Bianca book 2

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Bianca book 2

  1. 1. Honors Spanish 2 Grammar Book<br />By: Brenda Jean-Bart<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br />Ser<br />Estar<br />Verbs like Gustar<br />Hacer expression<br />Preterito<br />Trigger words<br />Car, gar, zar<br />Spock verbs<br />Cucaracha verbs<br />Snakes and snackeys<br />Dop<br />Commands<br />Irregular verbs<br />Iop’s<br />Se impersonal<br />Past Participles as adjectives<br />El future and ir + a+ infinitive<br />Demonstrative adjectives<br />Demonstrative pronouns<br />Los mandates<br />Imperfect tense<br />Informal+ irregulars<br />Formal +irregulars<br />DOP +IOP placement<br />Modal verbs<br />Reflexsives<br />Saber v. conocer<br />
  3. 3. Ser<br />Description<br />Origin<br />Characteristics<br />Ser<br /> time<br />Occupation<br />Relationships<br />Pocession<br />events<br />Date<br />
  4. 4. Estar<br />ar-ando<br />er/ir- endo<br /> -yendo<br />health<br />location<br />Presesntlocaton<br />Estar<br />emotions<br />I<br />N<br />G<br />
  5. 5. Verbs like Gustar<br />Doler (o-ue)- to hurt<br />Fascinar- to fascinate<br />Molestar- to bother<br />Encantar- to love<br />Faltar- to lack, be in need of <br />Importar- to be important to<br />Disgustar- to disgust<br />
  6. 6. Hacer Expressions<br />HACE + TIME + QUE + CONJUGATED VERB<br />Conjuagated verb can be in any tense<br />
  7. 7. Preterrito<br />Ar verbs<br />E<br />Aste<br />O<br />Amos<br />Aron<br />Er/Ir verbs<br />I<br />Iste<br />Io<br />Imos<br />ieron<br />
  8. 8. Trigger words<br /><ul><li>Ayer</li></ul>Anoche<br />El anopasado<br />Le semanapasada<br />Ante ayer<br />
  9. 9. Car, Gar, Zar<br />Car<br />Que<br />Caste <br />Co<br />Camos<br />Casteis<br />Caron<br />Gar<br />Gue<br />Gaste<br />Go<br />Gamos<br />Gasteis<br />Garon<br />Zar<br />Ce<br />Zaste<br />Zo<br />Zamos<br />zasteis<br />zaron<br />
  10. 10. Spock verbs<br />Preterite Conjugations of Irregular Spock Verbs<br />Ver<br />ser<br />Dar<br />Ir<br />Hacer<br />
  11. 11. Cucaracha verbs<br />Andar-anduv -e<br />Estar-Estuv -iste<br />Poder-pud -o<br />Poner-pus -imos<br />Querer-quis -isteis<br />Saber-sup -ieron<br />Tener-tuv * “j” verbs i=ieron<br />Venir-vin<br />Conducir-conduj<br />Producir-produj<br />Traducir-traduj<br />Decir-dij<br />Traer-traj<br />
  12. 12. Snakes and Snakeys<br />Snakes<br />Peder<br />Yopedi<br />Tupediste<br />Ella/el pidio<br />Nosotrospedimos<br />Vosotrospedisteis<br />Ellos/ellaspidieron<br />Snakeys<br />Verbs such as leer, creer, and oir change i to y in 3rd person<br />Lei<br />Leiste<br />Leyo<br />Leimos<br />Leisteis<br />Leisteis<br />leyeron<br />
  13. 13. DOPs <br />Lo-it masculine<br />Las-it plural and feminine<br />Los –it plural and masculine <br />La- it feminine<br />
  14. 14. Commands<br />Affirmative Commands<br />An affirmative command is used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness.<br />Negative Commands<br />A negative command is used when ordering, or telling someone not to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness<br />To make an affirmative and negative formal command do the following:<br />Take the present tense “yo” form of the verb<br />Drop the –o or –oyending<br />For –ar verbs, add an e, for –er and –ir verbs, add an a.<br />
  15. 15. Irregular verbs<br />Irregular Affirmative Formal Command<br />There are only three verbs that have <br />irregular conjugations which are: ir, saber, <br />ser. Ir goes to to ¡Vaya!, saber goes to <br />!Sepa!, and ser goes to ¡Sea!<br />Ex:<br />To tell someone to go to the front of the <br />room say: ¡Vaya al frente de la sala!<br />Irregular Negative Formal Command<br />There are only three verbs that have <br />irregular conjugations which are: ir, saber, <br />ser. Ir goes to to ¡Vaya!, saber goes to <br />!Sepa!, and ser goes to ¡Sea!<br />Ex:<br />To tell someone not to be <br />bad say: ¡No sea malo!<br />
  16. 16. IOPs<br />Me- yo<br />Te- tu<br />Le-el/ ella/ud<br />Les- ellos/ellas/uds<br />Nos- nosotros<br />
  17. 17. Se impersonal<br />Use se to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb.<br />Se vendefruta en la frutería.<br />When using se, the verb is always in the 3rd person.<br />Aquí se hablaespañol.<br />Se can be used in all tenses.<br />Se hizo mucho.<br />Se hará mucho.<br />Se habíahecho.<br />
