PhysiologicalNeedsChapter 4
NeedA need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary forlife, growth, and well-being.When needs a...
Need Structure : Types of Needs                         Needs   Physiological         Psychological                    Soc...
inherent within thePh ysiological Needs                                            workings of                            ...
The physiological need—  psychological drive—behavioral action process.
The cyclical patterndepicting the rise and fallof psychological drive(Figure 4.3) involvesseven core processes:
Drive As An Intervening Variable    Antecedent             Behavioral    Condition 1           Consequence 1    Antecedent...
The Homeostatic mechanism   Figure 4.5The Figure 4.5 is overviewthe homeostatic mechanismand also to illustrate theinterre...
PROCESSES          Physiological Regulation          Thirst ActivationThirst    Thirst Satiety          Hypothalamus a...
Figure 4.6                   Relative Pleasantness of Four Taste SolutionsThe incentivevalues for fourtastes appear inFigu...
PROCESSES         Short-Term Appetite        . Long-Term Energy Balance        . Comprehensive Model of Hunger         ...
Environmental Influences                • Food variety, appearance                                                  Self-R...
Environmental InfluencesEnvironmental influences that affect eating behavior the time of day, stress, and thesight, smell...
Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or reverse weight gain and obesity:decreasing eating                    ...
PROCESSES        Physiological Regulation        Facial MetricsSe x    Sexual Scripts        Sexual Orientation       ...
Tr aditional Sex Response                    CycleThe triphasic sexual response cycle that describes men’s sexual motivati...
The intimacy-based model of sexual desire that describes women’s sexual motivation                Alternative Sex Response...
Gender Differences in Mate       Preferences
ailures To Self-regulate Physiological Need   People fail at self ‑ regulation for three primary reasons             (1)  ...
Ch04(1)
Ch04(1)
Ch04(1)
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Ch04(1)

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Ch04(1)

  1. 1. PhysiologicalNeedsChapter 4
  2. 2. NeedA need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary forlife, growth, and well-being.When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well beingis maintained and enhanced. Motivational states therefore provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well being.If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwartingwill produce damage that disrupts biological orpsychological well being.
  3. 3. Need Structure : Types of Needs Needs Physiological Psychological Social Needs Needs Needs (Chapter 4) (Chapter 6) (Chapter 7) • Thirst • Autonomy • Achievement • Hunger • Competence • Affiliation, • Sex • Relatedness • Intimacy • Powerinherent within the inherent within the internalized or learnedworkings of biological strivings of human nature from our emotional andsystems and healthy development socialization histories
  4. 4. inherent within thePh ysiological Needs workings of biological systems Thirst Hunger Se x Thirst is the consciously Hunger and eating involve Sexual motivation rises and experienced motivational a complex regulatory falls in response to a host of state that readies the system of both short-term factors, including hormones, person to perform (glucostatic hypothesis) & external stimulation, behaviors necessary to long-term (lipostatic external cues (facial replenish a water deficit hypothesis, including set- metrics), cognitive scripts, point theory) regulation. sexual schemas, and evolutionary process.
  5. 5. The physiological need— psychological drive—behavioral action process.
  6. 6. The cyclical patterndepicting the rise and fallof psychological drive(Figure 4.3) involvesseven core processes:
  7. 7. Drive As An Intervening Variable Antecedent Behavioral Condition 1 Consequence 1 Antecedent Antecedent Condition 2 Drive Consequence 2 Antecedent Antecedent Condition 3 Consequence 3 Figure 4.4
  8. 8. The Homeostatic mechanism Figure 4.5The Figure 4.5 is overviewthe homeostatic mechanismand also to illustrate theinterrelationships betweenthe seven core processesthat constitute thefundamentals of regulation—(e.g., physiological need,psychological drive,homeostasis, negativefeedback, multipleinputs/multiple outputs,intra-organismicmechanisms, and extra-organismic mechanisms)
  9. 9. PROCESSES  Physiological Regulation  Thirst ActivationThirst  Thirst Satiety  Hypothalamus and Liver  Environmental Influences
  10. 10. Figure 4.6 Relative Pleasantness of Four Taste SolutionsThe incentivevalues for fourtastes appear inFigure 4.6: sweet, sour, salty, bitter,represented atvarious stimulusintensities.
  11. 11. PROCESSES  Short-Term Appetite . Long-Term Energy Balance . Comprehensive Model of Hunger RegulationHunge . Environmental Influences r . Restraint-Release Situations . Cognitively-Regulated Eating Style . Weight Gain & Obesity . Set Point or Settling Points?
  12. 12. Environmental Influences • Food variety, appearance Self-Regulation Motivation • Situational pressures Hunger Eating (Appetite) (Energy Intake) Fat Stores (Body Weight)Comprehensive Ph ysicalModel of Hunger ActivityRegulation (Energy Expenditure) Exercise Motivation
  13. 13. Environmental InfluencesEnvironmental influences that affect eating behavior the time of day, stress, and thesight, smell, appearance, and taste of food.Eating behavior increases significantly, for instance, when an individual confronts avariety of foods, a variety of nutrients, and a variety of tastes.Ice-Cream Intake (in Grams) for Students Along versus in Group and with One Versus Three Flavors
  14. 14. Other than surgery, three ways people can prevent or reverse weight gain and obesity:decreasing eating increasing physicalthrough self-regulatory activity to expendstrategies (e.g., goals, calories and fatmonitoring one’s storesbehavior) becoming aware of and monitoring the environmental influences that affect eating
  15. 15. PROCESSES  Physiological Regulation  Facial MetricsSe x  Sexual Scripts  Sexual Orientation  Evolutionary Basis of Sexual Motivation
  16. 16. Tr aditional Sex Response CycleThe triphasic sexual response cycle that describes men’s sexual motivation so well.
  17. 17. The intimacy-based model of sexual desire that describes women’s sexual motivation Alternative Sex Response Cycle Seeking out & being receptive to More arousal & pleasure & positive Biological & outcome emotionally psychological factors and physically affect processing of stimuli
  18. 18. Gender Differences in Mate Preferences
  19. 19. ailures To Self-regulate Physiological Need People fail at self ‑ regulation for three primary reasons (1) (2) (3) People routinely People can lack People fail to monitor underestimate how standards, or they have what they are doing as powerful a motivational inconsistent, conflicting, they become distracted, force biological urges unrealistic, or preoccupied, can be when they are inappropriate overwhelmed, or not currently standards. intoxicated. experiencing them.

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