Spanish 2 grammar book—first semester

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Spanish 2 grammar book—first semester

  1. 1. Spanish 2 Grammar Book—First Semester<br />Catalina Vivlamore<br />Spanish 2H period 2<br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Verbs Like Gustar<br />Hacer Expressions<br />Preterite Tense<br />Trigger Words<br />-Car, -Gar, -Zar<br />Spock Verbs<br />Cucaracha Verbs<br />10. Snakes y Snakeys<br />11. DOPS<br />12. IOPS<br />13. Commands<br />14. Irregular Commands<br />15. Se Impersonal<br />
  3. 3. Ser<br />“Permanent” form of “To Be” (Compare ESTAR)<br />A good way to remember is DOCTOR PED:<br />D: Descriptions (¿Qué es?)<br />O: Origin (de) (¿De dónde es?)<br />C: Characteristics (¿Como es?)<br />T: Time ¿(Qué hora es?)<br />O: Occupation (¿Qué hace?)<br />R: Relationships (¿Quién es?)<br />P: Possession (de) (¿De quién es?)<br />E: Events (¿Cuando/Dónde es?)<br />D: Dates (¿Qué día es hoy/Cual es la fecha de hoy?)<br />
  4. 4. Ejemplos y Tabla<br />Es un calendario.<br />Soy de Costa Rica.<br />Tú eres rubio.<br />Son las seis y media.<br />La mujer es abogada.<br />Son mis hermanas.<br />Esto es el dinero de Pepe.<br />La fiesta es jueves.<br />Mi cumpleaños es miércoles. La fecha es el veintiséis de enero dos mil once. <br />
  5. 5. Estar<br />“Temporary” form of “To Be” (Compare SER)<br />A good way to remember is HELPING:<br />H: Health (Cómo estás)<br />E: Emotions (Cómo estás)<br />L: Location (en) (Dónde estás)<br />P: Present Condition (Cómo Está)<br />I:<br />N:<br />G:<br />Gerunds:<br />-ar-> -ando<br />-er/ir -> -iendo o –yendo<br />(Qué estás haciendo?)<br />
  6. 6. Ejemplos y Tabla<br />Está bien hoy.<br />Estoy nerviosa.<br />Estamos en la cocina.<br />El cielo está nublado.<br />Estás ayudando.<br />Estoy escribiendo.<br />Están leyendo.<br />
  7. 7. Verbs Like Gustar<br />Gustar: To be pleasing to/To like<br />Fascinar: To fascinate<br />Molestar: To bother<br />Encantar: To love/be enchanted by<br />Faltar: To lack/be in need of<br />Importar: To be important to<br />Disgustar: To not be pleasing to/To dislike<br />Aburrir: To bore<br />Indirect object pronouns are necessary! (Me, nos, te, os, le, les)<br />The IOPS always come before the verb!<br />
  8. 8. Ejemplos<br />Dancing is pleasing to me; I like dancing:<br />Me gusta bailar.<br />David dislikes apples; Apples are not pleasing to David: <br />A David le disgustan manzanas.<br />He bothers you.<br />Él le molesta.<br />
  9. 9. Hacer Expressions<br />Hacer expressions tell how long ago something happened.<br />At this level, be more concerned with the present tense expression.<br />
  10. 10. Ejemplos<br />Present Tense: “I have lived in Spain for two years.”<br /><ul><li>Hace dos años que vivo en España. </li></ul>Present Tense: “It has been an hour since I took the test.”<br /><ul><li>Hace una hora que tomo el examen.</li></ul>Past Tense: “I lived in Spain two years ago.”<br />Hace dos años queviví en España.<br />
  11. 11. Preterite Tense<br />Regular -ar Verbs:<br />Regular –er/-ir Verbs<br />A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending<br />
  12. 12. Ejemplos<br />I slept. <br /><ul><li>Dormí.</li></ul>You wrote. <br /><ul><li>Escribiste.</li></ul>We ate. <br /><ul><li>Comimos.</li></ul>He spoke. <br /><ul><li>Él habló.</li></ul>They learned.<br /><ul><li>Aprendieron.</li></li></ul><li>Preterite Trigger Words<br />These words signal an upcoming preterite tense verb:<br />Ayer (yesterday)<br />Anteayer (day before yesterday)<br />A las *ocho* (at *eight* o’clock)<br />El *miércoles* (on *Wednesday*)<br />El día anterior (the day before)<br />El *lunes* pasado (last *Monday*)<br />El *fin de semana* (last *weekend*)<br />Ayer por la mañana (yesterday morning)<br />El otro día (the other day)<br />Una vez (one time/once)<br />Esta *tarde* (this afternoon)<br />Entonces (then)<br />Desde el primer momento (from the first moment)<br />Durante *dos siglos* (during *two centuries*)<br />En ese momento (in that moment/then)<br />Hace *dos días* que (*two days* ago)<br />See “Hacer Expressions.”<br />
