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CCAFS
Tier II MRV of Livestock Emissions in China: Developing
Guidance for Implementation at the Provincial Level
Implementation plan
DONG Hongmin
Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS
一.Background
二.Objectives, Activities, Roadmap
三.Implementation Plan
四.Deliverables
五.Task Assignments
Outline
 China NDC are as follows
 To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and
making best efforts to peak early
 To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65%
from the 2005 level
China Nationally Determined Contributions
 Agricultural related content in NDC
 To promote the low-carbon development in agriculture, making efforts
to achieve zero growth of fertilizer and pesticide utilization by 2020
 To control methane emissions from rice fields and nitrous oxide
emissions from farmland
 To construct a recycle agriculture system, promote comprehensive
utilization of crop wastes and animal manure
China Nationally Determined Contributions
13th five-year plan for economic and social
development
 China Responded to Global climate change
While working hard to both adapt to and slow down climate change, we
will take active steps to control carbon emissions, fulfill our commitments
for emission reduction
Greenhouse gas emissions control
 Effectively control carbon emissions in key industries
 Control the emissions of Non-CO2 greenhouse gases.
 Establishment of a national carbon trading scheme
 Implement MRV system and quota management for major emitters
 Improve statistical systems
13th five-year plan for economic and social
development
 During the 13th five-year period, carbon dioxide emissions per
unit GDP will decrease by 18% as a binding indicator
13th five-year plan for economic and
social development
 Agriculture contribute about 938 million tons
CO2e in 2012, 8% of national emissions
 Livestock GHG emission from enteric and
manure management contribute 40% to
agricultural emission
Livestock is one of major GHG emission
sources in China
Energy
79%
Industry
12%
Agriculture
8%
Waste
1%
Enteric
fermentation
24%
Manure
management
16%
Rice
19%
Agricultural
soils
41%
 China is largest animal production in the world, about 50% pork
production from China
 With development of intensive production, livestock contribute critical
environmental problems: GHG, NH3, N cycle change , misuse of
antibiotics leading to antimicrobial resistance
Importance of livestock production
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
Swine Cattle Chickens Goats Sheep
%
Livestock situation in Hebei Province
 Hebei is geographically around Beijing
 Hebei is a major province of animal husbandry
 Dairy cows account for 12.7% of China
 Pigs accounts for 5.0% of China
MRV are essential to guide the transformation
to green and low emissions
 Accurate, Comparable, Consistent, complete and Transparent MRV
systems could capture changes in emissions
 Identify and reflect national circumstances and track mitigation through
improving production system and manure
CCAFS provide a platforms where experts across the globe are
working together to identify cost-effective, technically sound MRV
guidance, tools
MRV are essential to guide the transformation
to green and low emissions
Objectives, activities and roadmap
Objectives
 Develop methods and systems for Tier II MRV of livestock
emissions at provincial level in China
 Produce practical guidance
 Build capacity for Tier II MRV among province-level authorities
 Develop methods and that can be used to support Tier II MRV elsewhere
Scope
 The project will focus on major livestock producing province and
livestock categories .dairy cattle (enteric fermentation and manure
management) and pigs (manure management) , in Hebei
 Improving the accounting and contribution of mitigation, to enhance
the fulfill our commitments, and low carbon development
Activities and Deliverables
活动编号 Activities Output
Activity 1 Develop IPCC tier II
MRV guidance for
livestock emissions
Draft Tier II MRV guidance on how to apply IPCC tier II
on dairy cattle and pigs
Activity 2 Three workshops for
consultation and
planning
implementation of
guidance
1. Start-up workshop, including an implementation plan
describing the tasks to be performed.
2. Improved MRV Guideline, trained personnel for using
the Guideline at province level.
3. Meeting summary, attendance sheet.
Activity 3 Test implementation of
Tier II MRV at
provincial level.
