Irregulars: Ir Ser Ver Yo Iba Era Veía Tú Ibas Eras Veías Él/Ella/Ud. Iba Era Veía Nosotros Íbamos Éramos Veíamos Vosotros Ibais Erais Veíais Ellos/Ellas/ Iban Eran Veían Uds.Uses: Trigger Words:1. Ongoing action (was/were) -todos los dias -los lunes2. Repeated action (used to) -de vez en cuando -a veces3. No definite beginning or end -generalmente -mientras4. Time/date/age/feelings/descriptions -siempre -a menudo5. Interrupted activity (cuando) -cada dia -muchas veces
EL PRETERITO IRREGULAR Spelling change in the first person only. Tocar: Toqué Tacaste Tocó Tocamos Tocaron Jugar: Jugué Jugaste Jugo Jugamos Jugaron
-CAR, -GAR, -ZAR Regular verbs with these endings have a spelling change in the “yo” form to keep the sound of the verb. -car yo -qúe -gar yo -gúe -zar yo -céExamples:Sacar: the c changes to qu: (yo) saqúe: Yo saqúe la basura.Pagar: the g changes to gu: (yo) pagúe: Yo pagúe dos dólares.Empezar: the z changes to c: (yo) empecé: Yo empecé un trabajo nuevo.
SPOCK VERBS (IRREGULAR PRETERITE VERBS)Hacer Dar/Ver Ir/serhice i fuihisiste iste fuistehizo io fuehicimos imos fuimoshicieron ieron fueron
To write “Snake Snakey” in the third person preterite form of –er and –ir verbs with stems that end in a vowel, change the l to y. All of these preterite forms require an accent, EXCEPT the ustedes/ellos/ellas forms.
MODAL VERBS Conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning. ir+a+infinitive (going to do something) poder+infinitive (are able to do something) querer+infinitive (want to do something) deber+infinitive (should do something) tener que+infinitive (to have to do something) soler+infinitive (to be accustomed to)
LOS ADVERBIOS Most are formed by adding –mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective. Corresponds to –ly ending in English. When two adverbs modify the same verb only the second one uses the –mente ending. Note, the adverb is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. Adjective Feminine Form Adverb Claro Clara Claramente Constante Constante Constantemente Difícil Difícil Difícilmente Perfecto Perfecta Perfectamente
IRREGULAR ADVERBSIrregular Adverbs TranslationMucho A lotMuy VeryMal BadBastante Quite/enoughBien Good/wellYa AlreadyTan So
PROGRESSIVE TENSE Present Progressive Formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle. Estar + -ando/-iendo/-yendo Past Progressive Also formed by combining the verb “to be” with the present participle.
FUTURO (WILL) Los Irregulares: Decir Dir- Hacer Har- -é -é Poner Pondr- -ás -ás Salir Saldr- -á -á Tener Tendr-Infinitive + -emos -emos Valer Vendr- -éis -éis Poder Podr- -an -an Querer Querr- Saber Sabr-
CONDITIONAL The conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture. Conditional will usually translate as would, could, must have, or probably. When would is used in the sense of a repeated action in the past, the imperfect is used. To conjugate regular –ar, -er, and –ir verbs in the conditional, simply add one of the following to the infinitive: Ía Ías Ía Íamos Íais Ían
Here are all three regular conditional verb forms together: Hablar Comer Vivir Hablaría Comería Viviría Hablarías Comerías Vivirías Hablaría Comería Viviría Hablaríamos Comeríamos Viviríamos Hablaríais Comeríais Viviríais Hablarían Comerían Vivirían Some specific uses of the conditional tense are: To express speculation about the past. To express the future from the perspective of the past. To express hypothetical actions or events which may or may not occur. To indicate what would happen if not for a specific circumstance. For polite use to soften a demand. To ask for advice.
SUPERLATIVES These phrases say that one item has more or less of a certain quality than another item has. Más... que Menos… que When you want to say that something has the most or the least of a certain quality, use a superlative. El/Los/La/Las más… El/Los/La/Las menos…Examples:Luis es el más alto.Carmen es la más pequeña.Mercedes es la menos cansada.
To use a noun with the superlative form, put it after the article. Luis es el chico más alto. Mercedes es la chica menos cansada. Juan prepara las comidas más sabrosas. Be sure the adjective matches the noun in both gender and number!
FORMAL COMMANDS Formal commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the “imperative” form of the verb. Compre usted el anillo. : (You) Buy the ring. Haga usted la tarea. : (You) Do the homework. Compren ustedes los libros. : (You all) Buy the books. Informal commands are used among friends or people around your age. Formal commands are typically used to be polite or when talking to someone much older than you. If the first person singular (yo) form is irregular, that irregularity is carried over into the formation of the formal command. This also applies to stem- changing verbs.
The formal commands are formed the same way as present subjunctive. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. Then drop the –o ending. Then add the following endings: -ar verbs: -e (for usted), -en (for ustedes) -er and –ir verbs: -a (for usted), -an (for ustedes) As the present subjunctive, the following verbs are irregular: Dar Estar Ir Ser Saber
PRONOUNS AS OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS A pronoun is a word that is used instead of the name of a person or thing. Ex.: he, him, she, her, they, them As the name implies, subject pronouns are the pronouns to use for the subject of the sentence. When the pronoun acts as the object of a preposition, a different set of pronouns is used. Subject Pronouns Obj. Prep. Nouns Yo Mí Tú Ti Él Él Ella Ella Usted Usted Nosotros/as Nosotros/as Vosotros/as Vosotros/as Ellos/as Ellos/as Ustedes Ustedes
Use the second set of pronouns to replace the noun that comes immediately after a preposition. Juan habla de mí. : Juan speaks of me. Hablo con ellos. : I speak with them. Pablo compró un anillo para ella. : Pablo bought a ring for her. Whenever mí follows the preposition con, the words combine to form conmigo. Whenever ti follows the preposition con, the words combine to form contigo.
DEMONSTRATIVES When you‟re pointing out specific things, you use demonstrative adjectives and pronouns. Eso, esto, aquello refer to a situation or ideas, not to specific nouns. Accent marks denote pronouns which take the place of a noun. All demonstratives always agree in gender and number in the noun it modifies. Singular Singular Plural Plural Masculine Feminine Masculine Feminine Ese Esa Esos Esas Este Esta Estos Estas Aquel Aquella Aquellos Aquellas