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ORIGIN OF CBT
• Aaron Beck was psychoanalytic psychotherapists.
• In early 1960 Aaron beck developed an approach known
  as cognitive therapy as a result of his research on
  depression.
• In psychoanalytic depression was thought to be based on
  retroflective hostility. But the beck findings did not
  support the psychoanalytic formulation.
• Aaron Beck observations of depressed clients revealed
  that they had a negative bias in their interpretation of
  certain life vents, which contributed to their cognitive
  distortions.
•
• Beck called it cognitive therapy because of the importance it
  places on thinking. It’s now known as cognitive-behavioral
  therapy (CBT) because the therapy employs behavioral
  techniques as well.
WHAT IS COGNITIVE
BEHAVIOR THERAPY
“CBT is a process of teaching, coaching, and
  reinforcing positive behaviors. CBT helps people
   to identify cognitive patterns or thoughts and
      emotions that are linked with behaviors.”
• Thinking: Different people can think differently about the
  same event. The way in which we think about an event influences
  how we feel and how we act. A classic example is that when
  looking at a glass of water filled halfway, one person will see it
  half empty and feel discouraged and the other sees it half full and
  feels optimistic.
•    Behavior:       What we do affects how we feel and
    think. The individual, who deals with an upcoming exam
    by putting off his studies until the last minute, is likely to
    experience more distress on the day of the exam than an
    individual who has studied well in advance. CBT helps
    people to learn new behaviors and new ways of coping
    with events, often involving the learning of particular
    skills.
• Therapy : Besides its special focus on the relationships
    between how we think, feel and behave, the following are
    fundamental to the practice of CBT.
            o Qualities of the Therapeutic Relationship
             o Goal-setting
             o Focus on the Present
             o Structure
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS
         OF CBT
• Beck’s is based on the theoretical rationale that the way
  people feel and behave is determined by how the perceive
  and structure their experience.
• The theoretical assumptions of CBT are
            1) that people’s communication is accessible to
                introspections.

           2)    that clients’ beliefs have highly personal
                 meanings

           3) that these meanings can be discovered by the
                client rather than being taught or interpreted by
                the therapists.
PRINCIPLES OF CBT
BASIC PRINCIPLES
• Cognitions affect behavior and emotion.

• Cognitions may be made aware, monitored and altered.

• Desired emotional and behavioral change can be
  achieved through cognitive change.

• Change mood states by using cognitive and behavioral
  strategies:
   o Identifying/modifying automatic thoughts & core beliefs,

   o Regulating routine, and

   o Minimizing avoidance.
BASIC PRINCIPLES
• Emphasis on ‘here and now’
• Preference for concrete examples
   o Start with specific situation (complete thought log)

• Reliance on Socratic questioning
   o Ask open-ended questions

• Empirical approach to test beliefs
   o Challenge thoughts not based on evidence
   o Cognitive restructuring
ELEMENTS OF CBT
•   CBT has several defining elements. They are as follows:
        o ACTIVE: The client must be involved in the
           therapeutic process not as an observer or as an
           occasional visitor, but as a core and key participant.

        o MOTIVATIONAL: The therapist needs to take
          responsibility for helping to motivate the client toward
          a change in behavior, affect, or thinking. The therapist
          must be able to set up the format, and rationale for
          the client to consider change of value.

        o DIRECTIVE: The therapist must be able to develop a
          treatment plan and then to help the client to
          understand, contribute to, and see the treatment plan
          as a template for change.
o STRUCTURED: CBT is structured in two ways. First, the overall
  therapy follow structure that approximates the treatment plan.
  Sessions have identifiable beginning, middle and end.

o COLLABORATIVE: Therapeutic collaboration cannot be 50/50.
  for severe depressed client the possibility to generate 50% of
  the therapeutic effort is impossible. Initially, the collaboration
  may be 90/10. For each client, the therapist must evaluate the
  client’s ability and motivation for the therapy.

o PROBLEM-ORIENTED: CBT focuses on discrete problems rather
  than vague and amorphous goals of feeling good, getting better,
  or increasing self-esteem
o PSYCHO EDUCATION: The therapist works as a change
  agent. Many to problems that bring people therapy
  involve skills deficits. The therapist may have to teach
  by direct instruction , modeling, role playing.

o SOLUTION-FOCUSED: The CBT therapists works with
  the client on generating solutions not simply gaining
  insight into the problem.