Analysis Report on the trial implementation at provincial
levels
Technical Route
Survey on the status of China's provincial inventory preparation
Inventory preparation methods Inventory preparation agencies Data Sources
Draft of the Provincial Tier II Method Guidance
Monitoring
AD
EF
Methods
Methane
EntEric
fermentation
Methane
from
manure
Nitrous
oxide
from
manure
Report
Format
Content
Tables
Vertification
Methods
Steps
Experts consultation and improvement
Case study
Methods promotion and application
Content
Main Contents
 Referring to the IPCC Tier II Guidelines, MRV, including:
Part 1 : Description of IPCC Tier 2 method
Part 2: Template of the Monitoring plan of AD and EF
Part 3: Template of reporting GHG emissions
Part 4: Template of verification
Implementation plan
Analysis of Applied Method at Provincial
Level
 Survey and Analyze methodology application in 31
provinces
 Investigate the Institute arrangement of Inventory
complication
 Investigate data source of different provinces (3 to 5
provinces)
 (Yearbook on Province / region / county level)
 (Survey data for livestock sector)
 Identify the challenges for using Tier II method
Introduction of Tier II Method
GHG Estimation
𝐸 𝐺𝐻𝐺 = 𝐸 𝐶𝐻4
× 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4
+𝐸 𝐶𝐻4
× 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4
+𝐸 𝑁2 𝑂× 𝐺𝑊𝑃 𝑁2 𝑂
𝐸 𝐺𝐻𝐺: GHG emissions
𝐸 𝐶𝐻4
: CH4 from enteric
𝐸 𝐶𝐻4
: CH4 from manure
𝐸 𝑁2
𝑂 : N2O from manure
𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4
: CH4 GWP
𝐺𝑊𝑃 𝑁2 𝑂: N2O GWP
𝐸 𝐶𝐻4,𝑖
= 𝐸𝐹𝐶𝐻4,𝑖
× 𝐴𝐷𝑖
𝐸𝐹𝐶𝐻4,𝑖
: Emission Factor
Adi : Activity Data
 Tier 1 : a simplified approach that relies on default IPCC
emission factors for developing or Asian countries
 The Tier 2 : a more complex approach that requires calculation
based on IPCC equation and detailed country-specific data
Tier 2 Definition
Tier 2 Sept for EF determination
 Sept1: Classify livestock and manure management according to IPCC
guidelines
 Sept2: Identify proper IPCC Equations for China
 Sept3: Conduct sample survey on animal production and manure
management data for EF calculation
 Sept4: EF calculation and comparison
EF determination -- Classification
 Classify animals according to IPCC guidance
 Intensive  householdgrazing
 Subcategory
 Manure management system
Intensive Household Grazing
EF determination - Equation for Enteric
fermentation
EF = (GE  Ym  365days/yr)/(55.65Mj/kgCH4)
EF:emission factor, kg CH4/head/year
GE: Gross energy of feed intake,GJ/head/year ( calculated according to survey
data)
Ym : methane conversion factor, mainly related to feed quality. (Combination of
literature data and laboratory tests)
 GE:gross energy,MJ/day
Nem: net energy required by the animal
for maintenance , MJ/day
Nemobilised:net energy required by the
animal for mobilised , MJ/day
NEa: net energy for animal activity,
MJ/day
NEl: net energy for lactation, MJ/day
NEw: net energy for work , MJ/day
DE:Digestible energy
 NEp: net energy required for pregnancy,
MJ/day
NEma/DE:Ratio of net energy available
for maintenance to digestible energy
NEg : net energy needed for growth ,
MJ/day
NEwool: net energy required to produce
wool, MJ/day
NEga/DE:Ratio of net energy available
for growth to digestible energy
GE={[(NEm+NEmobilised+NEa+NEl+NEw+NEp)/(NEma/DE)]
+[(NEg+NEwool)/(NEga/DE)]}/(DE/100)
EF determination - Equation for Enteric
fermentation
EF determination -- Equation for manure CH4
EFik = VSi  365  Boi  0.67kg/m3  ΣMCFjk  MS%ijk
EFik :emission factor for livestock category i in climate region k
VSi : volatile solid excretion in the manure - Test and other literature
MS% : fraction of manure management system( Sampling survey )
Boi:maximum methane producing capacity (IPCC
MCFjk:methane conversion factors by climate region k - Calculation based on
temperature
i,j,k : species/category of livestock, manure management system, climate
region,
EF determination - Equation for manure N2O
(N2O)(mm) = (S){ [ (T)(N(T)  Nex(T)  MS(T,S)]  EF3(S) }
(N2O)(mm) : nitrous oxide emissions from manure management system
N(T) : number of head of livestock species/category T
Nex(T) : annual average N excretion per head of species/category T – Typical
determination
MS(T,S) : fraction of manure management system -Survey
EF3(S) : N2O emission factor from manure management system S ( IPCC )
S : manure management system
T : species/category of livestock
Dairy
cattle
Pigs
Mature Dairy Cow
Growing Cattle
Other Mature Cattle
Quantity and structure
Feeding method ( CAFO , house farming)
Feed(Roughage, Concentrate, intake)
Performance (Body weight, daily weight gain,
milk production, et al)
Manure management (biogas, composting,
stacking, etc.)
