Aspects of emotion

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Discusses biological, cognitive, social and cultural aspects of emotion.

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  • My dear, How are you today? i will like to be your friend My name is Sheikha Ghunaim , am a 43 years old divorcee. Please write to me in my email ( Sheikhaghunaim2@hotmail.com ). im honest and open mind single woman. im going to tell more when i see your response. Regards Sheikha.
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  • Image source:
    http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Amarguraubeda.JPG
    Image by: http://www.cristodelacaída.es/
    Image license: Public domain
    Acknowledgements: This lecture is based in part on instructor resource slides from Wiley.
    Wednesday 5 October, 2016, 12:30-14:30, 12B2
    7124-6665 Motivation and Emotion / G
    Centre for Applied Psychology
    Faculty of Health
    University of Canberra
    Bruce, ACT 2601, Australia
    ph: +61 2 6201 2536
    [email_address]
    http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Motivation_and_emotion
  • Suppression (and other defence mechanisms)
  • Notes: This is the first section within the Aspects of Emotion chapter of Reeve (2009)
    Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bipolar_Dyptych_1_365.jpg
    Image by: Capra Royale
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-Alike 2.0 Generic, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • William James and Carl Lange
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Notes: This is the second section within the Aspects of Emotion chapter of Reeve (2009)
    Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bipolar_Dyptych_1_365.jpg
    Image by: Capra Royale
    Image license: Creative Commons Share-Alike 2.0 Generic, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/deed.en
  • How does the perception of an object or event produce a good or bad appraisal?
    How does the appraisal generate emotion?
    How does felt emotion express itself in action?
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Notes: This is the third section within the Aspects of Emotion chapter of Reeve (2009)
    Image source:
    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Just_love.jpg
    Image by: Renee, http://www.flickr.com/people/80355002@N00
    Image license: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed.en
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Expression_of_the_Emotions_Figure_1.png
    Image author: Charles Bell
    License: Public domain
  • Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Information_icon4.svg
    License: Public domain
    Image source: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autoroute_icone.svg
    License: CC-BY-A 2.5
    Author: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Doodledoo
  • Aspects of emotion

    1. 1. 1 Motivation & Emotion Dr James Neill Centre for Applied Psychology University of Canberra 2016 Image source Aspects of emotion
    2. 2. 2 Aspects of emotion (Emotion Part 2): Biological, cognitive & social aspects Reading: Reeve (2015) Ch 13 (pp. 369-403)
    3. 3. 3 1. What is an emotion? 2. What causes an emotion? 3. How many emotions are there? 4. What good are the emotions? 5. Can we control our emotions? 6. What is the difference between emotion and mood? Review of previous lecture: Perennial questions about emotion
    4. 4. 4 What is an emotion? Feelings • Subjective experience • Phenomenological awareness • Cognitive interpretation Bodily arousal ● Bodily preparation for action ● Physiological activiation ● Motor responses Emotion Sense of purpose •Impulse to action •Goal-directed motivational state •Functional aspect to coping Significant life event Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 12.1 Four components of emotion, p. 340) Social-expressive • Social communication •Facial expression • Vocal expression A distinct pattern of neural activity
    5. 5. 5 What is an emotion? Feelings • Subjective experience • Phenomenological awareness • Cognitive interpretation Bodily arousal ● Bodily preparation for action ● Physiological activiation ● Motor responses Emotion Sense of purpose •Impulse to action •Goal-directed motivational state •Functional aspect to coping Significant life event Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 12.1 Four components of emotion, p. 340) Social-expressive • Social communication •Facial expression • Vocal expression A distinct pattern of neural activity
    6. 6. 6 Basic emotions Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 347-349) Basic emotions Fear Anger Disgust Sadness Interest Joy Negative emotion theme • Response to threat and harm Positive emotion theme • Response to involvement and satisfaction potential of threat and harm fighting off threat and harm rejecting threat and harm after threat and harm motive involve- ment satis- faction
    7. 7. 7 What good are the emotions? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 352-353) Utility of emotion Coping functions Social functions
    8. 8. 8 1. Situation selection 2. Situation modification 3. Attentional focus 4. Reappraisal 5. Suppression How can we control our emotions? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 357-361)
    9. 9. 9 What is the difference between emotion & mood? Based on Reeve (2015, p. 361) Significant life events Specific Short-lived Ill-defined Influence cognition Long-lived Antecedents Action- Specificity Time course Criteria Emotions Moods
