Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Grammar book

461 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Grammar book

  1. 1. Mateo Cooper<br />2nd period<br />El 9 de deciembre<br />Grammar Book<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser Commands MandatosFormales<br />Estar Irregulars - Informales<br />Verbs Like Gustar IOPs Modal Verbs<br />Hacer expressions Snakes Reflexives<br />PreteritoSnakies Saber vsconocer<br />Trigger Words Se Impersonal <br />Car, Gar, Zar Past Participle as Adj<br />Cucaracha Verbs El Futuro<br />DOPs Demonstrative Adj<br /> Demonstrative Pronouns<br /> imperfect tense<br />
  3. 3. Ser<br />Use the verb Ser under these circumstances<br />Description Possession Ex: Soy Alto<br />Origin Events<br />Characteristics Dates<br />Time Questions dealing with ser<br />Occupation Quees? Como es? Quienes?<br />Relationships Quehoraes? Quehace?<br />
  4. 4. Estar<br />Estar is similar to the verb ser, except estar is used do describe a present condition, a location, emotions, and health<br />Ex: Estoymuyfeliz<br />When using Estar in the “ing” form, the ending of the word must be changed. <br />An “ar” ending verb changes to ando<br />An “er” ending verb changes to endo<br />An “ir” ending verb changes to yendo<br />Ex: Hablar changes to Hablando. Comer changes to Comendo. <br />Questions dealing with estar: Como Estas? Como Esta? DondeEstas?<br />
  5. 5. Verbs like Gustar<br />Gustar very different from many other verbs. It is conjugated differently and you must put a pronoun in front of the verb. <br />Gustarisnt the only verb conjugated this way, other verbs like gustar include: facinar, doler, faltar, molestar, encantar, importar, disgustar, and pintar<br />The pronouns to use in front if these verbs goes as follows:<br />Yo form- MeNosotros form- nos<br />TuForm-TeVosotros form- os<br />El/ella form- Le Ustedes form- Les<br />Ex: Me Gusta el beisbol<br />ALSO!!- if the direct object of the verb is plural, then the “ar” must be replace with “an”<br />Ex: Me Gustanmanzanas<br />
  6. 6. Hacer Expressions<br />Hace + Time + Que + Conjugated verb<br />Then conjugated verb can be in any tense<br />Ex: Hacedos añosque vivo en la Francia<br />
  7. 7. Preterito<br />The Preterito is a definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending<br />Conjugating verbs is el preterito goes as follows:<br />HablarEscribir Comer<br />Yo-hableescribiComi<br />Tu-hablasteescribisteComiste<br />El-HabloescribioComio<br />Nos-hablamosescribimosComimos<br />Uds-hablaronescribieronComieron<br />
  8. 8. Trigger Words<br />Ayer- yesterday - these are examples of <br />Anteayer- day before yesterday trigger words that can be <br />A lasocho- 8 o’clock used in the preterito.<br />El miercoles- On Wednesday<br />El dia anterior- day before<br />Ayer por la manana- yesterday morning<br />El otrodia- The other day<br />Unavez- one time<br />Estatarde- this afternoon<br />Estanoche- tonight<br />Entonces- then<br />Hace dos dias- two days ago<br />
  9. 9. Car, Gar, Zar<br />Verbs ending in car, gar, or zar are conjugated in their own special way that goes as follows<br />TocarJugarComenzar<br />Yo-toquejugueComence<br />Tu-tocastejugasteComenzaste<br />El- tocojugoComenzo<br />Nos- tocamosjugamosComenzamos<br />Uds.- tocaronjugaronComenzaron<br />Ex: Juguebeisbolayer<br />
  10. 10. Spock Verbs<br />FuiFuimos<br />FuisteFuisteis<br />FueFueron<br />i imos<br />isteisteis<br />ioieron<br />dar<br />ser<br />ver<br />ir<br />hacer<br />Hicehicimos<br />Hicistehicisteis<br />Hizohicieron<br />