Climate (hot, warm, cold)
Gestation
Nursery
Growing and finishing
Quantity and structure
Climatic conditions
Feed composition
Performance
The key input parameters for Tier II
Manure management
Feeding Methods
Animal Type Feeding stage Characteristic Influencing factor
Monitoring-- Activity Data and Emission
Factors
Monitoring data –Activity data
Emission source Animal category Feeding stage Feeding method Date source
CH4 emissions
from Enteric
Fermentation
Dairy cattle
 Mature Dairy Cow
 Growing Cattle
 Other Mature Cattle
 CAFO
 Housing
farming
National
statistical
yearbook
Provincial
statistical
yearbook
Industry
statistics
Typical survey
data
CH4 emissions
from manure
Management
Dairy cattle and pigs  Mature Dairy Cow or pigs
 Growing Cattle or pigs
 Other Mature Cattle or pigs
 CAFO
 Housing
farming
N2O emissions
from manure
management
Dairy cattle and pigs - -
Emission factor related parameters-Calculation
or default value
Parameters Code Monitoring method or default value
Methane conversion factor
Ym
 IPCC default value
 SF6 measurement method
volatile solid excreted for
livestock category
VS
 Directly measurement
 Calculated based to the total energy formula
Maximum methane
producing capacity
BO
 IPCC default value
 BMP measurement method
Methane conversion factors MCF
 IPCC default value
 Measured by chamber method
N excretion Nex
 Calculated based on feed intake
 Directly measurement
)100/1()100/1()45.18/1( ASHDEGEVS 
)N-(1* (T))( retentionintakeNN Tex 
Typical parameter survey- 5 typical counties in
Hebei Province
Animal characteristics: quantity, age composition, body
weight, daily gain, milk production, birth and slaughter
rate, regional entry and exit, maternal pregnancy rate,
etc.
Feed parameters: composition, quality, feed intake, dry
matter intake, energy, digestibility, etc.
Manure management: dry storage, oxidation pond, biogas,
aerobic, compost, litter storage, down storage, grass
excretion, etc.
Animal Type
Dairy cattle, Pigs
Management System
CAFO, housing farming
Parameter questionnaire- Animal population
structure
Animal
category
Feeding method
The total
amount of
animal in the
province
(10,000 heads )
The total
amount of
animal in the
survey country
(10,000 heads )
Age structure(%)
Mature dairy
cow or pigs
Young animal
Growing Cattle
or pig
Other Mature cow
or pigs
Dairy
cattle
CAFO
House farming
Pigs
CAFO
House farming
Parameter questionnaire- Typical animal
production parameter-cattle
Feeding methods CAFO House farming
Items Nursery Growing cattle Dairy cattle Nursery Growing cattle Dairy cattle
Day age (d)
Average body weight(kg/head)
Average daily weight gain(kg/d)
Annual milk production(tones/head) — — — —
泌乳天数Lactation days(d) — — — —
Milk protein content(%) — — — —
Milk fat content(%) — — — —
Fertility rate(%) — — — —
Number of calves (head/fetal) — — — —
Feed
compo
sition
Concentrate(kg/d)
Con. dry matter(kg/d)
Roughage(kg/d)
Roughage
dry matter
(kg/d)
Silage
Yellow stock
Alfalfa
Ammonia straw
Rooty juicy feed
DDGS
Total energy intake(MJ/d)
Feed digestibility(%)
Key Parameters- MS% Manure
Management Use Ratios
 Grazing; Daily spreading; Soild storage; Dry lot; Liqud/slurry storage;
Lagoon; Deeppit; Biogas Digesters; Burning; litter; Compost; Bedding;
Aerobic; Others.