o DYNAMICS: The dynamic level of CBT is to help
  clients to identify, understand, modify their schema.
  The schema are the basic templates for understanding
  one’s world. Schema may be personal, religious,
  cultural, gender-related.
o TIME-LIMITED: Each therapy session should, ideally ,
  stand alone. A time-limited focus is not a number of
  sessions, but rather way of looking at therapy.
BASIC FEATURES OF
       CBT
Rationale of CBT
• Negative emotions are elicited by cognitive processes
  developed through influences of learning and
  temperament.
• Adverse life events elicit automatic processing, which is
  viewed as the causal factor.
• Cognitive triad: Negative automatic thoughts center
  around our understanding of:
   o Ourselves
   o Others (the world)
   o Future
• Focus on examination of cognitive beliefs and developing
  rational responses to negative automatic thoughts.
• Distorted appraisals follow themes relevant to the specific
  psychiatric condition.
• Psychological disorders are characterized by a different
  psychological profile.
      o Depression: Negative view of self, others, and future. Core
         beliefs associated with helplessness, failure, incompetence,
         and un lovability.
      o Anxiety: Overestimation of physical and psychological
         threats. Core beliefs linked with risk, dangerousness, and
         uncontrollability.
COGNITIVE SPECIFICITY
• Negative Triad Associated with Depression
  o Self    “I am incompetent/unlovable”
  o Others “People do not care about me”
  o Future “The future is bleak”
• Negative Triad Associated with Anxiety
  o Self    “I am unable to protect myself”
  o Others “People will humiliate me”
  o Future “It’s a matter of time before I am
    embarrassed”
EVENT
                       Bill goes to
                       collection               APPRAISAL
MALADAPTIVE                                  “I can never do
 BEHAVIOR                                    anything right”
 Withdrawal,
  avoidance


                                       AFFECTIVE &
       BEHAVIORAL
                                        BIOLOGICAL
      INCLINATION
                                         AROUSAL
     I don’t want to
                                      decreased sleep,
        deal with it
                                        low energy
• Core beliefs underlie and produce automatic thoughts.
• These assumptions influence information processing and organize
  understanding about ourselves, others, and the future.
• These core beliefs remain dormant until activated by stress or
  negative life events.
• Categories of core beliefs (helpless, worthless, unlovable)
AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS
• Thoughts that automatically come to mind when a
  particular situation occurs is called as automatic
  thoughts.
• Happen spontaneously in response to situation
• Do not arise from reasoning
• No logical sequence
The systematic errors in reasoning that lead to faulty assumptions
       and misconceptions which are termed as cognitive distortions.
•   Arbitrary Inference: refers to making conclusions without
    supporting and relevant evidence. This includes “catastrophizing”
    or thinking of absolute worst scenario and outcomes for most
    situations.
•   Selective abstraction: consists of forming conclusions based on
    an isolation detail of an event. In this process other information is
    ignored and the significance of total context is missed.
•   Overgeneralization: is a process of holding extreme beliefs on the
    basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to
    dissimilar events and settings.
•   Magnification and minimization: consist of perceiving a case or
    situation in a greater or lesser light than it truly deserves.
COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS cont.
• Personalization: is a tendency for individuals to relate external
  events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making
  this connection.
• Labeling and Mislabeling: involve portraying one’s identity on
  the basis of imperfections and mistakes made past and
  allowing them to define one’s true identity.
• Polarized Thinking: involve thinking and interpreting in all-or-
  nothing terms, or categorizing experiences in either or
  extremes. With such dichotomous thinking, events are labeled
  in black or white terms.
Beck contends that people with emotional difficulties tend
 to commit characteristic “logical error” that tilt objective
reality in the direction of self-destruction. Cognitive therapy
    perceives psychological problems as stemming from
  commonplace processes such as faulty thinking, making
incorrect inferences on the basis of inadequate or incorrect
information and failing to distinguish between fantasy and
                           reality.
TECHNIQUES OF
     CBT
Techniques of CBT


The cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are an
interesting set of exercises that help modify a person's
   behavioral patterns. The behavioral patterns are
 modified in order to bring about positive changes in
                    the personality.
•   In this technique, the patient is asked to recall a problematic
    situation of the past.
•   The therapist and patient both work together to find out a solution
    for the problem or a way in which the difficult situation, if it occurs
    in the future can be sorted out.
•    The therapist asks the patient to rehearse positive thoughts
     cognitively in order to make appropriate changes to the latter's
     thought processes.
•    Power of imagination proves to be of great use in such exercises.
Validity Testing
•   In this techniques the therapist tests
    validity of beliefs/thoughts of the
    patient.
•   The patient is allowed to defend his
    viewpoint by means of objective
    evidence.
•   The faulty nature or invalidity of the
    beliefs of the patient is exposed if he/she
    is unable to produce any kind of
    objective evidence
•   It is the practice of maintaining a diary to keep an account of
    situations that arise in day-to-day life
•   Thoughts that are associated with these situations and the
    behavior exhibited in response to them are also mentioned in
    the diary.
•   The therapist and patient together review the matter written
    in the journal and find out maladaptive thought pattern.
•   The discussion that takes place between them proves to be
    useful in finding different ways in which behavior of the
    patient gets affected
Guided Discovery
•   The objective or purpose behind using this technique
    is that of helping patients by enabling them to
    understand their cognitive distortions.

•   Patients are made aware of and assisted by therapists
    in understanding how they process information.

•   The activity of understanding how information is
    processed allows patients to alter the same
    (information processing) if required.
Guided Discovery
•   Basically, the patient's perception of the world

    undergoes great change and he/she sees things in a

    different way than earlier.

•   This change in perception allows the patient to

    modify his/her behavior in a better manner
• It is one of the cognitive therapy techniques in
  which therapists perform role-playing
  exercises aimed at responding in a way that is
  helpful to overcome difficult situations.

• The patient makes use of this behavior of the
  therapist as a model in order to solve
  problems he/she comes across.
Homework:
• The homework is actually a set of
  assignments given by therapists to
  patients.


• The patient may have to take notes
  during sessions with therapists, review
  audiotapes of a particular session or
  read articles/books related to the
  therapy.
•   Amongst the different CBT techniques used
    by therapists, aversive conditioning
    technique makes use of dissuasion so as to
    lessen the appeal of a maladaptive behavior.
•   The patient while being engaged in a
    particular behavior or thought for which he
    has to be treated, is exposed to an
    unpleasant stimulus.
•   Thus, the unpleasant stimulus gets
    associated with these
    thoughts/behavior and then the
    patient exhibits an aversive
    behavior towards them
Reinforcement
•   The systematic positive reinforcement is one of
    the techniques of CBT therapy in which certain
    (positive) behavior of a person are rewarded
    with positive reinforcement.

•   A reinforcement system is established for the
    of certain positive behavior.
Just like positive reinforcement proves to
be helpful in encouraging a particular
behavior, withholding the reinforcement
deliberately also is instrumental in
eradicating a maladaptive behavior.
• In self-instructional coping methods, the therapist attempts not
  to completely change the way you think, but rather teaches
  coping methods that equip you to handle harmful thought
  processes. One such therapeutic process is stress inoculation
  training.


• This therapy -- which helps the patient deal with stressful events'
  aftermath -- aims to prevent negative reactions to stress-inducing
  factors by teaching the patient to break down these situations
  into short-term and long-term coping goals
Problem-Solving Methods
•    Cognitive-behavioral therapy -- which sees irrational
    thought processes as resolvable -- incorporates
    problem-solving methods. After illogical thought
    patterns are found, the patient must suggest several
    alternative solutions.

•   Through the decision-making process, negative
    solutions are weeded out until an acceptable, positive
    approach is discovered. This type of therapy sometimes
    is used in child psychotherapy when dealing with
    oppositional defiant disorder.
• One method of conducting cognitive-
  behavioral therapy is through computer-based
  programs. This therapy tends to decrease time
  spent with an actual therapist. Since computer-
  assisted CBT is relatively new, as of
  publication, most of the information is in the
  testing phase.
However, primary-care treatment programs that have
 begun integrating the method for treating co-morbid
anxiety and mood disorders have found promise in this
 type of therapy, states researchers in "Depression and
Anxiety," the official journal of the Anxiety Disorders
                Association of America
References
Barlow. D. H & Nathar. P. E.,(2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. Published by

    Oxford Press.Inc, New York.

Carson. R.C., Butcher J. N & Mineka. S., (2001). Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. ( 11th Ed).

    Published by Pearson education, Inc. and Dorling Kindersley Publishing Inc.

Doboson. D & Dobson. K., (2009). Evidence-Based Practice of Cognitive -Behavior Therapy.

