Explaining Motivation:Why We Do What We DoReasons for BehaviorWhy we do what we doWhy we want what we wantMotivational StatesHow motivesintensify, change, and fadeMotivationTheoriesexplain
Motivating Self And OthersResource for Motivating SelfLife-Long Development ofInner Motivational ResourcesEnvironmental ConditionsSituational EventsResource for Motivating OthersQuality of Interpersonal RelationshipsMotive Status• Needs• Cognitions• EmotionsOutcomes•Performance• Engagement• Approach• Well-BeingFigure 16.1 Framework to Think about Motivating Self and Motivating Others
Motivating SelfNurturing Resources for Motivating Self:Life-Long Development of Productive Inner Motivational ResourcesExperiencingStrong,resilient,andproductivemotivational statesGrowingapproach-orientedneeds, cognitions,and emotions
Motivating OthersQuestions Who is motivating the person?MotivatorThe person himselfOutside Force
Motivating OthersIs the social context supporting the person’s personal causationand inner motivational resources?Primary GoalEnhancing the other’s capacity for personal causation(NOT producing compliance or a predetermined pattern of desiredbehavior)InterpersonalRelationshipSupportsUnderminesthe person’s motivation
Four Case StudiesThree Objectives Diagnose why the person is now experiencing these motivational problems Identify the key sources of the person’s motivation Apply your knowledge of motivation to solve these motivational problemsBox 16. Four Cases Studies●Child at Home●Employee at Work●Athlete or Musician●Medical Patient
Wisdom Gained From A Scientific Study OfMotivation & Emotion16 Pearls of WisdomChapter 1 Human nature can be discovered using scientific methodsChapter 2 What we don’t know about motivation and emotion exceeds what we do know.Chapter 3The brain is as much about motivation and emotion as it is about cognition andthinking.Chapter 4We routinely underestimate how powerful a motivational force biological urgescan be when we are currently not experiencing them.Chapter 5 The quality of one’s motivation matters as much as does its quantity.Chapter 6To flourish, motivation needs supportive conditions, especially supportiverelationships.Chapter 7We share many of the same needs, while other needs are acquired throughexperience.Chapter 8We do not do our best when we “try to do our best”; rather, we do our best whenwepursue a difficult, specific goal.
Wisdom Gained From A Scientific Study OfMotivation and Emotion16 Pearls of WisdomChapter 9 The cognitive pillars of motivated action are “I can do it” and “It will work.”Chapter 10 Boosting self-esteem is a poor motivational strategy.Chapter 11 All emotions are good.Chapter 12Emotions are biological, cognitive, and social reactions to the important eventsin our life.Chapter 13 Happiness lies in our genes and in what we choose to strive for.Chapter 14 We are not always consciously aware of the motivational basis of our behavior.Chapter 15 Encouraging growth is more productive than is trying to cure weakness.Chapter 16 There is nothing so practical as a good theory.