Psychology of Emotion


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Psychology of Emotion

  1. 1. Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst
  2. 2. Emotion Module 12
  3. 3. Introduction Module 12: Emotion
  4. 4. Emotions <ul><ul><li>Whole-organism responses, involving: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive behaviors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious experience </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Debates in Emotion Research <ul><ul><li>Which comes first, physiological arousal or the subjective experience of an emotion? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can we react emotionally before appraising a situation, or does thinking always precede emotion? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Theories of Emotion: Historical Approaches Module 12: Emotion
  7. 7. Common Sense Theory <ul><ul><li>Emotion-arousing stimulus leads to a conscious feeling (fear, anger) and a physiological response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing an angry dog triggers feelings of fear and physical responses such as trembling. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. James-Lange Theory <ul><ul><li>An emotion-arousing stimulus in the environment triggers a physiological reaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our awareness of the physiological reaction leads to our experience of an emotion. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 12. Cannon-Bard Theory <ul><ul><li>An emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers both a physiological response and the experience of an emotion. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 15. Theories of Emotion: Cognition and Emotion Module 12: Emotion
  11. 16. Cognitive Appraisal <ul><ul><li>One’s thoughts about a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How a person interprets a situation in the environment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Two-Factor Theory <ul><ul><li>Emotions involve two factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A physiological arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A cognitive label of the arousal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called the Schachter-Singer Theory </li></ul></ul>
  13. 21. Robert Zajonc (1923- ) <ul><ul><li>Suggested that not all emotions involve deliberate thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore, cognition is not necessary for all emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some emotions skip the thinking part of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  14. 22. Paths to Emotional Responses
  15. 23. Paths to Emotional Responses
  16. 24. Paths to Emotional Responses
  17. 25. Richard Lazarus (1922- ) <ul><ul><li>Believed some emotions do not require conscious thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, there must be a minimum of unconscious thought. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 26. Fear: A Closer Look The Demise of Steven Singh Module 12: Emotion
  19. 27. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><ul><li>The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and muscles of the internal organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors the autonomic functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls breathing, blood pressure, and digestive processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 28. Divisions of the Nervous System
  21. 29. Sympathetic Nervous System <ul><ul><li>The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body to deal with perceived threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fight or flight response </li></ul></ul>
  22. 30. Divisions of the Nervous System
  23. 31. Parasympathetic Nervous System <ul><ul><li>The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings the body back down to a relaxed state </li></ul></ul>
  24. 32. Divisions of the Nervous System
  25. 33. Autonomic Nervous System
  26. 34. Autonomic Nervous System
  27. 35. Autonomic Nervous System
  28. 36. Autonomic Nervous System
  29. 37. Autonomic Nervous System
  30. 38. Autonomic Nervous System
  31. 39. Autonomic Nervous System
  32. 40. The Expression of Emotion: Nonverbal Communication Module 12: Emotion
  33. 41. Nonverbal Communication <ul><ul><li>Communicating feelings without words: --Facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tone of voice </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand gestures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called “body language” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 42. The Expression of Emotion: Gender and Cultural Effects on Emotion Module 12: Emotion
  35. 43. Gender Effects <ul><ul><li>Women are better at reading nonverbal communication of emotions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women tend to express emotions more than men do. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 44. Display Rules <ul><ul><li>The cultural rules governing how and when a person may express emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules greatly vary from culture to culture. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 45. Facial Expressions <ul><ul><li>Paul Ekman studied facial expressions in an attempt to determine if they are inborn or culturally based. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 46. Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness
  39. 47. Which Baby is Which? Anger, Disgust, Fear, Interest, Joy, Surprise, Sadness Joy Anger Interest Disgust Surprise Sadness Fear
  40. 48. Ekman’s Facial Expression Study <ul><ul><li>Insert “Ekman’s Studies on Facial Expression of Emotion” Video #28 from Worth’s Digital Media Archive for Psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions for importing the video file can be found in the ‘Readme’ file on the CD-ROM. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 49. The End