NeedA need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary forlife, growth, and well-being.When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well beingis maintained and enhanced. Motivational states therefore provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well being.If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwartingwill produce damage that disrupts biological orpsychological well being.
Need Structure : Types of Needs Needs Physiological Psychological Social Needs Needs Needs (Chapter 4) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 7) • Thirst • Autonomy • Achievement • Hunger • Competence • Affiliation, • Sex • Relatedness • Intimacy • Powerinherent within the inherent within the internalized or learnedworkings of biological strivings of human nature from our emotional andsystems and healthy development socialization histories
inherent within thePh ysiological Needs workings of biological systems Thirst Hunger Se x Thirst is the consciously Hunger and eating involve Sexual motivation rises and experienced motivational a complex regulatory falls in response to a host of state that readies the system of both short-term factors, including hormones, person to perform (glucostatic hypothesis) & external stimulation, behaviors necessary to long-term (lipostatic external cues (facial replenish a water deficit hypothesis, including set- metrics), cognitive scripts, point theory) regulation. sexual schemas, and evolutionary process.
The physiological need— psychological drive—behavioral action process.
The cyclical patterndepicting the rise and fallof psychological drive(Figure 4.3) involvesseven core processes:
Figure 4.6 Relative Pleasantness of Four Taste SolutionsThe incentivevalues for fourtastes appear inFigure 4.6: sweet, sour, salty, bitter,represented atvarious stimulusintensities.
PROCESSES Short-Term Appetite . Long-Term Energy Balance . Comprehensive Model of Hunger RegulationHunge . Environmental Influences r . Restraint-Release Situations . Cognitively-Regulated Eating Style . Weight Gain & Obesity . Set Point or Settling Points?
Environmental InfluencesEnvironmental influences that affect eating behavior the time of day, stress, and thesight, smell, appearance, and taste of food.Eating behavior increases significantly, for instance, when an individual confronts avariety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes.Ice-Cream Intake (in Grams) for Students Along versus in Group and with One Versus Three Flavors
Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or reverse weight gain and obesity:decreasing eating increasing physicalthrough self-regulatory activity to expendstrategies (e.g., goals, calories and fatmonitoring one’s storesbehavior) becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating
PROCESSES Physiological Regulation Facial MetricsSe x Sexual Scripts Sexual Orientation Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation
Tr aditional Sex Response CycleThe triphasic sexual response cycle that describes men’s sexual motivation so well.
The intimacy-based model of sexual desire that describes women’s sexual motivation Alternative Sex Response Cycle Seeking out & being receptive to More arousal & pleasure & positive Biological & outcome emotionally psychological factors and physically affect processing of stimuli
ailures To Self-regulate Physiological Need People fail at self ‑ regulation for three primary reasons (1) (2) (3) People routinely People can lack People fail to monitor underestimate how standards, or they have what they are doing as powerful a motivational inconsistent, conflicting, they become distracted, force biological urges unrealistic, or preoccupied, can be when they are inappropriate overwhelmed, or not currently standards. intoxicated. experiencing them.