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Carbon footprint assessment and mitigation options of dairy under Chinese conditions

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"Carbon footprint assessment and mitigation options of dairy under Chinese conditions," presented by DONG Hongmin (CAAS) at the CCAFS project meeting with CAAS, CAU & WUR in Beijing, January 15th 2019.

Part of the Carbon Footprint Assessment and Mitigation Options of Dairy under Chinese Conditions Project. Implemented by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciecnces (CAAS), China Agricultural University (CAU) & Wageningen University and Research (WUR). In collaboration with the CGIAR Research Program for Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Sino-Dutch Dairy Development Centre (SDDDC).

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Carbon footprint assessment and mitigation options of dairy under Chinese conditions

  1. 1. Carbon Footprint Assessment and Mitigation Options of Dairy under Chinese Conditions Implementation plan DONG Hongmin Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS
  2. 2. I. Background II. Objectives, Activities III. Implementation Plan IV. Task Assignments Outline
  3. 3. Background  Livestock is one of major GHG emission sources。Contribute to around 14.5% world total. Dairy GHG emission from enteric and manure management contribute 20% to livestock emission.  Carbon footprint could quantify GHG emissions and relative contributions by each sector throughout whole production chain, Provide scientific data on CF baseline, identify potential CF mitigating measures, and policy-making in China.
  4. 4. Carbon Foot Print Model Model Country /Org Software available GHG boundry Function Unit allocation methods Accounting method C sink ( including/excl uding) GLEAM FAO yes CO2 CH4 N2O HCFs Feed production to market kg CO2-eq/ kg FPCM Protin content IPCC 2006 Tier 2 NO Dairy GHG USA yes CO2 CH4 N2O Feed production to farm gate kg CO2-eq/ kg ECM Price of Economic Processing (Mills et al.,) Yes DGAS AU Yes CO2 CH4 N2O Feed production to farm gate t CO2-eq/t Milk Solids Price of Economic IPCC(2006)Tier2 Yes TheE-CO2 Dairy UK NO CO2 CH4 N2O Feed production to farm gate g CO2-eq/ L milk Price of Economic IPCC(2006) NO
  5. 5. Objectives, Activities
  6. 6. Objectives  Develop a model and tool that could be used to assess the greenhouse gas footprint of dairy cattle in China.  Provide an inventory of mitigation measures for reducing dairy production’s GHG footprint and simultaneously reduce the cost of milk in China.
  7. 7. Activities and Deliverables Number Activities Deliverables Activity 1 Develop greenhouse gas footprint model for dairy sector under China conditions Greenhouse gas footprint model based on life cycle assessment (LCA) method Activity 2 Develop a database for GHG footprint assessment of dairy cattle in China A database with data of more than 100 farmers Activity 3 Assessment of GHG footprint for respective dairy farms GHG emissions footprint and its distribution across different production chains Activity 4 Identify mitigation practices Handbook and analysis report on viable mitigation practices
  8. 8. Implementation plan
  9. 9. Development of CF Method 1. Boundry 2. Function unit 3. Allocation method 4. Calculation method 5. Case study C Footprint method
  10. 10. 1、Boundry  Type of GHG CO2、CH4、N2O  Time frame Year based activity  Boundary Feed production -- Farm gate – Market
  11. 11. The system boundary includes 3 modules: Feed production: fertilizer production and transportation, agricultural film and pesticide production, energy consumption for irrigation and agricultural machinery, fertilizer application, and feed processing and transportation Animal production: enteric fermentation, manure management, and farm energy consumption. Milk processing: milk processing and transportation Agricultural production Crop planting Feed processing Feed transportation Dairy farming Manure management Milk processing Milk CF Composition
  12. 12. Research on carbon footprint assessment methods system boundary and functional unit Accounting methods and parameter selection Agri- product materials CO2 Carbon Footprint Assessment of Dairy Research on typical cases of carbon footprint assessment Developement of database for carbon footprint assessment Analysis of key mitigation practices Agri- machine usage CO2 Fertilizer application N2O Thansport energy consumption CO2 Enteric fermentati on CH4 Manure manage ment N2O Manure manage ment CH4 Farm energy consumption CO2 Selection of GHG allocation method for feedstuff and crop planting No allocation Mass Energy Protein Hybrid Economic Milk process /transportatio n CO2
