ElementaryResponses to a stimulus, include: Physiological arousal Expressive behaviors Conscious experience Mood – overall feeling one has that lasts for an extended time frame
Basic Fear, surprise, anger, disgust, happiness, sadn ess Basic emotions are innate (inborn) and “hard- wired” Complex emotions are a blend of many aspects of emotions Classified along two dimensions Pleasant or unpleasant Level of activation or arousal associated with the emotion
Purpose Can move us to act, triggering motivated behavior Help us to set goals, but emotional states can also be goals in themselves. Influences rational decision making and purposeful behavior. Emotional intelligence is the capacity to understand and manage your own emotional experiences and to perceive, comprehend, and respond appropriately to the emotional responses of others.
Theories James-Lange Theory Event causes physiological arousal first and then we interpret this arousal. Only after our interpretation of the arousal can we experience emotion. If the arousal is not noticed or is not given any thought, then we will not experience any emotion based on this event
Cannon-Bard Theory We experience physiological arousal & emotional at the same time, But gives no attention to the role of thoughts or outward behavior.
Schachter-Singer Theory An event causes physiological arousal first. You must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.
Lazarus Theory A thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.
Facial Feedback Theory Emotion is the experience of changes in our facial muscles. In other words, when we smile, we then experience pleasure, or happiness. When we frown, we then experience sadness. It is the changes in our facial muscles that cue our brains and provide the basis of our emotions. Just as there are an unlimited number of muscle configurations in our face, so to are there a seemingly unlimited number of emotions.
Sympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats Fight or flight responseParasympathetic Nervous System The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body Brings the body back down to a relaxed state
School Of Thought Psychology has multiple perspectives Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Social Learning
Psychodynamic Perspective Focus: How behavior is affected by unconscious drives and conflicts Behavior is explained through unconscious motivation and unresolved inner conflicts from one’s childhood. Modern version of psychoanalytic perspective (Sigmund Freud)
Behavioral Perspective Focus: How we learn through rewards, punishments, and observation View of behavior based on experience or learning
Cognitive Perspective Focus: On how people think and process information Behavior is explained by how a person interprets the situation How is knowledge acquired, organized, remembered, and used to guide behavior?
Social Learning Perspective Focus: How thinking and behavior change depending on the setting or situation Behavior is explained by the influence of other people present Cross culture also is a heavy influence