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Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Mateo Cooper<br />2nd period<br />El 9 de deciembre<br />Grammar Book<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser Commands MandatosFormales<br />Estar Irregulars - Informales<br />Verbs Like Gustar IOPs Modal Verbs<br />Hacer expressions Snakes Reflexives<br />PreteritoSnakies Saber vsconocer<br />Trigger Words Se Impersonal <br />Car, Gar, Zar Past Participle as Adj<br />Cucaracha Verbs El Futuro<br />DOPs Demonstrative Adj<br /> Demonstrative Pronouns<br /> imperfect tense<br />
  3. 3. Ser<br />Use the verb Ser under these circumstances<br />Description Possession Ex: Soy Alto<br />Origin Events<br />Characteristics Dates<br />Time Questions dealing with ser<br />Occupation Quees? Como es? Quienes?<br />Relationships Quehoraes? Quehace?<br />
  4. 4. Estar<br />Estar is similar to the verb ser, except estar is used do describe a present condition, a location, emotions, and health<br />Ex: Estoymuyfeliz<br />When using Estar in the “ing” form, the ending of the word must be changed. <br />An “ar” ending verb changes to ando<br />An “er” ending verb changes to endo<br />An “ir” ending verb changes to yendo<br />Ex: Hablar changes to Hablando. Comer changes to Comendo. <br />Questions dealing with estar: Como Estas? Como Esta? DondeEstas?<br />
  5. 5. Verbs like Gustar<br />Gustar very different from many other verbs. It is conjugated differently and you must put a pronoun in front of the verb. <br />Gustarisnt the only verb conjugated this way, other verbs like gustar include: facinar, doler, faltar, molestar, encantar, importar, disgustar, and pintar<br />The pronouns to use in front if these verbs goes as follows:<br />Yo form- MeNosotros form- nos<br />TuForm-TeVosotros form- os<br />El/ella form- Le Ustedes form- Les<br />Ex: Me Gusta el beisbol<br />ALSO!!- if the direct object of the verb is plural, then the “ar” must be replace with “an”<br />Ex: Me Gustanmanzanas<br />
  6. 6. Hacer Expressions<br />Hace + Time + Que + Conjugated verb<br />Then conjugated verb can be in any tense<br />Ex: Hacedos añosque vivo en la Francia<br />
  7. 7. Preterito<br />The Preterito is a definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending<br />Conjugating verbs is el preterito goes as follows:<br />HablarEscribir Comer<br />Yo-hableescribiComi<br />Tu-hablasteescribisteComiste<br />El-HabloescribioComio<br />Nos-hablamosescribimosComimos<br />Uds-hablaronescribieronComieron<br />
  8. 8. Trigger Words<br />Ayer- yesterday - these are examples of <br />Anteayer- day before yesterday trigger words that can be <br />A lasocho- 8 o’clock used in the preterito.<br />El miercoles- On Wednesday<br />El dia anterior- day before<br />Ayer por la manana- yesterday morning<br />El otrodia- The other day<br />Unavez- one time<br />Estatarde- this afternoon<br />Estanoche- tonight<br />Entonces- then<br />Hace dos dias- two days ago<br />
  9. 9. Car, Gar, Zar<br />Verbs ending in car, gar, or zar are conjugated in their own special way that goes as follows<br />TocarJugarComenzar<br />Yo-toquejugueComence<br />Tu-tocastejugasteComenzaste<br />El- tocojugoComenzo<br />Nos- tocamosjugamosComenzamos<br />Uds.- tocaronjugaronComenzaron<br />Ex: Juguebeisbolayer<br />
  10. 10. Spock Verbs<br />FuiFuimos<br />FuisteFuisteis<br />FueFueron<br />i imos<br />isteisteis<br />ioieron<br />dar<br />ser<br />ver<br />ir<br />hacer<br />Hicehicimos<br />Hicistehicisteis<br />Hizohicieron<br />
