Grammar Review

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Grammar Review

  1. 1. Grammar Review
  2. 2. Spanish Subjects <ul><li>Yo- I </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- Familiar You </li></ul><ul><li>Él - He </li></ul><ul><li>Ella- She </li></ul><ul><li>Usted- Formal You </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotros- We (male or mixed group) </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotras- We (female) </li></ul><ul><li>Vosotros- You all familiar (male or mixed group) Spain only! </li></ul><ul><li>Vosotras- You all familiar (female) Spain only! </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos- They (male or mixed group) </li></ul><ul><li>Ellas- They (female) </li></ul><ul><li>Ustedes- You all formal </li></ul>
  3. 3. AR Verb Endings <ul><li>Yo- o </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- as </li></ul><ul><li>Él - a </li></ul><ul><li>Ella - a </li></ul><ul><li>Usted - a </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotros,as- amos </li></ul><ul><li>Vosotros,as- áis </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos- an </li></ul><ul><li>Ellas- an </li></ul><ul><li>Ustedes- an </li></ul>
  4. 4. ER Verb Endings Yo- o Tú- es Él - e Ella - e Usted - e Nosotros,as- emos Vosotros,as- éis Ellos- en Ellas- en Ustedes- en
  5. 5. IR Verb Endings Yo- o Tú- es Él - e Ella - e Usted - e Nosotros,as- imos Vosotros,as- ís Ellos- en Ellas- en Ustedes- en
  6. 6. Reminder <ul><li>In order to conjugate a verb you must </li></ul><ul><li>first--- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the stem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove the ending. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace with appropriate ending that matches the subject of the sentence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example. Yo- hablar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habl ar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habl </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hablo </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Let’s Practice! <ul><li>Yo- beber Nosotros- bailar </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- caminar Nosotras- comer </li></ul><ul><li>Él - hablar Ellos- vivir </li></ul><ul><li>Ella- escribir Ellas- tomar </li></ul><ul><li>Usted- pagar Ustedes-mirar </li></ul>
  8. 8. Answers… Check your work! Yo- bebo Nosotros- bailamos Tú- caminas Nosotras- comemos Él - habla Ellos- viven Ella- escribe Ellas- toman Usted- paga Ustedes-miran
  9. 9. Nouns, Articles, Adjectives <ul><li>Remember that in Spanish a sentence must agree in gender and number. </li></ul><ul><li>That is why it is important to remember how to use nouns, articles, and adjectives in the singular and the plural. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Nouns <ul><li>Nouns are people, places, or things. </li></ul><ul><li>A noun that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: blusa – blusas </li></ul><ul><li>A noun that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: mantel - manteles </li></ul>
  11. 11. Articles <ul><li>Definite Articles- signify the. </li></ul><ul><li>El- masc. sing. </li></ul><ul><li>La- fem. sing. </li></ul><ul><li>Los- masc. plur. </li></ul><ul><li>Las- fem. plur. </li></ul><ul><li>El libro- the book </li></ul><ul><li>Los libros- the books </li></ul><ul><li>Indefinite Articles- signify a or an in the singular and some in the plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Un- masc. sing. </li></ul><ul><li>Una- fem. sing. </li></ul><ul><li>Unos- masc. plur. </li></ul><ul><li>Unas- fem. plur. </li></ul><ul><li>Una blusa- a blouse </li></ul><ul><li>Unas blusas- some blouses </li></ul>
  12. 12. Adjectives- Agreeing in Number <ul><li>An adjective is a word that describes a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>An adjective that ends in a vowel can be made plural by adding –s . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: rojo – rojos </li></ul><ul><li>An adjective that ends in a consonant such as -n or -l is made plural by adding –es . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: azul - azules </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adjectives- Agreeing in Gender <ul><li>An adjective that ends in an –o is masculine and modifies masculine nouns. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: carro rojo </li></ul><ul><li>If you want that adjective to modify a feminine noun, you must change the –o to –a. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: blusa roja </li></ul><ul><li>If an adjective ends in another letter such as -e or -l, it is neutral and has no gender. It can modify a masculine or feminine word. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: alumno inteligente </li></ul><ul><li> casa azul </li></ul>
  14. 14. Adjectives- Agreeing in Gender (cont.) <ul><li>Once you have changed the adjective to match the noun for gender, you add an –s or –es if the noun it modifies is plural. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: blusas rojas </li></ul><ul><li> carros azules </li></ul>
  15. 15. Irregular Verbs...
