Ch12

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Ch12

  1. 1. Aspects of Emotion Chapter 12
  2. 2. Three Central Aspects of Emotion Social- Biological Cognitive Cultural
  3. 3. Biological and Cognitive Aspects of Emotion Biological Aspects Cognitive, Social, and Cultural Aspects1. Autonomic nervous system 1. Appraisals2. Endorcrin system 2. Knowledge3. Neural brain circuits 3. Attributions4. Rate of neural firing 4. Socialization history5. Facial feedback 5. Cultural identities
  4. 4. James-Lange Theory William James Bodily changes do not follow the emotional experience, rather emotional experience follows and depends on bodily response Stimulus bodily reaction emotion If bodily changes did not occur, then the emotion would not occur 2 assumptions  The body reacts uniquely to different emotion-eliciting events  The body does not react to nonemotion-eliciting events
  5. 5. Neural Activation• Neural firing: the pattern of electrocortical activity (in the brain) at any time• Different emotions are activated by different rates of cortical neural firing. Endocrine System activity increases activity remains constant activity decreases Figure 12.1 Emotion Activation as a Function of Changes in the rate of Neural Firing
  6. 6. Neural Circuits Behavioral Approach System  Readies the animal to seek out and interact with attractive environmental opportunities Fight or Flight System  Readies the animal to flee from aversive events, but to defend aggressively against others Behavioral Inhibition System  Readies animal to freeze in the face of aversive events
  7. 7. Differential Emotions Theory(izard) 1. Ten emotions constitute the principal motivation system for human beings. 2. Unique feeling: Each emotions has its own unique subjective, phenomenological quality. 3. Unique expression: Each emotion has its own unique facial-expressive pattern. 4. Unique neural activity: Each emotion has its own specific rate of neural firing that activates it. 5. Unique purpose/motivation: Each emotion generates distinctive motivational properties and serves adaptive functions.
  8. 8. Izard’s 10 Fundamental EmotionsIncluded in His Differential Emotions TheoryPositive Emotions Neutral Emotions Negative Emotions Interest Surprise Fear Joy Anger Disgust Distress Contempt Shame Guilt
  9. 9. Facial Feedback HypothesisFigure 12.2 Sequence of the Emotion –Activating Events According to the Facial Feedback Hypothesis
  10. 10. Can we voluntarily controlour emotions? Emotions are largely reactions If emotions are largely biological- much of it will escape our voluntary control If emotions are largely cognitive- much of our thoughts, beliefs, and ways of thinking are within our voluntary control
  11. 11. Cognitive Aspects of Emotion The central construct in a cognitive understanding of emotion An appraisal is an estimate of the personal significance of an event. 1. Without an antecedent cognitive appraisal of the event, emotions do not occur. 2. The appraisal, not the event itself, causes the emotion.
  12. 12. Appraisal Theory of Emotion3 Questions(1) How does the perception of an object or event produce a good or bad appraisal?(2) How does the appraisal generate emotion?(3) How does felt emotion express itself in action? SITUATION APPRAISAL EMOTIONS ACTION Life Event Good or Bad Liking vs. Approach vs. (beneficial vs. harmful) Disliking Withdrawal Figure 12.7 Arnold’s Appraisal Theory of Emotion
  13. 13. Figure 12. 8 APPRAISAL EMOTIONLazarus’sComplex Appraisals Type of Benefit • Making progress toward a goal • Happiness • Taking credit for an achievement • Pride The cognitive processes • Improving on a distressing condition • Pride that intervene • Believing a desired outcome is • Hope between important possible life events and • Love physiological and • Desiring or participating in affection • Compassion behavioral reactivity. • Being moved by another’s suffering • Gratitude • Appreciating an altruistic gift Type of Harm • Anger SITUATION • Being demeaned by a personal • Guilt offense • Shame Life Event • Transgressing a moral imperative • Sadness • Failing to live up to an ego ideal • Disgust • Experiencing an irrevocable loss • Taking in an indigestible object or idea • Anxiety Type of Threat • Fright • Facing an uncertain, unspecific threat • Envy • Facing immediate, overwhelming danger • Jealousy • Wanting what someone else has
  14. 14. Primary appraisal involves an estimate ofwhether one has anything at stake in the Appraisal Model of Emotionencounter. Secondary appraisal involves the person’s assessment for coping with the possible benefit, harm, or threat
  15. 15. Emotion Differentiation Goal/need at stake and pleasantnessresponsibility Coping ability Figure 12.10 Decision Tree of Six Dimensions of Appraisal to Differentiate Among 17 Emotions
  16. 16. An attribution is thereason the persons Attribution Theory of Emotionuses to explain animportant lifeoutcome. The attribution roots to the seven emotions
  17. 17. Attributional Roots to 7 Emotions Pride = attributing a (+) outcome to internal cause (“I succeeded because of my outstanding ability”) Gratitude= attributing a (+) outcome to an external cause (“I succeeded because of help from my teammates”) Hope= attributing a (+) outcome to a stable cause (“I do well in sports because I am athletic by nature”)
  18. 18. Attributional Roots to 7 Emotions Anger = attributing a (-) outcome to external- controllable cause (“I lost because my opponent cheated”) Pity= attributing a (-) outcome to an external – uncontrollable cause (“I lost my job because of the poor economy”) Guilt= attributing a (-) outcome to internal- controllable cause (“I lost because I didn’t put forth effort”) Shame= attributing (-) outcome to internal- uncontrollable source (“I was rejected because I am ugly”)
  19. 19. Social and Cultural Aspects of Emotion
  20. 20. Graphic Illustration Of Similar And Dissimilar Basic Emotions For People From Both Cultures Figure 12. 13 Cluster Analysis of Basic Emotion Families in Chinese and English
  21. 21. Social & Cultural Aspects of Emotion Emotion Knowledge Expression management Emotion management Other people and cultures in general How we should When to control instruct us about express out our emotions the causes of our emotions emotions

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