 Investigate the use ratios for manure management systems in different
typical counties.
Parameters survey-- Types of Manure
Management and Their Use Ratios
Animal
category
Grazing
Daily
spreading
Solid
storage
Dry lot
Liquid/slur
rystor.
Lagoon Deep pit
Biogas
digesters
Burning Litter Compost Bedding Aerobic Others
Dairy
Swine
Report- Contents and Formats
Contents of Report
 Overview
 Overall situation of livestock
 Method selection and description
 Activity level data and source
 Emission factor data and source
 Greenhouse gas emissions
 Uncertainty analysis
 Institutional arrangements and data quality control
Table Format -Emissions
Source category Emissions (t) Emissions of GHG (t CO2e)
Methane emission from enteric
fermentation
Methane emission from manure
management
N2O emissions from manure
management
Total emission of greenhouse gas ------
Table Format- Enteric CH4
Animal
category
Feeding
phase
Average
stock
(animal )
Dry matter intake
(Kg/(animal • day))
Methane
conversion
factor (%)
Methane emission factor a
(kg CH4/(animal • year))
Data Source Data Source
Dairy
Cow
Newborn
cows
Measured
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Other
adult cows
Measured
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Breeding
cows
Measured
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Table Format-Manure CH4
Animal
category
Feeding
phase
Stock
(animal )
Manure
VS
kg/(animal
• day)
Bo
M3
CH4
/kg
VS
Annual
average
temperature
(℃)
Manure
manage
ment
MCF
(%)
MS
(%)
Emission
Factor
kg
CH4/(animal
• year)
Data
Source
Data
Source
Dairy
Cow
Newborn
Detected
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Other adult
cows
Detected
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Breeding
cows
Detected
Calculated
Calculated
Default
Table Format -Manure N2O
Animal
category
Feeding
phase
Stock
(animal )
Nex
kg/(animal •
day) Manure
management
EF3
(%)
MS
(%)
Emission
Factor
(kg N2O
/animal/year)
Data Source Data Source
Dairy
Cow
Newborn
Detected
Default
Calculated
Default
Other
adult cows
Detected
Default
Calculated
Default
Breeding
cows
Detected
Default
Calculated
Default
Verification–Content and Methods
Verification Instruction
Accuracy, Comparability, Consistency, Completeness, Transparency.
Verification
content
Verification Method
Report Meet format requirements in the guidelines.
Complete all fields in the forms
Methodology Select proper equations
Verify in the guidelines or publications
Activities Data Data source and evident
Align to National statistical yearbook
Emission factor Provide tables for key parameters
Data Source and Evidence
Sampling and research methods, data records
Comparison with domestic and foreign data
Calculation Accuracy and Repeatablity
Expert review, internal review
Schedule of deliverables
Task Deliverable Expected Date
Draft guidance (in English) circulated to
NZAGRC and CCAFS for comment
Draft Report March 30 2019
Improved guidance for provincial-level
implementation of MRV (in Chinese and English)
Report Dec 15 2019 (final)
Analyze trial implementation, e.g. of a key
component (in Chinese and English)
Report Dec 15 2019 (final)
Brief or working paper on process, methodology
developed and lessons learned for policy makers
(in Chinese and English)
Brief or working paper Dec 15 2019 (final)
Deliverables
 Improved guidance for provincial-level implementation of MRV
(in Chinese and English)
 Analyze trial implementation, e.g. of a key component (in Chinese
and English)
 Brief or working paper on process, methodology developed and
lessons learned for policy makers
Tasks Assignment
 Institute of Environment and Sustainable
Development in Agriculture (IEDA), Chinese Academy
of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)
 Take lead for whole project; implement activity one and activity two,
including the development of Tier II MRV guidance of livestock
emissions; and organize 3 workshops.
Tasks Assignment
 Additional Partner
– National Center on Climate Change Strategy and International
Cooperation (NCSC)
 Implement activity 2; Help IEDA –CAAS organize 3 workshops; Responsible
for disseminating guideline in China
– Hebei Provincial Livestock Technology Extension Station
 Implement activity3; Test implementation of Tier II MRV in provincial level.
