PL ANS: The TOTE Unit The cognitive mechanism by which plans energize and direct behavior. If Incongruous TEST OPERATE TEST Compare Act on Compare Present State Environment Present StateWith Ideal State If Incongruous To Realize With Ideal State Ideal State If congruous EXIT Schematic of the TOTE Model Present State in Congruity with Ideal State
PL ANS: Discrepancy Present state represents the persons Ideal state represents current status of how life is going. how the persons wishes life was going. Presen Ideal t State State• When the present state falls short of the hoped-for ideal state, a discrepancy is exposed.• It is the discrepancy-rather than the ideal state per se– that has motivational properties.• Discrepancy creates the sense of wanting to change the present state so that it will move closer and closer toward the ideal state.
T wo T ypes of Discrepancy Discrepancy Reduction Discrepancy CreationBased on the discrepancy-detecting Based on a “feed-forward” systemfeedback that underlies plans and in which the person looks forward corrective motivation. and proactively sets a future, higher goal.Discrepancy reduction corresponds Discrepancy creation corresponds toto plan-based corrective motivation. goal-setting motivation.Discrepancy reduction is reactive, Discrepancy creating is proactive,deficiency overcoming, and revolves growth pursuing, and revolves aroundaround a feedback system. a “feed-forward” system.
A goal is whatever anindividual is trying toaccomplish. Goal Setting * A reference point for guiding subsequent mental and physical action so one can evaluate adequacy for ones performance.(1) Standarda definition of what adequate performance is * Defines the cross-over point between satisfaction and dissatisfaction(2) Incentive *An target to aim for—usually with ana performance criterion for reinforcement external object to aim for such as money or a high grade.
How Difficult and Specific Goals Raise Performance to Remove Goal-Performance Discrepancies Energizes Behavior • Increases Effort, When Person Works Harder Difficult • Increases Persistence, Person Works Longer EnhancedSetting a Goal Performance Directs Behavior • Increases Attention, When Person Works with Focus Specific • Increases Planning, Person Works Smarter Figure 8.2
Additional Goal MechanismsWhy do goals work to increase performance?
Feedback documents the performer’s progress towards goal attainment.The Fundamental Importance of Feedback or, Knowledge of Results Above-standard(1) Feedback defines performance At-standard Therefore, instructive to future goal setting efforts Below-standard(2) Feedback acts as a reinforcer (or punisher)
Goal ProcessesVariables that Moderate the Goal Performance Relationship
Four factors that Affect Goal Acceptance 1. Perceived difficulty of the imposed goal There is an inverse relationship between goal difficulty and goal commitment. Participation in the goal-setting process 2. A negotiated goal with flexibility and give-and-take facilitates participation and internalization of the goal. 3. Credibility of the person assigning the goal 4. Extrinsic incentives
Four Predictors of Goal Choice Each predictor provides an independent contributions Goal Choice • Ideal goal • Actual goal • Minimal goal
Short-term vs. Long-term Goal-Setting of short-term goal: Pass Exam 3 in my Psychology course • Example • Example of long-term goal: Become a teacher in Public School System Problems with Long-Term Goals (LTGs) 1 With LTGs, there is a prolonged period of time in which performance goes unreinforced. Therefore, goal commitment can be expected to decrease. 2 LTGs don’t provide/generate immediate performance feedback. * Therefore, * This solution is especially performer may benefit necessary if the long-term goal by translating a long-term goal is a relatively uninteresting task to into a series of short-term goals. perform.
A Long-Term Goal as a Complex Cognitive Lattice StructureFigure 8.4
Dangers & Pitfalls in Goal-Setting *Goals seen as too difficult1 Increased Stress *Goal overload *Goal conflict *Difficult goals may lead to sub-goal performance and2 Possibility for Failure therefore to detrimental emotional consequences associated with failure. *The purpose of goal is to focus attention and action in3 Non-goal Areas Ignored certain directions. So non-goal areas are intentionally devalued.4 Short-Range Thinking *Proximal vs. Distal goal-setting debate. *Goals, when made public and when involving extrinsic5 Cheating incentives, can create performance pressure and prompt efforts at cheating rather than effort at skill development. *If task is interesting, short-term goals are typically experienced as controlling and undermine intrinsic motivation Undermines (IM).6 Intrinsic Motivation *If task is uninteresting, short-term goals can create competence feedback and increase intrinsic motivation.
A specific goal-directed action, initiated at an anticipated future outcomes Implementation Intentions A 2-Step Process (1) (2) Set the goal Planning How to attaine.g.,make a 4.0 GPA That goalConsume < 2,000 Kcal todayRun this mile in <8:00 min.
Implementation Intentions (2) Planning how to attain the goal
Implementation Intentions Goal Pursuit Goal Pursuit Getting Started Persisting & FinishingAttaining goals requires not only Implementation intentions help effective goal setting but also a Direct one’s attention toward pre-action period in which one goal-directed action while decides when, where, and how excluding distractions that goal will be implemented.
Putting it all togetherSteps in an Effective Goal-Setting Program Sequential Steps within the Goal-Setting Process Sequential Steps within the Goal-Striving Process