  13. 13. -Car, -Gar, -Zar<br />The first group of irregular preterite verbs. <br />It only changes in the first person tense.<br />This group pertains to verbs ending in –car, -gar, or –zar.<br />
  14. 14. Spock Verbs<br />Ir, ser, dar, ver, y hacer.<br />Another grouping of irregular preterite verbs.<br />Ir/ser<br />Dar/ver<br />Hacer<br />
  15. 15. Tablas<br />
  16. 16. Cucaracha Verbs<br />A third grouping of irregular preterite verbs.<br />A way to remember their conjugations is to sing them to the tune of “La Cucaracha.” <br />For the verbs “conducir,” “producir,” and “traducir,” drop the “i” in –ieron in the third person plural tense.<br />
  17. 17. Tabla y Ejemplos<br /><ul><li>“I walked.”
  18. 18. Anduve.
  19. 19. “You could.”
  20. 20. Pudiste.
  21. 21. “She knew.”
  22. 22. Ella supo.
  23. 23. “We had.”
  24. 24. Tuvimos.
  25. 25. “You all brought.”
  26. 26. Trajisteis.
  27. 27. “They translated.”
  28. 28. Produjeron.</li></li></ul><li>Snakes and Snakeys<br />The last groupings of irregular preterite verbs.<br />In the “snakes” group, there is a stem change in the third person.<br />In the “snakeys” group, the “i” changes to a “y” in the third person. These verbs usually have double vowels in infinitive form.<br />
  29. 29. Tablas<br />Snakes:<br />Dormir<br />Pedir<br />Snakeys:<br />Leer<br />
  30. 30. DOPS (Direct Object Pronouns)<br /><ul><li>DOPS tell what receives the action of the verbs.
  31. 31. In only 3 instances can a DOP hook onto the end of the verb:
  32. 32. The verb is an infinitive.
  33. 33. The verb is an affirmative command.
  34. 34. The verb is a gerund or a present progressive verb.
  35. 35. If the DOP can hook onto the end of the verb, an accent mark must be added to the syllable of the verb that will retain the original sound of the original verb.
  36. 36. A DOP can NEVER hook onto a negative command, a conjugated present tense verb, or a conjugated preterite tense verb!</li></li></ul><li>Tabla y Ejemplos<br />“I am going to eat it.”<br />Voy a comerlo.<br />“Say it!”<br />¡Háblalo!<br />We are drinking it.<br />Estamos bebiéndolo.<br />They saw it.<br />Lo vieron.<br />
  37. 37. IOPS (Indirect Object Pronouns)<br />Tells “for whom” or “for what.”<br />There must be a DOP for there to be an IOP!<br />An IOP and a DOP cannot both begin with an “l,” so the IOP “le” ends up with the DOPS “lo” or “la,” change the “le” to “se.”<br />The IOP always comes before the DOP.<br />The same rules as the DOP apply to the IOP for attaching them to the end of a verb.<br />
  38. 38. Tabla y Ejemplos<br />“I gave it to her.”<br />Se lo di.<br />“Give it to me!”<br />¡Démelo!<br />“They gave it to you.”<br />Te lo dieron.<br />* There is no feminine -distinguishing IOP for the third person tense.<br />
  39. 39. Regular Commands<br />Put the verb in “yo” form and change to the opposite vowel.<br />Do this for both affirmative and negative commands. <br />Add the “n” at the end for a plural command.<br />
  40. 40. Ejemplos<br />“Speak!”<br /><ul><li>¡Hable!</li></ul>“Dance!”<br /><ul><li>¡Baile!</li></ul>“Dogs, don’t speak!”<br /><ul><li>Perros, ¡No hablen!</li></ul>“Don’t dance!”<br /><ul><li>¡No baile!</li></li></ul><li>Irregular Commands<br />A mnemonic device is “TVDISHES.”<br />T: Tener- Tenga/Tengan<br />V: Venir- Venga/Vengan<br />D: Dar- Dé/Den<br />I: Ir- Vaya/Vayan<br />S: Saber- Sepa/Sepan<br />H: Hacer- Haga/Hagan<br />E: Estar- Esté/Estén <br />S: Ser- Sea/Sean<br />“Ver” is also irregular, and it conjugates to “vea” and “vean.”<br />
  41. 41. Ejemplos<br />“Do your homework!<br />¡Haga tu tarea!<br />“Be happy!”<br />¡Esté feliz!<br />“Know this for the test!”<br />¡Sepa esto para el examen!<br />“You two, don’t go there!”<br />¡No vayan allí!<br />
  42. 42. Se Impersonal<br /><ul><li>Use “Se” to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.
  43. 43. When using “se,” the verb is always in the third person.
  44. 44. “Se” can be used in all tenses.
  45. 45. Ejemplos:</li></ul>Se vende fruta en la frutería.<br />Aquí se habla español.<br />

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