    Published by Guilford publication.Inc.

Ronen. T & Freeman. A.,( 2007) CBT in Social Work Practice. Published by Spring publishing

    Company,LLC.

Sheldon. B.,(2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy Research and Practice in Health and Social Care.

    (2nd Ed). Published by Routledge publication New York.
Cognitive behavior therapy theory and practice

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Cognitive behavior therapy theory and practice

  • 1.
  • 3. • Aaron Beck was psychoanalytic psychotherapists. • In early 1960 Aaron beck developed an approach known as cognitive therapy as a result of his research on depression. • In psychoanalytic depression was thought to be based on retroflective hostility. But the beck findings did not support the psychoanalytic formulation. • Aaron Beck observations of depressed clients revealed that they had a negative bias in their interpretation of certain life vents, which contributed to their cognitive distortions. •
  • 4. • Beck called it cognitive therapy because of the importance it places on thinking. It’s now known as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) because the therapy employs behavioral techniques as well.
  • 6. “CBT is a process of teaching, coaching, and reinforcing positive behaviors. CBT helps people to identify cognitive patterns or thoughts and emotions that are linked with behaviors.” • Thinking: Different people can think differently about the same event. The way in which we think about an event influences how we feel and how we act. A classic example is that when looking at a glass of water filled halfway, one person will see it half empty and feel discouraged and the other sees it half full and feels optimistic.
  • 7. Behavior: What we do affects how we feel and think. The individual, who deals with an upcoming exam by putting off his studies until the last minute, is likely to experience more distress on the day of the exam than an individual who has studied well in advance. CBT helps people to learn new behaviors and new ways of coping with events, often involving the learning of particular skills. • Therapy : Besides its special focus on the relationships between how we think, feel and behave, the following are fundamental to the practice of CBT. o Qualities of the Therapeutic Relationship o Goal-setting o Focus on the Present o Structure
  • 9. • Beck’s is based on the theoretical rationale that the way people feel and behave is determined by how the perceive and structure their experience. • The theoretical assumptions of CBT are 1) that people’s communication is accessible to introspections. 2) that clients’ beliefs have highly personal meanings 3) that these meanings can be discovered by the client rather than being taught or interpreted by the therapists.
  • 11. BASIC PRINCIPLES • Cognitions affect behavior and emotion. • Cognitions may be made aware, monitored and altered. • Desired emotional and behavioral change can be achieved through cognitive change. • Change mood states by using cognitive and behavioral strategies: o Identifying/modifying automatic thoughts & core beliefs, o Regulating routine, and o Minimizing avoidance.
  • 12. BASIC PRINCIPLES • Emphasis on ‘here and now’ • Preference for concrete examples o Start with specific situation (complete thought log) • Reliance on Socratic questioning o Ask open-ended questions • Empirical approach to test beliefs o Challenge thoughts not based on evidence o Cognitive restructuring
  • 14. CBT has several defining elements. They are as follows: o ACTIVE: The client must be involved in the therapeutic process not as an observer or as an occasional visitor, but as a core and key participant. o MOTIVATIONAL: The therapist needs to take responsibility for helping to motivate the client toward a change in behavior, affect, or thinking. The therapist must be able to set up the format, and rationale for the client to consider change of value. o DIRECTIVE: The therapist must be able to develop a treatment plan and then to help the client to understand, contribute to, and see the treatment plan as a template for change.
  • 15. o STRUCTURED: CBT is structured in two ways. First, the overall therapy follow structure that approximates the treatment plan. Sessions have identifiable beginning, middle and end. o COLLABORATIVE: Therapeutic collaboration cannot be 50/50. for severe depressed client the possibility to generate 50% of the therapeutic effort is impossible. Initially, the collaboration may be 90/10. For each client, the therapist must evaluate the client’s ability and motivation for the therapy. o PROBLEM-ORIENTED: CBT focuses on discrete problems rather than vague and amorphous goals of feeling good, getting better, or increasing self-esteem
  • 16. o PSYCHO EDUCATION: The therapist works as a change agent. Many to problems that bring people therapy involve skills deficits. The therapist may have to teach by direct instruction , modeling, role playing. o SOLUTION-FOCUSED: The CBT therapists works with the client on generating solutions not simply gaining insight into the problem. o DYNAMICS: The dynamic level of CBT is to help clients to identify, understand, modify their schema. The schema are the basic templates for understanding one’s world. Schema may be personal, religious, cultural, gender-related. o TIME-LIMITED: Each therapy session should, ideally , stand alone. A time-limited focus is not a number of sessions, but rather way of looking at therapy.