    10. 10. 10 Outline – Aspects of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, p. 369) Biological Cognitive Social- cultural  James-Lange theory  Contemporary perspective  Brain activity  Facial Feedback Hypothesis  James-Lange theory  Contemporary perspective  Brain activity  Facial Feedback Hypothesis  Appraisal  Complex appraisal  Appraisal process  Emotion differentiation  Emotion knowledge  Attributions  Emotions affect cognition  Appraisal  Complex appraisal  Appraisal process  Emotion differentiation  Emotion knowledge  Attributions  Emotions affect cognition  Social interaction  Social sharing of emotion  Cultural construction of emotion  Social interaction  Social sharing of emotion  Cultural construction of emotion
    11. 11. 11 Biological and cognitive aspects of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, Based on Table 13.1, p. 370) Biological Cognitive 1. Autonomic nervous system 2. Subcortical brain circuits 3. Facial feedback 1.Appraisals 2.Knowledge 3.Attributions
    12. 12. 12 Biological aspects of emotion Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bipolar_Dyptych_1_365.jpg
    13. 13. 13 1. Does each emotion have unique bodily reactions? 2. (To what extent) do bodily changes induce emotion? Stimulus → Emotion → Bodily reaction Stimulus → Bodily reaction → Emotion What is the role of bodily reactions in emotion? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 370-371)
    14. 14. 14 J-L theory rests on two assumptions: 1. The body reacts uniquely to different emotion-eliciting events. Different patterns of activity cause different emotions. 2. The body does not react to non-emotion-eliciting events. If body changes do not occur, then emotion does not occur. James-Lange theory of emotion Emotional experience is a way of making sense of bodily changes sudden cold shower → increased heart-rate/arousal → emotion (e.g., surprise/shock/fear) Emotional experience is a way of making sense of bodily changes sudden cold shower → increased heart-rate/arousal → emotion (e.g., surprise/shock/fear) Based on Reeve (2015, p. 371)
    15. 15. 15 1. Body reactions are actually part of the fight or flight response that does not vary between emotions. 2. Emotional experience is quicker than the physiological reaction. 3. The role of physiological arousal is to augments, rather than cause, emotion. Its role is small, supplemental, and relatively unimportant. James-Lange theory of emotion: Criticisms Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 371-372)
    16. 16. 16 1. Distinct physiological differences (e.g., heart rate and skin temperature) are evident for some emotions (e.g., anger, fear, sadness, and disgust). But only a few emotions have distinct ANS patterns (ones with survival value). 2. Emotions recruit biological and physiological support to enable adaptive behaviours such as fighting, fleeing, and nurturing. James-Lange theory of emotion: Contemporary perspective Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 372-374)
    17. 17. 17 1. Distinct neural circuits (Gray): 1. Behavioural approach system 2. Fight or flight system 3. Behavioural inhibition system (→ Joy, Fear, Rage and Anxiety) 2. Basic emotion brain activity: 1. Happiness (9 areas) 2. Sadness (35 areas) 3. Anger (13 areas) 4. Fear (11 areas) 5. Disgust (16 areas) Brain activity for specific emotions Based on Reeve (2015, p. 374)
    18. 18. 18 Emotion stems from feelings aroused by: 1. Movements of the facial musculature 2. Changes in facial temperature 3. Changes in glandular activity in the facial skin Facial feedback hypothesis e.g., Does smiling make you happy? Based on Reeve (2015, p. 375)
    19. 19. Facial feedback hypothesis Sequence of the emotion-activating events according to the FFH Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 13.1, p. 376)
    20. 20. 20 There are 80 facial muscles, 36 of which are involved in facial expression. 8 of these muscles are sufficient for differentiating among the basic emotions: 1. Upper: frontalis (forehead), corrugator (eyebrows), orbicularis (around eyes) 2. Middle: zygomaticus (corners of mouth to cheekbone), nasalis (wrinkles nose) 3. Lower: depressor (corners of mouth down), orbicularis oris (circular muscle around mouth), quadratus labii (draws corners of mouth backwards) Facial musculature Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 376-377)
    21. 21. 21 1. Strong version: FF engenders emotion. 2. Weak version: FF modifies intensity of emotion i.e., there is a two-way relation between emotional feeling and emotional expression. 3. Critics contend that the effect of FF is small. Facial feedback hypothesis Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 379-380)
    22. 22. 22 ● Paul Ekman tested cross-cultural recognition of facial expressions in the 1970s. ● Agreement across cultures was very high. ● This provided evidence that facial expression of emotion is cross-culturally universal and has an innate, unlearned component. Are facial expressions of emotion universal across cultures? Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 380-381)
    23. 23. 23 Basic emotions exercise In pairs, each person facially expresses each of these emotions until the partner guesses right: FearFear AngerAnger DisgustDisgust SadnessSadness InterestInterest JoyJoy
    24. 24. 24 Ekman's work on basic emotions Video (11 mins 24 secs): http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-PFqzYoKkCc
    25. 25. 25 Cognitive aspects of emotion Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bipolar_Dyptych_1_365.jpg
    26. 26. 26 Cognitive aspects of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 382-383) Without an antecedent cognitive appraisal of the event, emotions do not occur. central construct in cognitive understanding of emotion The appraisal, not the event itself, causes the emotion.  An appraisal is an estimate of the personal significance of an event.  An appraisal is an estimate of the personal significance of an event.