– Hebei Green Agriculture Limited Company
 Implement activity3, Test implementation of Tier II MRV in farms, and help
collecting the provincial data
 Additional Partner
– Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)
 Help the development of Tier II MRV guidance; Support the workshops,
including inviting international experts for training and consultation, facilitating
partnership, and support for publications and guideline.
– Global Research Alliance (GRA)
 Disseminating guideline and share the results.
Tasks Assignment
Tier II MRV of livestock emissions in China: Developing guidance for implementation at the provincial level

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Tier II MRV of livestock emissions in China: Developing guidance for implementation at the provincial level

  • 1. CCAFS Tier II MRV of Livestock Emissions in China: Developing Guidance for Implementation at the Provincial Level Implementation plan DONG Hongmin Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, CAAS
  • 2. 一.Background 二.Objectives, Activities, Roadmap 三.Implementation Plan 四.Deliverables 五.Task Assignments Outline
  • 3.  China NDC are as follows  To achieve the peaking of carbon dioxide emissions around 2030 and making best efforts to peak early  To lower carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 60% to 65% from the 2005 level China Nationally Determined Contributions
  • 4.  Agricultural related content in NDC  To promote the low-carbon development in agriculture, making efforts to achieve zero growth of fertilizer and pesticide utilization by 2020  To control methane emissions from rice fields and nitrous oxide emissions from farmland  To construct a recycle agriculture system, promote comprehensive utilization of crop wastes and animal manure China Nationally Determined Contributions
  • 5. 13th five-year plan for economic and social development  China Responded to Global climate change While working hard to both adapt to and slow down climate change, we will take active steps to control carbon emissions, fulfill our commitments for emission reduction
  • 6. Greenhouse gas emissions control  Effectively control carbon emissions in key industries  Control the emissions of Non-CO2 greenhouse gases.  Establishment of a national carbon trading scheme  Implement MRV system and quota management for major emitters  Improve statistical systems 13th five-year plan for economic and social development
  • 7.  During the 13th five-year period, carbon dioxide emissions per unit GDP will decrease by 18% as a binding indicator 13th five-year plan for economic and social development
  • 8.  Agriculture contribute about 938 million tons CO2e in 2012, 8% of national emissions  Livestock GHG emission from enteric and manure management contribute 40% to agricultural emission Livestock is one of major GHG emission sources in China Energy 79% Industry 12% Agriculture 8% Waste 1% Enteric fermentation 24% Manure management 16% Rice 19% Agricultural soils 41%
  • 9.  China is largest animal production in the world, about 50% pork production from China  With development of intensive production, livestock contribute critical environmental problems: GHG, NH3, N cycle change , misuse of antibiotics leading to antimicrobial resistance Importance of livestock production 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Swine Cattle Chickens Goats Sheep %
  • 10. Livestock situation in Hebei Province  Hebei is geographically around Beijing  Hebei is a major province of animal husbandry  Dairy cows account for 12.7% of China  Pigs accounts for 5.0% of China
  • 11. MRV are essential to guide the transformation to green and low emissions  Accurate, Comparable, Consistent, complete and Transparent MRV systems could capture changes in emissions  Identify and reflect national circumstances and track mitigation through improving production system and manure
  • 12. CCAFS provide a platforms where experts across the globe are working together to identify cost-effective, technically sound MRV guidance, tools MRV are essential to guide the transformation to green and low emissions
  • 14. Objectives  Develop methods and systems for Tier II MRV of livestock emissions at provincial level in China  Produce practical guidance  Build capacity for Tier II MRV among province-level authorities  Develop methods and that can be used to support Tier II MRV elsewhere
