Five Validated Sources of Self-Esteem1. Secure attachments in interpersonal relationships2. Positive reflected appraisals of “how others see and evaluate us”.3. Positive social comparisons Specific competencies we posses that are valued not only by ourselves4. but by society5. Positive social identities
Self-Concept (cognitive structure) Set of beliefs an individual uses to conceptualize his or her self . Cluster of domain-specific self-schemas
Benefits of Well Developed Self-Schema Quickly retrieve self-related Process information about behavioral evidence from the self with relative ease. the domain. Benefits of Well-Developed Self-SchemaConfidently predict his Resist counter-schematicown future behavior in the information aboutdomain. him/herself.
Figure 10.1 Processes Underlying Self-Verification and Self-Concept Change
Representations of attributes, characteristics,Possible Selves an abilities that the self does not yet possess. Mostly social in origin, as the individual observes the selves modeled by others. The possible self’s motivational role is to link the present self with ways to become the possible (ideal) self. An important piece of the puzzle in understanding how the self develops Portraying the self as a dynamic entity with a past, present, and future.
Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Assumptions A state of tension that occurswhenever an individual Most people are motivated tosimultaneously holds two justify their own actions, beliefs,cognitions (ideas, attitudes, and feelings.beliefs, opinions) that arepsychologically inconsistent People are not rational beings; instead, people are rationalizingwith one another. beings.
Affect Control Theory Motivation and Emotion Produce Identity- Identity-confirming restoringBehaviors behaviors(i.e., fundamental Sentiment- confirming)
Affect Control Theory People behave in ways that minimize affective deflection. Identities motivate behavior while affective deflections energize behavior. People with nice (or powerful) identities engage in nice(or powerful) behaviors. When people act in identity-conflicting ways, affective deflection occurs toenergize identity-restoring courses of action.
Agency Self as action and development from within, as innate processes and motivations Self as Action and Development from WithinHuman beings possess a core Not all self-structures areself, one energized by innate equally authentic; while motivation and directed by some reflect the core self, the inherent developmental others reflect and reproduce processes of the society. differentiation and integration.
Self-CorcordancePeople deciding to pursue goals that are congruent or “concordant” with their core self The Questions Asked By The Self-concordance Model1. How do people decide what to strive for in their lives? How does this personal striving process sometimes nurture the self and promote2. well-being yet other times go awry and diminish well-being? Figure 10.3 Self-Concordance Model
Diagrammatic Illustration of Self-Integrated and Nonintegrated ActionFigure 10. 4
Cyclical path Model for the Self-concordance Modelto Illustrate Developmental Gains in Both Well-Being and Self-concordance.Figure 10. 5 The self-concordance model illustrates the motivational and developmental benefits of pursuing life goals that emanate out of the integrated or core self.
Self-RegulationSelf-regulation involves the person’s metacognitive monitoring of how his or her goal-setting progress is going. Figure 10.6 Cyclical Phases of Self-Regulation
Developing More Competent Self-Regulation Acquiring a greater capacity for more effective self-regulation increases the self’s capacity to carry out the goal-setting process on one’s own.Figure 10.7 Summary of the Social Learning Process to Acquire Self-Regulation Skill