AROUSAL Arousal’s Contribution to Motivation1. A person’s arousal level is mostly a function of how stimulating the environment is.2. People engage in behavior to increase or decrease their level of arousal. When underaroused, people seek out opportunities to increase their arousal levels,3. because increases in environmental stimulation are pleasurable and enhance performance whereas decreases are aversive and undermine performance. When overaroused, people seek out opportunities to decrease their arousal levels,4. because increases in environmental stimulation are aversive and undermine performance whereas decreases are pleasurable and enhance performance.
CRITICISM Of The Inverted-uHypothesis Neiss’s Criticism The inverted-U hypothesis is descriptive rather than explanatory(it stops short of explaining HOW arousal facilitates or impairsperformance. Inverted-U hypothesis applies only when arousal levels areextreme (sensory deprivation studies)- does not apply to everydayaffairs in which arousal level changes very little
Sensation Seeking Search for New Experiences • Sensation seekers continually search for novel experiences. Risk Taking • Sensation seekers see sensations and experiences being worth physical, social, legal, or financial risks. Biological Basis• Sensation seekers have low levels of monoamine oxidase (MAO).• Sensation seekers tend to have relatively high levels of dopamine; hence, their biochemistry favors approach over inhibition.• Sensation seekers tend to have relatively low levels of serotonin; hence, their biochemistry fails to inhibit them from risks and new experiences.
Affect Intensity Affect-stable individualsAffect-intense individuals Figure 13.5 Daily Mood Reports Graphed Over 80 Consecutive Days
Affect IntensityFigure 13.6Affective Reactions to Good and Bad Events by Affect-Intense and Affect-Stable Individuals
Perceived Control In order to perceive that one has control over a givensituation… 1. The self must be capable of obtaining the available desired outcome 2. The situation in which one attempts to exercise control needs to be at least somewhat predictable and responsive.
Perceived Control PerceivedControl Beliefs • Goal setting • Task choice High Perceived • Effort Control • Concentration • Persistence in the face of vs. difficulty Low Perceived • Positive emotional states • Problem-solving strategies Control • Performance
High Perceived Control A person with high perceived control Initiates action Exerts effort Focuses concentration Persists in the face of difficulty During performance- keeps plans and strategies in mind, maintains positive emotional state, monitors problem solving strategies, and generates and monitors feedback Leads to strong performance and makes control over outcomes possible
Low Perceived Control A person with low perceived control Seeks out relatively easy tasks Sets lower and vaguer goals Generates simple plans with fewer fall back strategies Concentration wanders Confidence is quick to drop Attention often turns to ruminating over why the task is so difficult As effort decreases, cognitive and emotional engagements decline, and discouragement sets in- performance will suffer
Desire for Control Attributions Aspiration Response to Persistence for Success and Level Challenge FailureHigh DC Select harder More likely tocompared tasks; set goals React with Work at difficult attribute success towith Low more greater effort task longer self and failure toDC realistically unstable sourceHigh DC Higher goals are Difficult tasks Difficult tasks Motivation levelBenefit achieved are completed are completed remains high May develop May attemptHigh DC performance- May invest too May develop an goals tooLiability inhibiting much effort illusion of control difficult reactionsFigure 13.7 Influence of Desire for Control during Achievement-Related Performance (Burger, 1985)
Losing Control High DC individuals exhibit distress, anxiety, depression, dominance, and assertive coping in situations where their control is threatened or lost Ex. Visiting the Dentist, Crowding