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  1. 1. The Motivated andEmotional Br ain Chapter 3
  2. 2. THE MOTIVATED AND EMOTIONAL BRAIN Why is the Brain Important? Thinking Brain Brain Cognitive and Intellectual Functions “What task it is doing” Motivated Brain “Whether you want to do it” Emotional Brain “What your mood is while doing it”
  3. 3. The Motivated And EmotionalBr ain Three Principles
  4. 4. The Motivated BrainFood Deprivation Activates the Ghrelin Release that Stimulatesthe Hypothalamus to Create HungerFigure 3.2
  5. 5. The Emotional BrainGood Event Activates The Dopamine Release ThatStimulates Positive Affect
  6. 6. Look Inside The BrainTwo Ways of Looking inside the Brain• Surgeon’s View• Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Figure 3.5 Cross Section of the Brain Showing the Anatomic Position of the Key Brain Structures Involved in Motivation and Emotion
  7. 7. Motivational and Emotional States Associated withApproach-Oriented Brain StructureBr ain Associated Motivational or EmotionalStructure ExperienceHypothalamus Pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, drinking, matingMedial forebr ainbundle Pleasure, reinforcementOrbitofrontal cor te x Learning the incentive value of events, making choicesSep tal area Pleasure center associated with sociability, sexualityNucleus accumbens Pleasurable experience of reward, hotspot for likingAnterior cingulatecorte x Mood, volition, making choicesCerebr al corte x(Frontal lobes) Making plans, setting goals, formulating intentionsLef t prefrontalcerebr al corte x Approach motivational and emotional tendenciesMedial prefrontal Learning response-outcome contingencies that underliecerebr al corte x perceived control beliefs and mastery motivation
  8. 8. Hypothalamus Comprises less than 1% of the total volume of the brain “motivational giant” Stimulation generates wants for, and the pleasures associated with, water, food, and sexual partners Regulates the endocrine and automatic nervous system Therefore it is able to regulate the body’s internal environment so to adapt optimally to the external environment  Ex. Internal (heart rate, hormone secretion) to cope with an External stressor
  9. 9. Medial Forebrain Bundle “Pleasure Center” Stimulation creates pleasure and leads animals to act as if they have just received (+) reinforcement In humans, stimulation produces general positive feelings
  10. 10. Orbitofrontal Cortex Processes incentive-related information Helps people make choices between options For example- which product to buy or what to drink
  11. 11. Septo-Hippocampal Circuit Forecasts the emotion associated with upcoming events in terms of both anticipated pleasure and anticipated anxiety Nucleus Accumbens- plays a critical role in the experience of pleasure form naturally occurring reinforces (good food, social acceptance) Includes Hippocampus (Avoidance-oriented)
  12. 12. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Involved in the control of day-to-day mood, volition, and choices Decreased activity is associated with sadness and depression Important to the mental activity underlying the act of “making a choice”
  13. 13. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Central role in the learning of response- outcome contingencies “When I study, I make good grades” Important to goal-directed, outcome seeking action
  14. 14. Left Prefrontal Cortex Prefrontal Cortex houses a person’s concious goals Goals routinely compete against one another (goal to eat vs. goal to lose weight) Positive approach oriented feelings Personality differences (more sensitive left vs. right prefrontal lobe)
  15. 15. Motivational and Emotional States Associated with Avoidance-Oriented Brain StructureBrain Structure Associated Motivational or Emotional ExperienceRightprefrontal Withdraw motivational and emotional tendenciescerebr al cor tex Detecting and responding to threat and dangerAmygdala (e.g., via fear, anger, and anxiety)Hippocampus Behavior inhibition system during unexpected events Table 3.1 Motivational and Emotional States Associated with Specific Brain Structure
  16. 16. Right Prefrontal Cortex Negative and avoidance oriented feelings Negative emotionality Related to a personality oriented toward anxiety and avoidance orientations
  17. 17. Amygdala Detects and responds to threatening and emotionally significant events Regulates the emotions involved in self- preservation (fear, anger, anxiety) Each nuclei serves a different function  Emotional anger  Fear and defensive behavior
  18. 18. Hippocampus Operates as a “comparator” that instantly compares incoming sensory information with expected events (from memory) If events do not unfold as expected the hippocampus acts in “not okay” mode  Activates septo-hippocampal circuit  Generates an anxiety-ridden motivational state that takes control over behavior
  19. 19. Arousal Motivational and Emotional States Associated with Arousal-Oriented Brain StructureBrain Structure Associated Motivational or Emotional Experience Alert/aroused cortex processes information, makes a decision, andReticular formation Arousal responds appropriately Figure 3.6 Anatomy (a) and Function (b) of the Reticular Formation
  20. 20. NEUROTRANSMITTER PATHWAYS INTHE BRAIN Neurotransmitter Pathway : A cluster of neurons that communicate with other neurons by using one particular neurotransmitter Four Motivationally Relevant Neurotransmitter Pathways 1. Dopamine 2. Serotonin 3. Norepinephrine 4. Endorphin
  21. 21. Dopamine
  22. 22. Dopamine
  23. 23. Hormones In The BodyEssential Hormones underlying Motivation, Emotion, and Behavior
  24. 24. The World In Which Brain Lives