  • 18. Rationale of CBT • Negative emotions are elicited by cognitive processes developed through influences of learning and temperament. • Adverse life events elicit automatic processing, which is viewed as the causal factor. • Cognitive triad: Negative automatic thoughts center around our understanding of: o Ourselves o Others (the world) o Future • Focus on examination of cognitive beliefs and developing rational responses to negative automatic thoughts.
  • 19. • Distorted appraisals follow themes relevant to the specific psychiatric condition. • Psychological disorders are characterized by a different psychological profile. o Depression: Negative view of self, others, and future. Core beliefs associated with helplessness, failure, incompetence, and un lovability. o Anxiety: Overestimation of physical and psychological threats. Core beliefs linked with risk, dangerousness, and uncontrollability.
  • 20. COGNITIVE SPECIFICITY • Negative Triad Associated with Depression o Self “I am incompetent/unlovable” o Others “People do not care about me” o Future “The future is bleak” • Negative Triad Associated with Anxiety o Self “I am unable to protect myself” o Others “People will humiliate me” o Future “It’s a matter of time before I am embarrassed”
  • 21. EVENT Bill goes to collection APPRAISAL MALADAPTIVE “I can never do BEHAVIOR anything right” Withdrawal, avoidance AFFECTIVE & BEHAVIORAL BIOLOGICAL INCLINATION AROUSAL I don’t want to decreased sleep, deal with it low energy
  • 22. • Core beliefs underlie and produce automatic thoughts. • These assumptions influence information processing and organize understanding about ourselves, others, and the future. • These core beliefs remain dormant until activated by stress or negative life events. • Categories of core beliefs (helpless, worthless, unlovable)
  • 23. AUTOMATIC THOUGHTS • Thoughts that automatically come to mind when a particular situation occurs is called as automatic thoughts. • Happen spontaneously in response to situation • Do not arise from reasoning • No logical sequence
  • 24. The systematic errors in reasoning that lead to faulty assumptions and misconceptions which are termed as cognitive distortions. • Arbitrary Inference: refers to making conclusions without supporting and relevant evidence. This includes “catastrophizing” or thinking of absolute worst scenario and outcomes for most situations. • Selective abstraction: consists of forming conclusions based on an isolation detail of an event. In this process other information is ignored and the significance of total context is missed. • Overgeneralization: is a process of holding extreme beliefs on the basis of a single incident and applying them inappropriately to dissimilar events and settings. • Magnification and minimization: consist of perceiving a case or situation in a greater or lesser light than it truly deserves.
  • 25. COGNITIVE DISTORTIONS cont. • Personalization: is a tendency for individuals to relate external events to themselves, even when there is no basis for making this connection. • Labeling and Mislabeling: involve portraying one’s identity on the basis of imperfections and mistakes made past and allowing them to define one’s true identity. • Polarized Thinking: involve thinking and interpreting in all-or- nothing terms, or categorizing experiences in either or extremes. With such dichotomous thinking, events are labeled in black or white terms.
  • 26. Beck contends that people with emotional difficulties tend to commit characteristic “logical error” that tilt objective reality in the direction of self-destruction. Cognitive therapy perceives psychological problems as stemming from commonplace processes such as faulty thinking, making incorrect inferences on the basis of inadequate or incorrect information and failing to distinguish between fantasy and reality.
  • 28. Techniques of CBT The cognitive behavioral therapy techniques are an interesting set of exercises that help modify a person's behavioral patterns. The behavioral patterns are modified in order to bring about positive changes in the personality.
  • 29. In this technique, the patient is asked to recall a problematic situation of the past. • The therapist and patient both work together to find out a solution for the problem or a way in which the difficult situation, if it occurs in the future can be sorted out. • The therapist asks the patient to rehearse positive thoughts cognitively in order to make appropriate changes to the latter's thought processes. • Power of imagination proves to be of great use in such exercises.
  • 30. Validity Testing • In this techniques the therapist tests validity of beliefs/thoughts of the patient. • The patient is allowed to defend his viewpoint by means of objective evidence. • The faulty nature or invalidity of the beliefs of the patient is exposed if he/she is unable to produce any kind of objective evidence
