across different media channels… </li></ul>
  97. 123. <ul><li>… some do this as an artistic statement… </li></ul>
  98. 125. <ul><li>… some to reach fragmented audiences… </li></ul>
  99. 126. www.forgettherules.com ‘ Forget the Rules’ by Global Dilemma, was distributed through TV, mobile & the web simultaneously
  100. 127. <ul><li>… and some bundle digital and tangible media together for each person, for one fee… </li></ul>
  101. 129. transform
  102. 130. <ul><li>… you can transform your story or game…do your own adaptations in different media to explore the different ways your story can be expressed and experienced…like… </li></ul>
  103. 132. … and Peter Greenaway VJing his ‘Tulse Luper Project’…
  104. 133. <ul><li>… and what about our own Lance Weiler, and his online interactive comic version of ‘Head Trauma’… </li></ul>
  105. 134. Lance wielr
  106. 135. expand
  107. 136. <ul><li>… you can expand your story or game across media, spreading the narrative and challenges… </li></ul>
  108. 137. <ul><li>… but there is a bit more to it than that… </li></ul>
  109. 138. <ul><li>… you can do a multi-platform series… </li></ul>
  110. 139. … which means you deliver self-contained episodes over television, comics, webisodes and films, like Joss Whedon did with Firefly/Serenity…
  111. 140. <ul><li>… or you can do a multi-platform serial… </li></ul>
  112. 141. <ul><li>… which means not making each episode self-contained, but creating compelling cliff-hangers to drive people from television to the web… </li></ul>
  113. 142. <ul><li>… like Mitsubishi did with their clever advertisement during the 2004 Super Bowl: </li></ul>
  114. 144. <ul><li>… or, you can do a mix of a serial and series…a technique that TV theorist Robin Nelson identified in 1997, a flexi-narrative: </li></ul>
  115. 145. <ul><li>“ The blurring of distinction between the series and serial affords schedulers the joint advantage of an unresolved narrative strand — a cliff-hanger to draw the audience to watch the next episode — and a new group of characters and self-contained stories in each episode.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Nelson, 1997) </li></ul>
  116. 146. <ul><li>… which means you could have a storyline, that moves from a graphic novel, to computer game, to feature film whilst making each one of stories self-contained too…like the well-known example from the Wachowski Brothers’ ‘The Matrix’: </li></ul>
  117. 147. Continuing narrative thread: “ the message” Self-contained stories
  118. 148. <ul><li>… but what many forget about is… </li></ul>
  119. 150. <ul><li>… yeah, that’s right, connecting the dots…connecting the media…because people don’t know there is more in another media channel and won’t be compelled enough to act if you don’t connect it all… </li></ul>
  120. 151. <ul><li>… but hey, there are things you can do…in fact, quality cross-media interaction experiences usually address these three things: </li></ul>
  121. 152. Call to Action Cycle <ul><li>Primer </li></ul><ul><li>Referral </li></ul><ul><li>Reward </li></ul>
  122. 153. <ul><li>… that was pretty official…but seriously: </li></ul>
  123. 154. <ul><li>1. Primer : prepare and motivate your audience to act </li></ul>
  124. 155. <ul><li>… and do that within your story, don’t just rely on some quick competition to compel someone after your great story is over… </li></ul>
  125. 156. <ul><li>2. Referral : provide the means and instructions on how and when to act </li></ul>
  126. 157. <ul><li>… URLs are a common and effective method… </li></ul>
  127. 159. <ul><li>… but these are all prompts outside of the film, TV show or podiobook… </li></ul>
  128. 160. <ul><li>… a great way is to embed the call to action within the film or show… </li></ul>
  129. 161. <ul><li>… like this one from NBC’s Heroes… </li></ul>
  130. 163. <ul><li>… or the running joke with the fan phone on Fox’s 24… </li></ul>
  131. 165. <ul><li>… or the email glimpsed for a second during a ‘Prison Break’ episode… </li></ul>
  132. 167. <ul><li>3. Reward : acknowledge and recompense their action </li></ul>
  133. 168. <ul><li>… give some response to their actions!...and if you give them some reward…they’re more likely to keep traversing media… </li></ul>
  134. 169. When do I do this?
  135. 170. <ul><li>… Oh! You’re keen…good… </li></ul>
  136. 171. <ul><li>… most cross-media expansions are released before the release of a film or DVD, because they’re trying to promote cinema ticket or DVD sales… </li></ul>
  137. 172. <ul><li>… that is fine, it can be a great primer… </li></ul>
  138. 173. <ul><li>… but what many don’t think about is what the audience would want, and what could be done… </li></ul>
  139. 174. <ul><li>… If people love your film, they immediately want to spend more time with it, they want to go further… </li></ul>
  140. 175. <ul><li>… why not honour and leverage that?... </li></ul>
  141. 176. <ul><li>… hey, and some filmmakers are also experimenting with simultaneous media experiences… </li></ul>
  142. 177. … like Lance Weiler’s ‘cinema ARG’ for Head Trauma…
  143. 178. <ul><li>… but in terms of when to do cross-media during production, many start them after the film, and some during the production of the film… </li></ul>
  144. 179. <ul><li>… but, as with all crafts, the creative outcome is far superior when all the elements are integrated from the beginning… </li></ul>
  145. 180. <ul><li>… indeed, some creators have got to the point where they don’t see the cross-media project as an addition…it is the project… they’re no longer creating a film, they’re creating a cross-media project that includes a film… </li></ul>
  146. 181. <ul><li>… and that is the moment when you reach a kind of cross-media zen: </li></ul>
  147. 182. <ul><li>… when all media, when all artforms, are one… </li></ul>
  148. 184. <ul><li>…  … </li></ul>
  149. 185. <ul><li>… I’d like to end with a quote… </li></ul>
  150. 186. <ul><li>… it is a bit hardcore, but I like the sentiment… </li></ul>
  151. 187. <ul><li>“ A composer is a dead man unless he composes for all the media and for his world.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dick Higgins, 1966 </li></ul>
  152. 188. Well, I had fun! I hope you did, and I hope your audiences do too…
  153. 189. This presentation at: http://www.slideshare.net/christydena/ My bio site at: http://www.ChristyDena.com/ My podcast (when I get time) is at: http://www.UniverseCreation101.com

×