  11. 11. Cucaracha Verbs<br />Andar- anduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus When conjugating cucaracha <br />Querer- quis verbs, they change into these forms<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuvYo- eNosotros- imos<br />Venir- vinTu- isteVosotros- isteis<br />Conducir - conduj el/ella- o Ustedes- ieron<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Deicr- dij<br />Traer- traj<br />
  12. 12. DOPs<br />Lo, La, Los, Las<br />DOPs can hook onto its verb, but only in 3 situations<br />1. infinitive<br />Ex: Voy a comerlo<br />2. affirmative commands<br />Ex: Bebala!<br />3. gerunds/ present progressive<br />Ex: Estoycomiendolo<br />All other times the DOP goes before the conjugated verb<br />Ex: Yo lo comi<br />In a negative command, the DOP comes after “no” and before the command<br />Ex: Yo no lo comi<br />
  13. 13. Commands<br />For “ar” verbs drop the o and add e<br />Ex: Hable!<br />For “er/ir” verbs drop the o and add a<br />Ex: Viva!<br />
  14. 14. Irregulars<br />The irregular commands are known as TVDISHES<br />TenerTenga(n)<br />VenirVenga(n)<br />Dar dé(n) & decirdiga(n)<br />IrVaya(n)<br />Ser Sea(n)<br />HacerHaga(n)<br />EstarEsté(n)<br />Saber Sepa(n)<br />
  15. 15. IOPs<br />Me, te, le, nos, os, les<br />IOPs answer to whom or for whom<br />Must have DOP to have an IOP<br />IOP comes before the DOP<br />Ex: I gave it to her. Se lo di. <br />Change to se<br />
  16. 16. Snakes and Snakeys<br />In the snakes group”, there is a stem change in the 3rd person<br />Ex: Dormir<br /> Dorm<br />
  17. 17. Se impersonal<br />“se” is used to show who is conducting the action<br />
  18. 18. Past Participle as Adjective<br />- Agree with nouns they modify in gender and number<br />Add- “ado” for “ar” verbs<br />Add- “ido” for “ir” verbs<br />Ex- El pollocomido, la manzana comida<br /> - los polloscomidos, lasmanzanascomidas<br />Irregulars: Abrir-abierto, cubrir-cubierto, decir-dicho, escribir-escrito, hacer-hecho, morir-muerto, poner-puesto, <br />Romper-roto, ver-visto, volver-vuelto, ir-ido<br />
  19. 19. El Futuro<br />Yo- infinitive + e Nos- infinitive + emos<br />Tu- infinitive + as Vos- infinitive + eis<br />El- infinitive + a Uds- infinitive + an<br />Ex: ComereComeremos<br />ComerasComereis<br />ComeraComeran<br />Irregulars: Decir-dir, Hacer-har, Salir-saldr, tener-tendr, valer-valdr, poder-podr, querer-querr, saber-sabr, caber-cabr, haber-habr<br />
  20. 20. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Agree with both gender and number with the noun they modify<br />Always in front of the noun they modify<br />Este/Esta (this) Estos/Estas (these)<br />Ese (that) Esos/Esas (those)<br />
  21. 21. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Add an accent over the first “e” of the demonstrative adjective to change it into a pronoun<br />Ex- Ese, Esta<br />
  22. 22. Imperfect Tense<br />ArEr/IrIrSerVer<br />Cantaba Babia Iba Era Veia<br />CantabasBebiasIbas Eras Veias<br />CatabaBebiaIba Era Veia<br />CantamosBebiamosIbamosEramosVeiamos<br />CanatabanBebianIbanEranVeian<br />Ex- Hay- Habia<br />
  23. 23. Mandatosformales<br />Ar<br />Put in “yo” form<br />Drop the “o” and add an “e” Ex- Hablar- Hable<br />Er/Ir<br />Put in “yo” form<br />Drop the “o” and add an “a” Ex- Bebir- Beba<br />
  24. 24. MandatosInformales<br />irregulars= TVDISHES<br />
  25. 25. Model verbs<br />Ir+a+infinitive<br />Poder+infinitive able to do something<br />Querer+infinitive Want to do something<br />Deber+infinitive should do something<br />Tenerque+infinitive to have to do something<br />
  26. 26. Reflexive Verbs<br />Pronouns<br />Me Nos<br />TeOs<br />Se Se<br />Reflex back to the conductor of the particular action<br />Ex: Levantarse- to get up<br />
  27. 27. Saber vsConocer<br />Saber Conocer<br />To know informative facts To know of people, things,<br />Mental or places<br /> physical concrete objects<br />