  13. 13. 2、Function unit 1 kg LW live weight 1 kg FPCM : Fat and protein corrected Milk (FPCM: Fat %, Protein 3.3%) Equation for FPCM calculation (FAO,2011): MFPCM = MRM × 0.337 + 0.116 × MFRM,F + 0.06 × MFRM,P MFPCM : Milk yield ,FPCM t/a; MRM : Milk yield of raw milk,t/a; MFRM,F: Fat content of of raw milk,%;, MFRM,P: Protein content of raw milk,%;
  14. 14. 3、Allocation methods  Allocation principle (ISO14044) • Be avoided as much as possible through subdivision of system and system expansion • When distribution is inevitable, it shall be made based on potential physical relationship of different products or functions • Allocation can be made according to other relations reflecting different outputs of the system, such as economic value
  15. 15.  Allocation factor, AF Allocation factors were calculated using the following equation: 𝑨𝑭𝒊 = 𝑴𝒊 × 𝑾𝒊 𝒊 𝑴𝒊 × 𝑾𝒊 𝐴𝐹𝑖 : the allocation factor of product I, %; M𝑖 : the mass fraction of product I, %; W𝑖 : the weight factor of product i. 3、Allocation methods
  16. 16.  Full Chain Carbon Footprint in Dairy feeding were calculated using the following equation: 𝑪𝑭 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒌 = 𝑮𝑯𝑮 𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅 +𝑮𝑯𝑮 𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎 +𝑮𝑯𝑮 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒌,𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒄 𝑴 𝒎𝒊𝒍𝒌 4、Calculation method of CF CFmilk : the carbon footprint associated with milk (kg CO2-eq) ; GHGfeed : the GHG emission from feed production (kg CO2-eq) ; GHGfarm : the GHG emission from animal production (kg CO2-eq); GHGmilk,proc : the GHG from the milk processing (kg CO2-eq); Mmilk : the mass of milk production per year (kg LW) .
  17. 17. 𝑮𝑯𝑮 𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅 = 𝑪𝑶 𝟐(𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅,𝒊𝒏𝒑𝒖𝒕𝒔) + 𝑮𝑯𝑮(𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅,𝑵 𝒇𝒆𝒓) × 𝑨𝑭𝒊 + 𝑪𝑶 𝟐(𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅,𝒑𝒓𝒐𝒄) + 𝑪𝑶 𝟐(𝒇𝒆𝒓,𝒕𝒓𝒂𝒏𝒔) 4.1 Calculation method for feed production 𝐺𝐻𝐺𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑 : GHG emissions from feed production (kg CO2-eq) 𝐶𝑂2(𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑,𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡) : CO2 emissions from production and utilization of agricultural machinery (kg CO2-eq) 𝐺𝐻𝐺(𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑,𝑁 fer) : GHG emissions from utilization of N fertilizer (kg CO2-eq) 𝐶𝑂2(𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑,𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑐) : CO2 emissions from processing of fertilizer and feedstuffs (kg CO2-eq) 𝐶𝑂2(𝑓𝑒𝑒𝑑,𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠) : CO2 emissions from transportation of fertilizer and feedstuffs (kg CO2-eq)
  18. 18. Calculation method for feed production GHG emission sources Accounting method Application of N fertilization GHG (N2O) IPCC 2006 Tier 2 Urea Degration GHG (CO2) IPCC 2006 Tier 1 Transportion GHG(CO2) Production of Fertilization GHG(CO2) Production of Pestidize GHG (CO2) Production of plastic GHG(CO2) Electricity for Irrigation GHG(CO2) Feed processing (CO2)
  19. 19. 𝑮𝑯𝑮 𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎 = 𝑪𝑯 𝟒(𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎,𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒆𝒓𝒊𝒄) + 𝑪𝑯 𝟒(𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎,𝒎𝒎) × 𝑮𝑾𝑷 𝑪𝑯 𝟒 + 𝑵 𝟐 𝑶(𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎,𝒎𝒎) × 𝑮𝑾𝑷 𝑵 𝟐 𝑶 + 𝑪𝑶 𝟐(𝒇𝒂𝒓𝒎,𝒆𝒏𝒆𝒓𝒈𝒚) 𝐺𝐻𝐺𝑓𝑎𝑟𝑚 : GHG emissions caused by animal production (kg CO2-eq); 𝐶𝐻4(𝑓𝑎𝑟𝑚,𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐) : CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (kg CO2-eq); 𝐶𝐻4(𝑓𝑎𝑟𝑚,𝑚𝑚) : CH4 emissions from manure management (kg CO2-eq); 𝑁2 𝑂(𝑓𝑎𝑟𝑚,𝑚𝑚) : N2O emissions from manure management (kg CO2-eq); 𝐶𝑂2(𝑓𝑎𝑟𝑚,𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦) : CO2 emissions from energy consumption of the pig farm (kg CO2-eq); 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4 : Global Warming Potential of CH4; 𝐺𝑊𝑃 𝑁2 𝑂: Global Warming Potential of N2O. 4.2 Calculation method for Animal production
  20. 20. Calculation method for Animal production Emission source Accounting Method Enteric (CH4) IPCC 2006 Tier 2 Manure management ( N2O , CH4) IPCC 2006 Tier 2 Manure land application ( N2O) IPCC 2006 Tier 1 Dairy farm energy consumption (CO2) GHG Emission= AD ∗ EF
  21. 21. 计算方法汇总
  22. 22. 5、Casestudy-selectionofparameters Factors inside of equations Feed related parameters Production parateres 1 2 3