  • 15. Scope  The project will focus on major livestock producing province and livestock categories .dairy cattle (enteric fermentation and manure management) and pigs (manure management) , in Hebei  Improving the accounting and contribution of mitigation, to enhance the fulfill our commitments, and low carbon development
  • 16. Activities and Deliverables 活动编号 Activities Output Activity 1 Develop IPCC tier II MRV guidance for livestock emissions Draft Tier II MRV guidance on how to apply IPCC tier II on dairy cattle and pigs Activity 2 Three workshops for consultation and planning implementation of guidance 1. Start-up workshop, including an implementation plan describing the tasks to be performed. 2. Improved MRV Guideline, trained personnel for using the Guideline at province level. 3. Meeting summary, attendance sheet. Activity 3 Test implementation of Tier II MRV at provincial level. Analysis Report on the trial implementation at provincial levels
  • 17. Technical Route Survey on the status of China's provincial inventory preparation Inventory preparation methods Inventory preparation agencies Data Sources Draft of the Provincial Tier II Method Guidance Monitoring AD EF Methods Methane EntEric fermentation Methane from manure Nitrous oxide from manure Report Format Content Tables Vertification Methods Steps Experts consultation and improvement Case study Methods promotion and application Content
  • 18. Main Contents  Referring to the IPCC Tier II Guidelines, MRV, including: Part 1 : Description of IPCC Tier 2 method Part 2: Template of the Monitoring plan of AD and EF Part 3: Template of reporting GHG emissions Part 4: Template of verification
  • 20. Analysis of Applied Method at Provincial Level  Survey and Analyze methodology application in 31 provinces  Investigate the Institute arrangement of Inventory complication  Investigate data source of different provinces (3 to 5 provinces)  (Yearbook on Province / region / county level)  (Survey data for livestock sector)  Identify the challenges for using Tier II method
  • 21. Introduction of Tier II Method
  • 22. GHG Estimation 𝐸 𝐺𝐻𝐺 = 𝐸 𝐶𝐻4 × 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4 +𝐸 𝐶𝐻4 × 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4 +𝐸 𝑁2 𝑂× 𝐺𝑊𝑃 𝑁2 𝑂 𝐸 𝐺𝐻𝐺: GHG emissions 𝐸 𝐶𝐻4 : CH4 from enteric 𝐸 𝐶𝐻4 : CH4 from manure 𝐸 𝑁2 𝑂 : N2O from manure 𝐺𝑊𝑃𝐶𝐻4 : CH4 GWP 𝐺𝑊𝑃 𝑁2 𝑂: N2O GWP 𝐸 𝐶𝐻4,𝑖 = 𝐸𝐹𝐶𝐻4,𝑖 × 𝐴𝐷𝑖 𝐸𝐹𝐶𝐻4,𝑖 : Emission Factor Adi : Activity Data
  • 23.  Tier 1 : a simplified approach that relies on default IPCC emission factors for developing or Asian countries  The Tier 2 : a more complex approach that requires calculation based on IPCC equation and detailed country-specific data Tier 2 Definition
  • 24. Tier 2 Sept for EF determination  Sept1: Classify livestock and manure management according to IPCC guidelines  Sept2: Identify proper IPCC Equations for China  Sept3: Conduct sample survey on animal production and manure management data for EF calculation  Sept4: EF calculation and comparison
  • 25. EF determination -- Classification  Classify animals according to IPCC guidance  Intensive householdgrazing  Subcategory  Manure management system Intensive Household Grazing
  • 26. EF determination - Equation for Enteric fermentation EF = (GE  Ym  365days/yr)/(55.65Mj/kgCH4) EF:emission factor, kg CH4/head/year GE: Gross energy of feed intake,GJ/head/year ( calculated according to survey data) Ym : methane conversion factor, mainly related to feed quality. (Combination of literature data and laboratory tests)
  • 27.  GE:gross energy,MJ/day Nem: net energy required by the animal for maintenance , MJ/day Nemobilised:net energy required by the animal for mobilised , MJ/day NEa: net energy for animal activity, MJ/day NEl: net energy for lactation, MJ/day NEw: net energy for work , MJ/day DE:Digestible energy  NEp: net energy required for pregnancy, MJ/day NEma/DE:Ratio of net energy available for maintenance to digestible energy NEg : net energy needed for growth , MJ/day NEwool: net energy required to produce wool, MJ/day NEga/DE:Ratio of net energy available for growth to digestible energy GE={[(NEm+NEmobilised+NEa+NEl+NEw+NEp)/(NEma/DE)] +[(NEg+NEwool)/(NEga/DE)]}/(DE/100) EF determination - Equation for Enteric fermentation