  • 31. It is the practice of maintaining a diary to keep an account of situations that arise in day-to-day life • Thoughts that are associated with these situations and the behavior exhibited in response to them are also mentioned in the diary. • The therapist and patient together review the matter written in the journal and find out maladaptive thought pattern. • The discussion that takes place between them proves to be useful in finding different ways in which behavior of the patient gets affected
  • 32. Guided Discovery • The objective or purpose behind using this technique is that of helping patients by enabling them to understand their cognitive distortions. • Patients are made aware of and assisted by therapists in understanding how they process information. • The activity of understanding how information is processed allows patients to alter the same (information processing) if required.
  • 33. Guided Discovery • Basically, the patient's perception of the world undergoes great change and he/she sees things in a different way than earlier. • This change in perception allows the patient to modify his/her behavior in a better manner
  • 34. • It is one of the cognitive therapy techniques in which therapists perform role-playing exercises aimed at responding in a way that is helpful to overcome difficult situations. • The patient makes use of this behavior of the therapist as a model in order to solve problems he/she comes across.
  • 35. Homework: • The homework is actually a set of assignments given by therapists to patients. • The patient may have to take notes during sessions with therapists, review audiotapes of a particular session or read articles/books related to the therapy.
  • 36. Amongst the different CBT techniques used by therapists, aversive conditioning technique makes use of dissuasion so as to lessen the appeal of a maladaptive behavior. • The patient while being engaged in a particular behavior or thought for which he has to be treated, is exposed to an unpleasant stimulus.
  • 37. Thus, the unpleasant stimulus gets associated with these thoughts/behavior and then the patient exhibits an aversive behavior towards them
  • 38. Reinforcement • The systematic positive reinforcement is one of the techniques of CBT therapy in which certain (positive) behavior of a person are rewarded with positive reinforcement. • A reinforcement system is established for the of certain positive behavior.
  • 39. Just like positive reinforcement proves to be helpful in encouraging a particular behavior, withholding the reinforcement deliberately also is instrumental in eradicating a maladaptive behavior.
  • 40. • In self-instructional coping methods, the therapist attempts not to completely change the way you think, but rather teaches coping methods that equip you to handle harmful thought processes. One such therapeutic process is stress inoculation training. • This therapy -- which helps the patient deal with stressful events' aftermath -- aims to prevent negative reactions to stress-inducing factors by teaching the patient to break down these situations into short-term and long-term coping goals
  • 41. Problem-Solving Methods • Cognitive-behavioral therapy -- which sees irrational thought processes as resolvable -- incorporates problem-solving methods. After illogical thought patterns are found, the patient must suggest several alternative solutions. • Through the decision-making process, negative solutions are weeded out until an acceptable, positive approach is discovered. This type of therapy sometimes is used in child psychotherapy when dealing with oppositional defiant disorder.
  • 42. • One method of conducting cognitive- behavioral therapy is through computer-based programs. This therapy tends to decrease time spent with an actual therapist. Since computer- assisted CBT is relatively new, as of publication, most of the information is in the testing phase.
  • 43. However, primary-care treatment programs that have begun integrating the method for treating co-morbid anxiety and mood disorders have found promise in this type of therapy, states researchers in "Depression and Anxiety," the official journal of the Anxiety Disorders Association of America
  • 44. References Barlow. D. H & Nathar. P. E.,(2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. Published by Oxford Press.Inc, New York. Carson. R.C., Butcher J. N & Mineka. S., (2001). Abnormal Psychology and Modern Life. ( 11th Ed). Published by Pearson education, Inc. and Dorling Kindersley Publishing Inc. Doboson. D & Dobson. K., (2009). Evidence-Based Practice of Cognitive -Behavior Therapy. Published by Guilford publication.Inc. Ronen. T & Freeman. A.,( 2007) CBT in Social Work Practice. Published by Spring publishing Company,LLC. Sheldon. B.,(2011). Cognitive Behavior Therapy Research and Practice in Health and Social Care. (2nd Ed). Published by Routledge publication New York.

Editor's Notes

  1. Systematic errors in reasoning that lead to faulty assumptions and misconception which is termed as cognitive distortions.
  2. Socratic questioning is disciplined questioning  that can be used to pursue thoughtin many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truthof things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts.
  3. Socratic questioning is disciplined questioning  that can be used to pursue thoughtin many directions and for many purposes, including: to explore complex ideas, to get to the truthof things, to open up issues and problems, to uncover assumptions, to analyze concepts.