PersonalityThe combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individuals distinctive character.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)• Influenced by Kant, Plato, Nietzsche – Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of therapy analysis – Conscious &unconscious mind – Psychotherapy: Overarching term for talking therapies – Childhood conflicts important • Personality forms by 6 years old
Who is Sigmund Freud?http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=wiBy9MmK4jY
Influences on art & cinema Surrealism The Persistence of Memory by Salvador Dali
• Conscious mind: Mental events that we are presently aware of• Unconscious mind: The feelings, impulses, and wishes that is beyond awareness (dreams and sleeps of the tongue)
The Id, Ego, Superego• Personality grows out of conflict• Impulses of survival, aggression, and pleasure seeking vs. social rules and restraints• Resolution of this conflict shapes personality
ID EGO SUPEREGO •Sense of right and wrong •Rationality •Both in conscious and •Ensure that Ids wants are unconscious•Instinctive and primitive •Learned rights and acceptable in the “real •Entirely unconscious wrongs that control you world” •Pleasure principle •Moral aspects of •Mostly located in the •Center of wants an personality conscious part primal desires •Represents internalized •Moderator between ID •Demands immediate ideals and provides and SuperEGO satisfaction standards for judgment •Logical aspect of •Born with it •What we should do personality•Located in subconscious •Right and wrong •Conscious part of the •Unconsciously tries to •The conscious (prevents personality with satisfy basic sexual and us from doing morally bad “executive aggressive drives things) powers” •Pleasure Principle •Ego ideal (motivates us to •Reality Principle do what is morally right)
What would happen if the ID is the strongest?What would happen if the Super Ego is the strongest?What does the ego use to protect itself from anxiety? Selfish Ego Judgmental Antisocial Moral Self-absorbed Guilty Rigid
How important it is to you to stay on your diet vs. the piece of cake? Super Ego "You know you dontreally want to. It wouldreverse all the good work IDyouve done so far andyoud feel sooooo guilty ifyou ate it." "go ahead, its just one piece! Enjoy it!"
Let’s play a game• Form groups of three• Each person take the role of Ego, Superego, and ID• Develop a skit showing a conversation between an individual’s id, ego, and superego. Create a conversation that depicts the motivating factors of the ID and Superego. Every person must have a role. – You notice as you are parking your car at school that someone you dislike has forgotten to turn his/her headlights off. What do you do? – A friend offers to pay you 100TL for a paper you wrote in English two years ago. He/she would turn it in, only changing his/her name. What do you do? – Your parents are gone for the weekend. Should you have a party without asking them, knowing they’d say no?
DefenseMechanism • Psychoanalytic theory holds that each adult inherits problems or conflicts from his/her childhood, along with particular ways of coping them. • Ego may rely on defense mechanisms, which are unconscious strategies to cope with frightening impulses of id or attacks of superego conflicts or demands from the environment.
Defense Refusing to accept anxiety causing information.Mechanism Pushing back an unpleasant or unacceptable memory, idea, or impulse into the unconscious, • Denial where it is no longer actively threatening • Repression Attributing unwanted impulses and feelings to someone else. • Projection Returning to a previous stage of development • Regression Expression of unwanted feelings • Displacement or thought directed from a more powerful person to a weaker, • Rationalization less threatening one Distorting reality, by justifying • Sublimation what happened. Diverting unacceptable, unwanted impulses into socially acceptable thoughts, behaviors and feelings.
Denial Repression Regression16 year old Nehir was People held in Elanur was homesicksmoking, but her concentration and anxious when sheparents didn’t believe camps may not be left home for college.the teacher when told able to remember She began to sleepthem about the what happened with her favoriteproblem while there. teddy bear again. Projection Displacement Rationalization After her new baby Ezgi told herAli is angry at his wife brother came from parents she got CCfor not listening, the hospital the in psychologywhen in fact it is him parents discovered because all AAswho does not listen. that Ada and BBs went to dismembered her the students who favorite doll. cheated on exam.