    27. 27. 27 Appraisal theory of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 13.6, p. 383) SITUATION Life event APPRAISAL Good or Bad (beneficial vs. harmful) EMOTIONS Liking vs. Disliking ACTION Approach vs. Withdrawal Arnold’s Appraisal Theory of Emotion Questions: ● How does the perception of an object or event produce a good or bad appraisal? ● How does the appraisal generate emotion? ● How does felt emotion express itself in action?
    28. 28. 28 * Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 13.7, p. 347) Appraisal Type of benefit • Making progress toward a goal • Taking credit for an achievement • Improving on a distressing condition • Believing a desired outcome is possible • Desiring or participating in affection • Being moved by another’s suffering • Appreciating an altruistic gift Type of harm • Being demeaned by a personal offense • Transgressing a moral imperative • Failing to live up to an ego ideal • Experiencing an irrevocable loss • Taking in an indigestible object or idea Type of threat • Facing an uncertain, unspecific threat • Facing immediate, overwhelming danger • Wanting what someone else has • Resenting a rival for one’s own loss Emotion • Happiness • Pride • Pride • Hope • Love • Compassion • Gratitude • Anger • Guilt • Shame • Sadness • Disgust • Anxiety • Fright • Envy • Jealousy SITUATION Life event Cognitive processes that intervene between important life events and physiological and behavioural reactivity. Lazarus's complex appraisals
    29. 29. 29 Complex appraisal theories are about 65-70% accurate in predicting people's emotions. Why not 100%? 1. Other processes contribute e.g., biology 2. Appraisals intensify rather than cause emotion 3. Patterns of appraisal for many emotions overlap 4. Developmental differences 5. Emotion knowledge and attributions Appraisal theory of emotion
    30. 30. Emotion differentiation Based on Reeve (2015, Figure 13.8, p. 389) Appraisal decision tree to differentiate among 17 emotions Responsibility Goal/need at stake and pleasantness Copingability
    31. 31. 31  We learn to distinguish finer shades of emotion as we develop (these distinctions are stored cognitively).  An individual's emotion knowledge is the number of emotions s/he can distinguish.  Emotion knowledge partially underlies the rationale for teaching emotional intelligence. Emotion knowledge Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 390-391)
    32. 32. 32  An attribution is the reason the person uses to explain an important life outcome.  Primary attribution – good or bad  Secondary attribution – cause  Primary + secondary attributions → emotion Attributions Based on Reeve (2015, p. 391)
    33. 33. Based on Reeve (2015, p. 394) An attribution is the reason a persons uses to explain an important life outcome. Attribution theory of emotion The attribution roots of the seven emotions.
    34. 34. 34 Social aspects of emotion Image: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Just_love.jpg
    35. 35. 35 Social aspects of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 395-401) Appraisal contributes a cognitive understanding of emotion. Social interaction contributes a social understanding of emotion. The socio-cultural context contributes a cultural understanding of emotion.
    36. 36. 36 1. Mimicry 2. Feedback 3. Contagion Emotion via social interaction Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 395-396)
    37. 37. Similar & dissimilar basic emotions for people from different cultures Based on Reeve, Figure 13.12 Cluster analysis of basic emotion families in Chinese and English (2015, p. 399)
    38. 38. 38 Social aspects of emotion Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 395-401) Other people and cultures instruct us about the causes of our emotions. How we should express our emotions. When to control our emotions, Emotion knowledge Expression management Emotion management
    39. 39. 39  Emotions show ANS specificity (i.e., anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust show distinct changes in blood pressure and skin temperature)  Therefore, sensors built into mobile devices, mice, equipment during work, entertainment, exercise etc. could potentially monitor emotion and adjust programming accordingly. Affective computing Based on Reeve (2015, p. 373)
    40. 40. 40 Robots that “show emotion” David Hanson Video (4 mins 58 secs): http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/en/david_hanson_robots_that_relate_to_you.html
    41. 41. 41  Biological: Emotions energise and direct bodily actions by affecting the ANS, neural brain circuits, and facial feedback.  Cognitive: Appraisal evaluates the significance of events, and attribution explains the cause of events. Different appraisals/attributions lead to different emotions.  Social: Other people are rich sources for our emotion e.g., through mimicry, feedback, contagion, and social sharing of emotion.  Cultural: Cultural construction of emotion guides members about how to experiences, express, and manage emotions in socially acceptable ways. Summary Based on Reeve (2015, pp. 401-402)
    42. 42. 42  Emotions Individual emotions (Ch14)  Applied concerns Unconscious motivation (Ch 15) Growth psychology (Ch 16) Interventions & review (Ch 17) Upcoming lectures
    43. 43. 43 References  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  Reeve, J. (2015). Understanding motivation and emotion (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Note: Image credits are in the slide notes
    44. 44. 44 Open Office Impress  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html  This presentation was made using Open Office Impress.  Free and open source software.  http://www.openoffice.org/product/impress.html

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