  23. 23. Casestudy-basicparameters-herdstructure Item Dairy cattle Dry dairy cattle growing cattle Finishing cattle Yak Unit Source Annual in stock head Survey data Dry matter intake kg/head/d Survey data Daily weight gain kg Survey data Live body weight kg Survey data Ratio of crude protein in diet % Monitoring data Milk production kg/head/d Monitoring data Herd structure and parameters
  24. 24. Feed consumption parameters in dairy farm  TMR feed formula  Others: premix, cotton aphid, cottonseed, beet pulp, DDGS, oat grass, etc. Items Symbol Value Unit Source Corn feed consumption 𝑇maize t Survey data Corn silage consumption 𝑇𝑠𝑖𝑙𝑎𝑔𝑒 t Survey data Cardamom consumption 𝑇𝑠𝑏𝑚 t Survey data Wheat bran consumption 𝑇𝑏𝑟𝑎𝑛 t Survey data Casestudy-basicparameters-feed
  25. 25. Dairy farm product related parameters  Production from dairy farm: Exposed cows, male yak and milk Items Symbol Value Unit Source Protein content in raw milk 𝑀 𝑅𝑀,𝑃 3.2 % Monitoring data Fat content in raw milk MRM,F 3.8 % Monitoring data Number of male yaks sold 𝑁𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑙 head Survey data Number of lactating cows eliminated 𝑁𝑐𝑜𝑤 head Survey data Average weight of male calves sold 𝐴𝑊𝑏𝑢𝑙𝑙 kg Survey data Average weight of eliminate lactating cows 𝐴𝑊𝑐𝑜𝑤 kg Survey data Casestudy-basicparameters- Production
  26. 26. Energy consumption parameters for dairy cattle farm Items Symbol Value Unit Source Annual consumption of electricity in farm 𝑄 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦,𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 MW·h Survey data Annual consumption of diesel in farm 𝑄 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦,𝑑𝑖𝑒𝑠𝑒𝑙 t Survey data Annual consumption of gasoline in farm 𝑄 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦,petrol t Survey data Annual consumption of coal in farm 𝑄 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦,𝑐𝑜𝑎𝑙 t Survey data Casestudy-basicparameters-energyconsumption
  27. 27. Parameter table for different manure management systems Items Symbol Play ground Anaerobi c pond Composting with facility Unit Source Treatment percentage of manure management system(MMS) 𝑀𝑆 𝑘,𝑠 % Estimated Value CH4 conversion rate of MMS 𝑀𝐶𝐹𝑠,𝑡 0.01 0.71 0.005 IPCC(2006) Volume 4 Chapter 10 table 10.17 N2O-N direct emission factor of MMS 𝐸𝐹𝑑,𝑠,N2O 0.02 0 0.006 t N2O- N/t IPCC(2006) Volume 4 Chapter 10 table 10.21 Percentage of volatilization by NH3 and NOX 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠,𝑀𝑆 20 35 35 % IPCC(2006) Volume 4 Chapter 10 table 10.22 Percentage of nitrogen loss by runoff and leaching 𝐹𝑟𝑎𝑐L,𝑀𝑆 10 10 5 % IPCC(2006) Volume 4 Chapter 10 table 10.28 Total N lost of MMS 𝐹racloss,𝑀𝑆 30 77 40 % IPCC(2006) Volume 4 Chapter 10 table 10.23 Casestudy-basicparameters-manuremanagement
  28. 28. Schedule of deliverables Task Deliverable Expected Date A model and tool that could be used to evaluate the GHG footprint of dairy (in Chinese and English) Model and tool 2019/9/30 Sep 30 2019 A database to support the assessment of GHG footprint (in Chinese and English) -Framework of database -Database Framework Sep 30 2019 Database Dec 1 2019 Practice inventory or handbook of mitigation measures for reducing carbon footprint and simultaneously result in a cost price reduction of milk (in Chinese and English) Report DRAFT inventory FINAL inventory DRAFT Oct 31 2019 FINAL Dec 31 2019 Brief report or working paper on process, methodology developed and lessons learned for policy makers (in Chinese and English) DRAFT paper FINAL paper DDRAFT Oct 31 2019 FINAL Dec 31 2019
  29. 29. Deliverables  A model and tool that could be used to evaluate the GHG footprint of dairy  A database to support the assessment of GHG footprint  Practice inventory or handbook of mitigation measures for reducing carbon footprint and simultaneously result in a cost price reduction of milk  Brief report or working paper on process, methodology developed and lessons learned for policy makers
  30. 30. Tasks Assignment  China Agricultural University (CAU)  Lead for whole project, Implement Activity 2 and 4, Cooperate work with Activity 3.  Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture (IEDA), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)  Co-lead for whole project, Implement Activity 1and 3, Cooperate work with Activity 4
  31. 31.  Wageningen University & Research (WUR)  Support on research design, facilitating partnership, support for publications and disseminating results  Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)  Cooperate work with Activity 1, 3 and 4. Tasks Assignment

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