Grammar book #2


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Grammar book #2

  1. 1. Grammar Book MARA O’BRIEN
  2. 2. Table of contents:1. Imperfect 10. Conditional2. Pretérito 11. Supperlatives3. Irregular Pretérito 12. Formal commands4. Spock 13. Prepositions5. Cucaracha 14. Demonstratives6. Snake/snakey7. Modal verbs8. Adverbs9. Present/past progressive10. Futuro/ irregulars
  3. 3. Imperfect words.Verb Hablar Comer EscribirYo Hablaba Comía Escribíatu Hablabas Comías Escribías l/ella/Ud. Hablaba Comía EscribíaNosotros bamos Comíamos Escribíamosvosortos Hablabais Comíais Escribía isEllos/ellas/Uds. hablaban Comían Escribían
  4. 4. Imperfect verbs continued.Verb Ir Ser VerYo iba era veíaTu ibas eras veías l/ella/Ud. iba era veíaNosotros íbamos ramos veíamosVosotros ibais erais veíaisEllos/ellas/Uds. iban eran veían
  5. 5. Pretérite. Preterite trigger A snapshot of the past words. A perfected action of the past. Ayer Beginning and/or ending Anoche Ar Er/Ir anteayerYo é í La semana pasadaTu aste iste El año pasadoEl/Ella/Ud. ó ióNosotros amos imosEllos/Ellas/Uds aron ieron.
  6. 6. Irregular Pretérito. -car-gar-zarTocar: Jugar: Comenzar: -Toqué -Jugué -Comencé -Tocaste -Jugaste -Comenzaste -Tocó -Jugó -comenzó -Tocamos -Jugamos -Comenzamos -Tocaron -Jugaron -Comenzaron Regular verbs that end in –car –gar –zar have a spelling change in the yo form of the preterite to maintain the original sound of the verb.
  7. 7. Pretérito. Fui Fuiste Fue Fuimos fueronSpock d/v -i Hice -iste Hiciste -io Hizo -imos Hicimos -ieron hicieron
  8. 8. Pretérito. Ander= anduv- Cucaracha Estar= estuv- Ponder= pud- Poner= pus- Querer= quis- -e Saber= sup- -iste Tener= tuv- Venir= vin- -o -imos Decir= dij- Traer= traj- -isteis Conducir= conduj- -ieron Producir= produj- traducir= traduj-
  9. 9. Pretérito. Snake/SnakeyStem Changers - To write the third DORMIR person (el/ella/ud. -Dormí -Dormimos Y Changers And ellos/ellas/uds. In preterite form of – LEER er and –ir verbs with -Dormiste stems that end in a -Durmio -Leí vowel, change the I to -Dumieron -Leimos Y. -Leiste - All of these preterite -Leyo forms require an accent, except the -Leyeron uds./ellos/ellas forms.
  10. 10. Modal verbs. Congugate and pair the modal verbs with an infinitive to get a new meaning  ir+a+infinitive(going to do something)  Poder+infinitive(are able to do something)  Querer+infinitive(want to do something)  Deber+infinitive(should do something)  Tener+que+infinitive(to have to do something)  Soler+infinitive(to be accustomed to…)
  11. 11. Los Adverbs. Most Spanish adverbs are formed by adding –mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.  Corresponds to –ly in English  Claro-clara-claramente=clearly  Constante - Constante – constantemente =constantly  When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second adverb uses the –mente meaning. The first adverb is just changed into the feminine singular form.  Ex: Juan trabaja lenta y curdadosamente • Juan works slowly and carefully.  El chico le habló clara y cortésmente • The boy spoke to him clearly and constantly
  12. 12. Progressive tense. Present progressive tense is formed by combing the conjugated, word “to be” with the present participle.(used when the action is happening)  Estar + -ando/-iendo/-yendo  Ex. Estoy hablando a ti.= I am talking to you. To from past progressive conjugate estar in the imperfect tense, drop the –ar/-er/-ir of infinitive, and attach the appropriate ending. (used when the action is continually going)  Ex. Estaba hablando a ti.= I was talking to you.
  13. 13. El futuro.  -é  Decir= dir-  -ás  Hacer= har-Infinitive  -á  Poner= pondr- -é  -emos  Salir= saldr- -ás  - án  Tener =tendr- -á  Valer= vendr- -emos  Poder= podr- - án  Querer= querr-  Saber= sabr-
  14. 14. Conditional Used to express  Infinitive + probability, possibility,  Ía and wonder, usually  ías translated as would,  ía could, probably or must  íamos have.  ían For Example: Hablar: Hablaría Hablarías Hablaría Hablaríamos Hablarían
  15. 15. Superlatives. When you want to say something has the most or the least of a certain quantity, you use a superlative.  Ex: Luis es el más alto. -Luis is the tallest To use a noun with the superlative form. Put an alter after article.  Ex: Luis es el chico mas alto. – Luis is the tallest boy. When you refer to an idea or a concept, El más.. El use the acticle lo. menos..  Ex: Luis says: -Lo más increible es que son los dos.. –the most incredible {thing } Los más.. Los is that it’s two o’clock.. menos.. Remember to use these irregular forms when referring to the best, worst, La más.. La oldest and youngest. menos..  El/la mejor, el/la peor, el/la mayor, el/la menor. Las más.. Las menos..
  16. 16. Formal commands.A Tu- simply drop the ‘s’ Ud./uds.-pit it in ‘yo’ form andFI change to opposite vowel. NR OM Los irregulares- di, SAT haz ,ve, pon, sal, se, Los irregulares- OIV ten, ven. TVDISHES T DOP+IOP +’se’ can attach to anE affirmative R --------------------------- O DOP+IOP +’se’ must go before theN negative command SEG Ud./uds.-pit it in ‘yo’ form and MakeA Tu- put it in the ‘yo’ form and change same asT the opposite vowel, add an ‘s’. change to opposite vowel. ud./Uds.I IrregularV Los irregulares- Los irregulares- - TVdishesE TVDISHES TVDISHES
  17. 17. Prepositions. To tell where things are located. Abajo Down/ under Arriba On top of Debajo Below Dentro Inside Encima de Above A la izquierda To the left of A la derecha To the right of En el centro In the center
  18. 18. Demonstratives.This That That over thereEste Ese AquelEsta Esa AquellaThese Those Those over thereEstos Esos AquellosEstas Esas Aquellas