  • 28. EF determination -- Equation for manure CH4 EFik = VSi  365  Boi  0.67kg/m3  ΣMCFjk  MS%ijk EFik :emission factor for livestock category i in climate region k VSi : volatile solid excretion in the manure - Test and other literature MS% : fraction of manure management system( Sampling survey ) Boi:maximum methane producing capacity (IPCC MCFjk:methane conversion factors by climate region k - Calculation based on temperature i,j,k : species/category of livestock, manure management system, climate region,
  • 29. EF determination - Equation for manure N2O (N2O)(mm) = (S){ [ (T)(N(T)  Nex(T)  MS(T,S)]  EF3(S) } (N2O)(mm) : nitrous oxide emissions from manure management system N(T) : number of head of livestock species/category T Nex(T) : annual average N excretion per head of species/category T – Typical determination MS(T,S) : fraction of manure management system -Survey EF3(S) : N2O emission factor from manure management system S ( IPCC ) S : manure management system T : species/category of livestock
  • 30. Dairy cattle Pigs Mature Dairy Cow Growing Cattle Other Mature Cattle Quantity and structure Feeding method ( CAFO , house farming) Feed(Roughage, Concentrate, intake) Performance (Body weight, daily weight gain, milk production, et al) Manure management (biogas, composting, stacking, etc.) Climate (hot, warm, cold) Gestation Nursery Growing and finishing Quantity and structure Climatic conditions Feed composition Performance The key input parameters for Tier II Manure management Feeding Methods Animal Type Feeding stage Characteristic Influencing factor
  • 31. Monitoring-- Activity Data and Emission Factors
  • 32. Monitoring data –Activity data Emission source Animal category Feeding stage Feeding method Date source CH4 emissions from Enteric Fermentation Dairy cattle  Mature Dairy Cow  Growing Cattle  Other Mature Cattle  CAFO  Housing farming National statistical yearbook Provincial statistical yearbook Industry statistics Typical survey data CH4 emissions from manure Management Dairy cattle and pigs  Mature Dairy Cow or pigs  Growing Cattle or pigs  Other Mature Cattle or pigs  CAFO  Housing farming N2O emissions from manure management Dairy cattle and pigs - -
  • 33. Emission factor related parameters-Calculation or default value Parameters Code Monitoring method or default value Methane conversion factor Ym  IPCC default value  SF6 measurement method volatile solid excreted for livestock category VS  Directly measurement  Calculated based to the total energy formula Maximum methane producing capacity BO  IPCC default value  BMP measurement method Methane conversion factors MCF  IPCC default value  Measured by chamber method N excretion Nex  Calculated based on feed intake  Directly measurement )100/1()100/1()45.18/1( ASHDEGEVS  )N-(1* (T))( retentionintakeNN Tex 
  • 34. Typical parameter survey- 5 typical counties in Hebei Province Animal characteristics: quantity, age composition, body weight, daily gain, milk production, birth and slaughter rate, regional entry and exit, maternal pregnancy rate, etc. Feed parameters: composition, quality, feed intake, dry matter intake, energy, digestibility, etc. Manure management: dry storage, oxidation pond, biogas, aerobic, compost, litter storage, down storage, grass excretion, etc. Animal Type Dairy cattle, Pigs Management System CAFO, housing farming
  • 35. Parameter questionnaire- Animal population structure Animal category Feeding method The total amount of animal in the province (10,000 heads ) The total amount of animal in the survey country (10,000 heads ) Age structure(%) Mature dairy cow or pigs Young animal Growing Cattle or pig Other Mature cow or pigs Dairy cattle CAFO House farming Pigs CAFO House farming
  • 36. Parameter questionnaire- Typical animal production parameter-cattle Feeding methods CAFO House farming Items Nursery Growing cattle Dairy cattle Nursery Growing cattle Dairy cattle Day age (d) Average body weight(kg/head) Average daily weight gain(kg/d) Annual milk production(tones/head) — — — — 泌乳天数Lactation days(d) — — — — Milk protein content(%) — — — — Milk fat content(%) — — — — Fertility rate(%) — — — — Number of calves (head/fetal) — — — — Feed compo sition Concentrate(kg/d) Con. dry matter(kg/d) Roughage(kg/d) Roughage dry matter (kg/d) Silage Yellow stock Alfalfa Ammonia straw Rooty juicy feed DDGS Total energy intake(MJ/d) Feed digestibility(%)
  • 37. Key Parameters- MS% Manure Management Use Ratios  Grazing; Daily spreading; Soild storage; Dry lot; Liqud/slurry storage; Lagoon; Deeppit; Biogas Digesters; Burning; litter; Compost; Bedding; Aerobic; Others.  Investigate the use ratios for manure management systems in different typical counties.