Psychosexual Development• Personality develops throughout childhood• Each stage of development is defined by erogenous zone (sexual interest in a particular part of the body): – Oral – Anal – Phallic – Latency – Genital
Freuds stages of psychosexual development Adolescence throughBirth to 1 year 1-3 years 3-6 years 7-11 years adulthood Oral Anal Phallic Latency GenitalThe oral cavity Anus is the The glans and the Not a stage but Reemergence(mouth, tongue, pleasure center in genital organ are break, when sexual of sexuallips and gums) is the baby’s body the pleasure needs are quiet ad interests andthe pleasure center. and toilet training is centers. Pleasure is children put psychic establishmentsIts function is to the most important derived from the energy into of matureobtain an activity. genital stimulation conventional sexual relations.appropriate and unconscious activities like school Lasts thoughamount of sucking, sexual desire for work and sports. adulthood. Theeating, biting, and the parent of the goal od thetalking. opposite sex. health live is to Resolution of “love and work conflict caused by well”. the desire is the goal.
Success Criteria• What age do we pass through each stage?• Where on the body is libido focused?• How is pleasure gained in each stage?• Which personality structure is present or develops?• What may cause a fixation in each stage?
Oral Stage (Birth to 1 year)• Mouth is the infant’s erogenous zone.• Child achieves gratification (sense of comfort) through oral activities (eg. Sucking, eating, biting)• Child eventually must become less dependent on caretakers as it grows.• An infant who is neglected (under- fed) or overprotected (over-fed) may become orally fixated with the onset of adulthood.• Fixation may result in aggression ues with dependency and (eg. May lead to issues with eating, drinking, smoking, and habits like thumb sucking, nail-biting)
Anal Stage (1 to 3 years old)• The erogenous zone shifts from the oral cavity to anal region with the realization that going to the bathroom is is a pleasurable event.• Child learns to respond to some demands of society (self-control). – Too much control or too little control lead to anal fixation. (eg. Disorganized vs. obsessively organized)
Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years old)• Erogenous zone shifts from anal to genitals• Developed theory from the male perspective: “phallic-> penis”• Child learns difference between male, females and become aware of sexuality.• Males have potential to develop Oedipus Complex, while females can develop Electra Complex.
Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years old)• Family dynamics, identification with parents, moral development, sexual development• Oedipus Complex: Males are sexually intrigued by their mothers and jealous of their father’s intrusion.• Boys – Wants to be like dad – Fantasizes eliminating father – Identifies with father – Formation of gender roles King Oedipus explains the riddle of the Sphinx- Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres
Phallic Stage (3 to 6 years old) Electra• Electra complex: Girls begin to complex: be attracted to their fathers, Electra at the and fall into “penis envy” Tomb of period (in contrast to Agamemnon, castration anxiety) by Frederic Leighton• Failure to resolve either of the complexes may lead to fixation in this stage.• Phallic character: e.g. Reclessness, narcissism• Unresolved complexes can lead difficulty in dealing with authority figures and a tendency to have trouble in loving relationships. Hamlet’: Possibility that he suffers from an Oedipus Complex.
Latency Stage (7 to 11 years old)• Child continues to develop own sexual urges (quietly)• Not necessarily a stage of development but more of a transitioning period between the phallic and genital stages.• Children at this stage repress their sexual desires to focus on areas like academics and athletics.• This stage is important to a person’s exploration of academic pursuits and subjects that are not sexually oriented; however this perspective soon changes radically.
Genital Stage (Adolescence through Adulthood)• Erogenous zone shifts to the genitals.• Less exposure in other stages will result in higher levels of sexual expression in the genital stage.
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory• A theory of psychosexual development – Maturation of the sex instinct• Thinks humans are driven by unconscious motives• Instinct – Inborn biological force that motivates responses• Repression – Motivated forgetting • Thoughts that produce anxiety are forced out of conscious awareness
Critique on Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory?• Focusing too much on the biological and sexual development, neglecting socio-cultural influences• Looked at males and females differently• Feminist-based critiques (male centeredness, male dominance)
Despite some shortcomings of Freud’s development theory, a range of his observations influenced further theories in the area of child development:• Child’s development of self- awareness• Ego development through separation from caregivers (attachment theory)
Assignment for Next Week• Conflict between id and superego can lead to emotional distress (anxiety or guilt). Bring an example to 7 defense mechanisms used to avoid these emotions related to child/adult behavior in classroom/educational contexts