  11. 11. Cucaracha Verbs<br />Andar- anduv<br />Estar- estuv<br />Poder- pud<br />Poner- pus When conjugating cucaracha <br />Querer- quis verbs, they change into these forms<br />Saber- sup<br />Tener- tuvYo- eNosotros- imos<br />Venir- vinTu- isteVosotros- isteis<br />Conducir - conduj el/ella- o Ustedes- ieron<br />Producir- produj<br />Traducir- traduj<br />Deicr- dij<br />Traer- traj<br />
  12. 12. DOPs<br />Lo, La, Los, Las<br />DOPs can hook onto its verb, but only in 3 situations<br />1. infinitive<br />Ex: Voy a comerlo<br />2. affirmative commands<br />Ex: Bebala!<br />3. gerunds/ present progressive<br />Ex: Estoycomiendolo<br />All other times the DOP goes before the conjugated verb<br />Ex: Yo lo comi<br />In a negative command, the DOP comes after “no” and before the command<br />Ex: Yo no lo comi<br />
  13. 13. Commands<br />For “ar” verbs drop the o and add e<br />Ex: Hable!<br />For “er/ir” verbs drop the o and add a<br />Ex: Viva!<br />
  14. 14. Irregulars<br />The irregular commands are known as TVDISHES<br />TenerTenga(n)<br />VenirVenga(n)<br />Dar dé(n) & decirdiga(n)<br />IrVaya(n)<br />Ser Sea(n)<br />HacerHaga(n)<br />EstarEsté(n)<br />Saber Sepa(n)<br />
  15. 15. IOPs<br />Me, te, le, nos, os, les<br />IOPs answer to whom or for whom<br />Must have DOP to have an IOP<br />IOP comes before the DOP<br />Ex: I gave it to her. Se lo di. <br />Change to se<br />
  16. 16. Snakes and Snakeys<br />In the snakes group”, there is a stem change in the 3rd person<br />Ex: Dormir<br /> Dorm<br />
  17. 17. Se impersonal<br />“se” is used to show who is conducting the action<br />
  18. 18. Past Participle as Adjective<br />- Agree with nouns they modify in gender and number<br />Add- “ado” for “ar” verbs<br />Add- “ido” for “ir” verbs<br />Ex- El pollocomido, la manzana comida<br /> - los polloscomidos, lasmanzanascomidas<br />Irregulars: Abrir-abierto, cubrir-cubierto, decir-dicho, escribir-escrito, hacer-hecho, morir-muerto, poner-puesto, <br />Romper-roto, ver-visto, volver-vuelto, ir-ido<br />
  19. 19. El Futuro<br />Yo- infinitive + e Nos- infinitive + emos<br />Tu- infinitive + as Vos- infinitive + eis<br />El- infinitive + a Uds- infinitive + an<br />Ex: ComereComeremos<br />ComerasComereis<br />ComeraComeran<br />Irregulars: Decir-dir, Hacer-har, Salir-saldr, tener-tendr, valer-valdr, poder-podr, querer-querr, saber-sabr, caber-cabr, haber-habr<br />
  20. 20. Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Agree with both gender and number with the noun they modify<br />Always in front of the noun they modify<br />Este/Esta (this) Estos/Estas (these)<br />Ese (that) Esos/Esas (those)<br />
  21. 21. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Add an accent over the first “e” of the demonstrative adjective to change it into a pronoun<br />Ex- Ese, Esta<br />
  22. 22. Imperfect Tense<br />ArEr/IrIrSerVer<br />Cantaba Babia Iba Era Veia<br />CantabasBebiasIbas Eras Veias<br />CatabaBebiaIba Era Veia<br />CantamosBebiamosIbamosEramosVeiamos<br />CanatabanBebianIbanEranVeian<br />Ex- Hay- Habia<br />
  23. 23. Mandatosformales<br />Ar<br />Put in “yo” form<br />Drop the “o” and add an “e” Ex- Hablar- Hable<br />Er/Ir<br />Put in “yo” form<br />Drop the “o” and add an “a” Ex- Bebir- Beba<br />
  24. 24. MandatosInformales<br />irregulars= TVDISHES<br />
  25. 25. Model verbs<br />Ir+a+infinitive<br />Poder+infinitive able to do something<br />Querer+infinitive Want to do something<br />Deber+infinitive should do something<br />Tenerque+infinitive to have to do something<br />
  26. 26. Reflexive Verbs<br />Pronouns<br />Me Nos<br />TeOs<br />Se Se<br />Reflex back to the conductor of the particular action<br />Ex: Levantarse- to get up<br />
  27. 27. Saber vsConocer<br />Saber Conocer<br />To know informative facts To know of people, things,<br />Mental or places<br /> physical concrete objects<br />

×