  • 38. Parameters survey-- Types of Manure Management and Their Use Ratios Animal category Grazing Daily spreading Solid storage Dry lot Liquid/slur rystor. Lagoon Deep pit Biogas digesters Burning Litter Compost Bedding Aerobic Others Dairy Swine
  • 40. Contents of Report  Overview  Overall situation of livestock  Method selection and description  Activity level data and source  Emission factor data and source  Greenhouse gas emissions  Uncertainty analysis  Institutional arrangements and data quality control
  • 41. Table Format -Emissions Source category Emissions (t) Emissions of GHG (t CO2e) Methane emission from enteric fermentation Methane emission from manure management N2O emissions from manure management Total emission of greenhouse gas ------
  • 42. Table Format- Enteric CH4 Animal category Feeding phase Average stock (animal ) Dry matter intake (Kg/(animal • day)) Methane conversion factor (%) Methane emission factor a (kg CH4/(animal • year)) Data Source Data Source Dairy Cow Newborn cows Measured Calculated Calculated Default Other adult cows Measured Calculated Calculated Default Breeding cows Measured Calculated Calculated Default
  • 43. Table Format-Manure CH4 Animal category Feeding phase Stock (animal ) Manure VS kg/(animal • day) Bo M3 CH4 /kg VS Annual average temperature (℃) Manure manage ment MCF (%) MS (%) Emission Factor kg CH4/(animal • year) Data Source Data Source Dairy Cow Newborn Detected Calculated Calculated Default Other adult cows Detected Calculated Calculated Default Breeding cows Detected Calculated Calculated Default
  • 44. Table Format -Manure N2O Animal category Feeding phase Stock (animal ) Nex kg/(animal • day) Manure management EF3 (%) MS (%) Emission Factor (kg N2O /animal/year) Data Source Data Source Dairy Cow Newborn Detected Default Calculated Default Other adult cows Detected Default Calculated Default Breeding cows Detected Default Calculated Default
  • 46. Verification Instruction Accuracy, Comparability, Consistency, Completeness, Transparency. Verification content Verification Method Report Meet format requirements in the guidelines. Complete all fields in the forms Methodology Select proper equations Verify in the guidelines or publications Activities Data Data source and evident Align to National statistical yearbook Emission factor Provide tables for key parameters Data Source and Evidence Sampling and research methods, data records Comparison with domestic and foreign data Calculation Accuracy and Repeatablity Expert review, internal review
  • 47. Schedule of deliverables Task Deliverable Expected Date Draft guidance (in English) circulated to NZAGRC and CCAFS for comment Draft Report March 30 2019 Improved guidance for provincial-level implementation of MRV (in Chinese and English) Report Dec 15 2019 (final) Analyze trial implementation, e.g. of a key component (in Chinese and English) Report Dec 15 2019 (final) Brief or working paper on process, methodology developed and lessons learned for policy makers (in Chinese and English) Brief or working paper Dec 15 2019 (final)
  • 48. Deliverables  Improved guidance for provincial-level implementation of MRV (in Chinese and English)  Analyze trial implementation, e.g. of a key component (in Chinese and English)  Brief or working paper on process, methodology developed and lessons learned for policy makers
  • 49. Tasks Assignment  Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture (IEDA), Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS)  Take lead for whole project; implement activity one and activity two, including the development of Tier II MRV guidance of livestock emissions; and organize 3 workshops.
  • 50. Tasks Assignment  Additional Partner – National Center on Climate Change Strategy and International Cooperation (NCSC)  Implement activity 2; Help IEDA –CAAS organize 3 workshops; Responsible for disseminating guideline in China – Hebei Provincial Livestock Technology Extension Station  Implement activity3; Test implementation of Tier II MRV in provincial level. – Hebei Green Agriculture Limited Company  Implement activity3, Test implementation of Tier II MRV in farms, and help collecting the provincial data
  • 51.  Additional Partner – Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)  Help the development of Tier II MRV guidance; Support the workshops, including inviting international experts for training and consultation, facilitating partnership, and support for publications and guideline. – Global Research Alliance (GRA)  Disseminating guideline and share the results. Tasks Assignment