Outline Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations Incentives External Regulation of Motivation Consequences Rewards Hidden Costs of Rewards Cognitive Evaluation Theory External Regulation Introjected Regulation Identified Regulation Types of Extrinsic Motivation Integrated Regulation Motivating Others To Do Uninteresting Activities Building Interest
Intrinsic MotivationThe inherent desire to engage one’s interests and to exercise and developone’s capacities.“I am doing this because it is ….” type of motivation engaged activity interesting, fun, enjoyable, Satisfying psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness)
Origins of Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Psychological Need SatisfactionAutonom y Competenc Relatedne e ssAutonomy Support Competence Support Relatedness Support from the from the from the Environment and Environment and Environment andOne’s Relationships One’s Relationships One’s Relationships
Benefits of Intrinsic Motivation The higher a person’s intrinsic motivation,Persistence the greater will be his or her persistence on that task. The greater people experience interest,Creativity enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge of the work itself, the higher people being creative. Flexible thinking,Conceptual Understanding/ Active information processing, High-Quality Learning Learning in conceptual way… Greater self-actualization, Greater subjective vitality,Optimal Functioning & Well-Being Less anxiety and depression, Greater self-esteem….
Extrinsic MotivationAn environmentally created reason (e.g., incentives or consequences)to engage in an action or activity. “Do this in order to get that” type of motivation requested behavior extrinsic incentive or consequence “What’s in it for me?” type of motivation
External Regulation of Motivation:Incentives, Consequences, & RewardsIncentives Consequenc Rewards esAn environmental 1. Positive Reinforcers Any offering fromevent that attracts Vs. one person given toor repels a person Negative Reinforcers another person in toward or away exchange for his or her from initiating service or achievement.a particular course 2. Punishers of action. (e.g., S: R)
Managing Behavior byOffering ReinforcersFigure 5.2 Effect of Reinforcement on use of Orthodontic Device
RewardsHow Rewards Work—Do They Facilitate Desirable Behavior? An extrinsic reward enlivens When events take an positive emotion and unexpected turn for the better, facilitates behavior because then dopamine release and it signals the opportunity for BAS neural activation occur, a personal gain. as the brain inherently latches onto the environmental signal of the unexpected gain.
Hidden Cost of Rewards: Figure 5.5the unexpected, unintended, and adverse effects that extrinsic rewards sometimes have on intrinsicmotivation, high-quality learning, and autonomous self-regulation. Using A Reward To Engage Someone In An Activity Intended Unintended Primary Effect Primary Effect Promotes Compliance Undermines Intrinsic (Behavioral Engagement Motivation in the Activity) Interferes with the Quality and Process of Learning Interferes with the Capacity for Autonomous Self-Regulation
Do Punishers Work? Do They Suppress Undesirable Behavior?Research shows that punishment is an ineffective motivational strategy (popular but ineffective nonetheless) “side effects” Negative Impaired Negative Emotionality relationship modeling (e.g.), between punisher and of how to cope with • crying, punishee. undesirable behavior in • screaming, others. • feeling afraid
Figure 5. 4 Immediate and Long-Term Consequences of Corporal Punishment (Spanking) A purnisher is any environmental stimulus that, when presented, decreases the future probability of the undesired behavior
Benefits of Incentives, Consequences, and RewardsWhen there isno intrinsic motivation to be undermined (uninteresting tasks),rewards can make an otherwise uninteresting task seem suddenly worth pursuing. Increasing older Preventing adults’ Undesirable participating inbehaviors such physical activity as biting
Four Reasons Not to UseExtrinsic Motivation (even for uninteresting endeavors)Extrinsic motivators still undermine the quality of performanceand interfere with the process of learning.Using rewards distracts attention away from asking the hard question ofwhy another person is being asked to do an uninteresting task in the first place.There are better ways to encourage participation than extrinsicbribery.Extrinsic motivators still undermine the individual’s long-term capacity for autonomous self-regulation.
Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive evaluation theory provides a way for predicting the effects that any extrinsic event will have on motivation. The theory explains how an extrinsic event (e.g., money, grade, deadline) affects intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, as mediated by the event’s effect on the psychological needs for competence and autonomy. All external events have two functions: ● Control behavior ● inform competence Which functions more salient determines how the external event will affect intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
Any External Event (Rewards) Controlling Function Informational Function “Because you “If you do X, were able to do X, that means then you get Y.” you are effective, competent.”1. Decreases intrinsic motivation 1. Increases intrinsic motivation2. Interferes with quality of learning. 2. Enhances high-quality learning.3. External regulation increases; 3. Enhances self-regulation. Self-regulation undermined
Types of Extrinsic MotivationSelf-determination theory posits that different types of motivation can be organizedalong a continuum of self-determination or perceived locus of causality. Extrinsic Motivation External Introjected Identified IntegratedRegulation Regulation Regulation Regulation
Table 5.2Four Types of Extrinsic Motivation, Illustrated by Different Reasons of “Why I Recycle”
Figure 5.6Self-Determination Continuum Showing T ypes ofMotivation
Motivating Others To Do Uninteresting ActivitiesWays to Promote More Autonomous Types of Extrinsic Motivation e.g., Providing a Building Interest R ationale Involves first catching one’s to explain why the situational interest in an activity uninteresting activity is and then holding that initialimportant and useful enough interest over time by developing to warrant one’s volitional an individual interest in the engagement activity.
Explanatory r ationales enhance effortby cultivation an identified regulationFigure 5.7
Building interest in a particular domainCharacteristics ofthe EnvironmentObject and activitiesthat are novel, Builds Situational Interestsurprising, need-satisfying, and relevantto one’s goals. Increased: Actualized • Attention Experience of • Learning Interest • KnowledgeCharacteristics of • Achievementthe personObject and activities Builds Individual InterestThat are novel,surprising, need-satisfying, and relevantto one’s goals.Figure 5.8