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Suzuki CDM methodologies for agriculture Nov 10 2014


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Presentation at workshop: Reducing the costs of GHG estimates in agriculture to inform low emissions development
November 10-12, 2014
Sponsored by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

Published in: Science
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Suzuki CDM methodologies for agriculture Nov 10 2014

  1. 1. CDM methodologies for the agriculture sector Rome, November 2014 Kenjiro Suzuki, Programme Officer, Standard Setting Unit, SDM Programme, UNFCCC
  2. 2. Introduction - CDM • 160+ countries involved in the CDM • World’s only truly global GHG mitigation mechanism • To date, more than a) 7,500 registered projects and 270 registered PoAs in 105 countries; b) 1.5 billion certified emission reductions (CERs) issued; c) 200 unique methodologies developed.
  3. 3. Evolution of CDM: Programmes of Activities Programmes of Activities (PoAs): • A voluntary coordinated action by a private or public entity that coordinates and implements any policy/measure or stated goal, via an unlimited number of component project activities (like an “umbrella program”) • 270 PoAs registered, 40% in Africa • Benefits: a) Reduce transaction costs; b) Access to the CDM is extended to smaller project activities; c) Emission reductions can be continuously scaled up after PoA registration.
  4. 4. Evolution of CDM: Standardized Baselines Standardized Baselines: • A baseline established for a Party or a group of Parties to facilitate the calculation of ER and removals and/or the determination of additionality, while ensuring environmental integrity • Standardization shifts the focus from project level to sectoral level. • 6 approved, 17 under consideration, others being developed (e.g. PSB0019: Philippines Rice) • Benefits: a) Reduce transaction costs; b) Enhance transparency, objectivity and predictability; c) Facilitate access to the CDM; d) Scale up the abatement of GHG emissions; e) Simplify MRV. • Relevant to a number of mechanisms: result based financing such as CDM, NAMAs and future market mechanisms.
  5. 5. CDM benefits for Agriculture GHG mitigation projects • Many of the measures aimed at reducing GHG emissions have other impacts (Co-benefits); a) Increasing crop productivity and improve food security; b) Supporting technology transfer; c) Reducing pollution and odour from waste/wastewater, etc. • Carbon credits are issued against performance – CDM offers a financial incentive to properly manage agricultural practices
  6. 6. CDM Methodologies for the Agriculture Sector Type Sub-type Methodologies GHG Rice avoidance/ cultivation destruction AMS-III.AU (reduced CH4 by adjusted water management practice in rice cultivation) Livestock AMS-III.BK (reduced CH4 by strategic feed supplementation for large ruminants) Waste management AMS-III.D, AMS-III.R, ACM0010, AM0073 (destruction of CH4 from animal manure) AMS-III.F and ACM0022 (Avoidance of CH4 through composting)…etc Fertilizer AMS-III.BF (reduced N2O by use of Nitrogen Use Efficient seeds that require less fertilizer application) AMS-III.A (reduced CO2 by use of inoculant on legumes that displaces synthetic nitrogen fertilizers) Mulching AMS-III.BE (reduced N2O and CH4 by mulching) Energy efficiency AMS-II.P (energy efficient pumping) AMS-II.F (energy efficiency and fuel switching)
  7. 7. AMS-III.AU: Reduced CH4 in rice cultivation • To change the water regime during the cultivation period from continuously to intermittent flooded conditions and/or a shortened period of flooded conditions • Option 1: Measurements (reference field approach) a) At least 3 reference fields to determine baseline and project emission factor separately for each group of fields with the same cultivation pattern b) Measurements done via closed chambers.
  8. 8. AMS-III.AU: Reduced CH4 in rice cultivation • Simplified approaches to calculate emission reductions using default values derived from IPCC Tier 1 approach. • Option 2: Global default a) Use EFc = 1.30 [kgCH4/ha/day] • Option 3: Country/region-specific factor a) Determine country-specific EFc value [kgCH4/ha/day] through methane measurement
  9. 9. AMS-III.BK: Strategic feed supplementation in smallholder dairy sector to increase productivity • Insufficient scientific evidence on effectiveness of a number of feed supplements to reduce enteric CH4 emissions (e.g. FAO(2013)) • Aim to improve animal production efficiency, i.e. to reduce emissions per unit of milk through strategic supplementation to large ruminants (i.e., cows and/or buffaloes). a) Supplementation improves digestion and promotes increased productivity • Emission reductions a) Calculated: (EFb – EFp) x Project milk production; b) Emission factor is following IPCC approach: V4_10_Ch10, 2006 IPCC • For Gross Energy (GE), stratified multi-stage cluster sampling is required to collect data on type and quantity of feedstuff. • Methane conversion factor (Ym) taken from IPCC.
  10. 10. CDM experience in MRV and the way forward Experience in MRV • Proven MRV rules and processes (more than 200 methodologies including several agriculture methodologies) • Operational infrastructure established Future works • Top-down and bottom up development of methodologies in other promising area in the Agriculture sector • Simplification/standardization of methodologies and processes: a) Standardized baselines, taking into account national circumstances (e.g. PSB0019: Philippines Rice) b) Simplified monitoring approach (e.g. Tiered approach) c) Simplified PoA regulations • Collaboration with Regional Collaboration Centers of UNFCCC • Collaboration with other UN organizations and WB to develop methodologies
  11. 11. Thank you