  16. 16. Irregular Verbs <ul><li>Ser - soy eres es somos sois son </li></ul><ul><li>Ir - voy vas va vamos vais van </li></ul><ul><li>Dar - doy das da damos dais dan </li></ul><ul><li>Estar - estoy estás está </li></ul><ul><li>estamos estáis están </li></ul><ul><li>Tener - tengo tienes tiene </li></ul><ul><li>tenemos tenéis tienen </li></ul>
  17. 17. Irregular Verbs (cont.) These verbs are irregular only in the yo form. Hacer- hago haces hace hacemos hacéis hacen Poner- pongo pones pone ponemos ponéis ponen Traer- traigo traes trae traemos traéis traen
  18. 18. Irregular Verbs (cont.) <ul><li>Salir- salgo sales sale </li></ul><ul><li>salimos sal ís salen </li></ul><ul><li>Saber- sé sabes sabe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sabemos sabéis saben </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conocer- conozco conoces conoce conocemos conocéis conocen </li></ul>
  19. 19. Stem Changing Verbs... Present Tense
  20. 20. How do I stem change? <ul><li>Find the change. (This is listed in most dictionaries and will be given on tests or quizzes. After practice, you will start to remember them on your own.) </li></ul><ul><li>Make the switch. (Not in nosotros or vosotros, remember the boot) </li></ul><ul><li>Conjugate the verb appropriately. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples coming… </li></ul>
  21. 21. Examples <ul><li>Ella- empezar (e:ie) </li></ul><ul><li>e:ie </li></ul><ul><li>Empiezar </li></ul><ul><li>Empieza </li></ul><ul><li>Nosotros- poder (o:ue) </li></ul><ul><li>o:ue </li></ul><ul><li>Poder </li></ul><ul><li>Podemos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Notice I did not stem-change the verb b/c we are in the nosotros form.* </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Common Stem-Changing Verbs <ul><li>Empezar- e:ie Querer- e:ie </li></ul><ul><li>Perder- e:ie Preferir- e:ie </li></ul><ul><li>Volver- o:ue Poder- o:ue </li></ul><ul><li>Comenzar- e:ie </li></ul><ul><li>Jugar- u:ue AND THAT’S JUST </li></ul><ul><li>Dormir- o:ue A FEW!!!!! </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practice---Put in Notes. <ul><li>Yo- empezar Nosotros- comenzar </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- perder Nosotras- jugar </li></ul><ul><li>Él - poder Ellos- volver </li></ul><ul><li>Ella-dormir Ellas- preferir </li></ul><ul><li>Usted- querer Ustedes-devolver </li></ul>
  24. 24. Answers… Check your work! <ul><li>Yo- empiezo Nosotros- comenzamos </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- pierdes Nosotras- jugamos </li></ul><ul><li>Él - puede Ellos- vuelven </li></ul><ul><li>Ella-duerme Ellas- prefieren </li></ul><ul><li>Usted- quiere Ustedes-devuelven </li></ul>
  25. 25. Possessive Adjectives
  26. 26. Possessive Adjectives – modify a noun to show possession! <ul><li>Mi, Mis - My </li></ul><ul><li>Tu,Tus – Familiar Your </li></ul><ul><li>Su, Sus – His, Her, </li></ul><ul><li>Formal and Plural Your, Their </li></ul><ul><li>*Note: these possessive adjectives only need to match the noun in number. They have no gender. * </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Mi casa- Mis casas My house- My houses </li></ul><ul><li> Tu libro- Tus libros Your book- Your books </li></ul>
  27. 27. Possessive Adjectives – modify a noun to show possession! <ul><li>Nuestro- our Nuestros - our </li></ul><ul><li>Nuestra- our Nuestras – our </li></ul><ul><li>*Note: these possessive adjectives need to match the noun in gender and number. * </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Nuestra casa- Nuestras casas </li></ul><ul><li>Our house- Our houses </li></ul><ul><li> Nuestro libro- Nuestros libros Our book- Our books </li></ul>
  28. 28. Gustar Verbs
  29. 29. Literal Meaning <ul><li>The verb gustar means to like, but literally it means to be pleasing to. This is why with the gustar verbs we use indirect object pronouns. When we say…”Me gusta pizza.” We are literally saying…”Pizza is pleasing to me.” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Let’s review the indirect pronouns. <ul><li>Me - me </li></ul><ul><li>Te – you (fam.) </li></ul><ul><li>Le – you (form.) </li></ul><ul><li> him </li></ul><ul><li> her </li></ul><ul><li>Nos - us </li></ul><ul><li>Os – you plural (fam.) </li></ul><ul><li>Les – you plural (form.) </li></ul><ul><li> them </li></ul>You choose which pronoun to use depending upon who is doing the verb…i.e. “ Who is liking” “Who is it boring”, etc.
  31. 31. Verbs like gustar <ul><li>Here is a list of verbs that are used like gustar: </li></ul><ul><li>Gustar – to like Costar (o:ue) – to cost </li></ul><ul><li>Aburrir – to bore Fascinar – to facinate </li></ul><ul><li>Encantar – to love Molestar – to bother </li></ul><ul><li>Interesar – to interest </li></ul>
  32. 32. Verbs like gustar are all conjugated the same. <ul><li>If you are talking about a singular object or an infinitive verb, you use the he/she form. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Me gust a el verano. </li></ul><ul><li> Les gust a correr. </li></ul><ul><li>If you are talking about a plural object, you use the they form. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Me gusta n los zapatos. </li></ul><ul><li> Le gusta n las peliculas. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Two last things to remember… <ul><li>*The verb agrees with the subject of the sentence– that is, with the person or thing being liked. </li></ul><ul><li>*You can use the preposition a + noun or pronoun to emphasize or specify the name of the person referred to by the indirect object pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Le gusta el pollo. He/She likes the chicken. </li></ul><ul><li> A Eva le gusta el pollo. Eva likes the chicken. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Ser vs Estar
  35. 35. The basics… <ul><li>Ser expresses a fundamental quality and identifies the essence of a person or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>Estar expresses more transitory qualities and often implies the possibility of change. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Uses of Ser <ul><li>Basic nature or character of a person or thing. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also used with expressions of age that do not refer to a specific number of years. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: La orquesta es buena. </li></ul><ul><li>Yo soy joven. </li></ul><ul><li>Material that things are made of. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Las mesas son de metal </li></ul><ul><li>Denote nationality, origin, and profession or trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Sandra es norteamericana. </li></ul><ul><li> Yo soy de Caracas. </li></ul><ul><li> Mi madre es profesora. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Uses of Ser cont. <ul><li>Expressions of time with dates. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Hoy es jueves, cuatro de abril. </li></ul><ul><li>Son las cuatro y cuarto de la tarde. </li></ul><ul><li>With events as the equivalent of taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: La fiesta es en el club Los Violines. </li></ul><ul><li>To indicate possession or relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Los discos compactos son de Julia. </li></ul><ul><li> Antonio es el hermano de Pablo. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Uses of Estar <ul><li>Place or location. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Mi prima no está aquí. ¿ Dónde está ? </li></ul><ul><li>Condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Mis amigos está n muy cansados. </li></ul><ul><li>Sara está enferma. </li></ul><ul><li>With personal reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>It describes what is perceived through the senses—that is how a person or thing seems, looks, tastes, or feels. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: El ponche está delicioso. </li></ul><ul><li>With the present progressive. </li></ul><ul><li>(Will be reviewing later.) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Pronouns
  40. 40. Two types of pronouns… <ul><li>Direct Object Pronouns take the place of a direct object. The direct object of a sentence may be either a person or thing that directly receives the action of the verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Ellos compran el libro. </li></ul><ul><li>Subject verb direct object. </li></ul><ul><li>Answers the question whom or what about what the subject is doing. </li></ul><ul><li>What are they buying? The book. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Direct Object Pronouns <ul><li>Me - me </li></ul><ul><li>Te – you (fam.) </li></ul><ul><li>Lo – you (form. masc.) </li></ul><ul><li>him, it (masc.) </li></ul><ul><li>La – you (form. fem.) </li></ul><ul><li>her, it (fem.) </li></ul>Nos - us Os – you plural (fam.) Los – them (masc.) you plural (form. masc.) Las- them (fem.) you plural (form. fem.)
  42. 42. D.O.P Rules of Placement <ul><li>DOP placed before a conjugated verb. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos sirven la cena. Ellos la sirven. </li></ul><ul><li>In a negative sentence, the no must precede the DOP. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos no sirven la cena. Ellos no la sirven. </li></ul><ul><li>The DOP may be attached or in front when used with an infinitive verb or with the present progressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Puedo firmarlo. Lo puedo firmar. </li></ul><ul><li>Estoy leyéndolo. Lo estoy leyendo. </li></ul><ul><li>*An accent was added to </li></ul><ul><li>maintain the correct stress.* </li></ul>
  43. 43. Two types of pronouns… Indirect Object Pronouns take the place of an indirect object. The indirect object of a sentence describes to whom or for whom an action is done. Ex. Yo mando los libros a los estudiantes. Subject verb direct object indirect object In Spanish, the IOP includes the meaning to or for. Ex. Yo les mando los libros. I send the books to them.
  44. 44. In direct Object Pronouns Me - me Te – you (fam.) Le – you (form.) him her Nos - us Os – you plural (fam.) Les – you plural (form.) them
  45. 45. I.O.P Rules of Placement IOP placed before a conjugated verb. Ellos sirven la cena a los chicos. Ellos les sirven la cena. In a negative sentence, the no must precede the IOP. Ellos no sirven la cena a los chicos. Ellos no les sirven la cena. The IOP may be attached or in front when used with an infinitive verb or with the present progressive. Nos está diciendo que viene hoy. Está diciéndonos que viene hoy. *An accent was added to maintain the correct stress.*
  46. 46. Using both pronouns at once… <ul><li>If you are going to use two pronouns in one sentence you need to remember, the Indirect Object Pronoun always comes before the Direct Object Pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos dan la cuenta a mí. Ellos me la dan. </li></ul><ul><li>If you have two pronouns that begin with –l the first pronoun(IOP) changes to se. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos sirven la cena a los chicos. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos les la sirven. Ellos se la sirven. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Present Progressive
  48. 48. Two parts to the Present Progressive <ul><li>Present tense form of estar </li></ul><ul><li>(Matches the subject) </li></ul><ul><li>Present Participle </li></ul><ul><li>(AR- ando ER/IR - iendo) </li></ul><ul><li>The present progressive is something that is currently taking place. </li></ul><ul><li>I am walking. Yo estoy caminando. </li></ul>
  49. 49. More examples… <ul><li>He is running. Él está corriendo. </li></ul><ul><li>We are talking. Nosotros estamos hablando. </li></ul><ul><li>They are dancing. Ellos están bailando. </li></ul>Irregular Participles- Leer – leyendo Traer- trayendo
  50. 50. Try a couple on your own. <ul><li>We are singing. (cantar) </li></ul><ul><li>They are writing. (escribir) </li></ul><ul><li>I am reading. (leer) </li></ul><ul><li>He is bringing a book. (traer) </li></ul>
  51. 51. Answers… <ul><li>Nosotros estamos cantando. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos están escribiendo. </li></ul><ul><li>Yo estoy leyendo. </li></ul><ul><li>Él está trayendo un libro. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Reflexive Verbs
  53. 53. Reflexive Verbs <ul><li>The subject of a reflexive verb both performs and receives the action. Each subject has its corresponding pronoun. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexive verbs follow the conjugation rules (i.e. regular ar, er, ir verbs, stem-changers, etc.) </li></ul>
  54. 54. Pronouns and Examples Yo- me Tú- te Él, Ella, Usted - se Nosotros,as- nos Vosotros,as- os Ellos, Ellas, Ustedes- se
  55. 55. How to do it… <ul><li>1. Remove the se and move it to the front. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Match the pronoun with the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Conjugate the verb to match the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Yo- lavarse </li></ul><ul><li>1. se lavar 2. me lavar 3. me lavo </li></ul>
  56. 56. You try it. <ul><li>Ella – levantarse </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos- acostarse (o:ue) </li></ul><ul><li>Yo- ducharse </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- cepillarse </li></ul><ul><li>Él- afeitarse </li></ul>
  57. 57. Answers… <ul><li>Ella – levantarse Se levanta </li></ul><ul><li>Ellos- acostarse (o:ue) Se acuestan </li></ul><ul><li>Yo- ducharse Me ducho </li></ul><ul><li>Tú- cepillarse Te cepillas </li></ul><ul><li>Él- afeitarse Se afeita </li></ul>
  58. 58. El Fin

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