  18. 18. TV-DISHES<br />T-tenga-tener<br />V-venga-venir<br />D-de-dar<br />I-vaya-ir<br />S-sea-ser<br />H-haga-hacer<br />E- este-estar<br />S- sepa-saber<br />
  19. 19. Past Participles as Adjectives<br />The past participle is a specific form of the verb that usually ends in - ado or – ido<br />
  20. 20. El Futuro and ir + a + infinitive<br />The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen.<br />Add é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án to the end of initive verb.<br />Hablar:<br />Yohablaré<br />Tuhablarás<br />Élhablará<br />Nosotroshablaremos<br />Vosotroshablaréis<br />Elloshablarán<br />ir a + infinitive = to be going to do something (in the near future)<br />Voy a llevar a mi hermana a su casa.I am going to take my sister to her house.<br />Vas a invitar a muchasmuchachas.You are going to invite lots of girls.<br />Cristina va a conversar con mi mamá.Christina is going to talk with my mom.<br />Eduardo va a leer el libro.Edward is going to read the book.<br />
  21. 21. Demonstrative adjectives <br />Demonstrative adjectives describe a noun<br />Este this<br />EseThat <br />AquelThat one over there<br />Estos<br /> These<br />
  22. 22. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />
  23. 23. Los Mandatos<br />Affirmative Commands<br />An affirmative command is used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness.<br />Negative Commands<br />A negative command is used when ordering, or telling someone not to do something. In English, it is the “imperative” form of the verb. The formal commands are used when addressing unfamiliar people with a need to express respect and politeness<br />To make an affirmative and negative formal command do the following:<br />Take the present tense “yo” form of the verb<br />Drop the –o or –oyending<br />For –ar verbs, add an e, for –er and –ir verbs, add an a.<br />
  24. 24. Imperfect tense<br />Imperfected actions in the past<br />To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following:<br />abaabasabaábamosabaisaban<br />Example:<br />Cantar<br />Yocantaba<br />Tucantabas<br />Ud/elle/ellaCantaba<br />NosotrosCantabamos<br />VosotrosCantabais<br />Uds/ellas/elloscantaban<br />To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following:<br />íaíasíaíamosíaisían<br />Example:<br />Escribir<br />Escrbia<br />Escribias<br />Escribia<br />Escribiamos<br />Escribias<br />escribian<br />
  25. 25. Informal + Irregulars<br />
  26. 26. Formal + irregulars<br />Commands are used when ordering, or telling someone to do something. This is often referred to as the "imperative" form of the verb.<br />CompreUd. el anillo. (You) Buy the ring.<br />HagaUd. la tarea. (You) Do the homework. ComprenUds. los libros. (You-all) Buy the books. <br />Hagan Uds. el trabajo. (You-all) Do the work. <br />Start with the yo form of the present indicative. <br />Then drop the -o ending. <br />Finally, add the following endings: <br />-ar verbs:-e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)<br />-er and -ir verbs:-a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.)<br />Iregulars:<br />Tengan Uds. un buen viaje. (yo tengo) Have a goodtrip.<br />Traiga Ud. el dinero. (yo traigo) Bringthemoney.<br />Venga Ud. conmigo. (yo vengo) Come with me. <br />
  27. 27. DOP + IOP Placement<br />When both pronouns are used in a sentence the order is: I.O.P + D.O.P before a conjugated verb. <br />Example:<br /> Mi madretelascompró. My mother bought them for you.<br />When a phrase is used, the pronouns can be placed either before the verbal structure or attached to the infinitive or –ing (gerund) form.<br />I am going to take them to you tomorrow. <br />Voy a llevartelasmañana. Te lasvoy a llevarmañana.<br /> I want to give them to you.QuierodartelosTe losquierodar. <br />When the third person pronouns are used together the I.O.P. (le, les) changes to se in front of the D. O. P. (la, lo ,las, los).<br />¿Le disteun besoa tumamá Did you give a kiss to your mom? <br />Sí, se lo di. Yes, I gave it to her<br />To negate a sentance, place the no before both pronouns.<br />No telascompré.<br />I did not buy them for you.<br />
  28. 28. Modal Verbs<br />The first verb will be conjugated, whereas the 2nd verb remains in the infinitive form<br />Example: no puedonadar- I can’t swim<br />Keys verbs used as madal verbs<br />Deber-should, ought to, must<br />Desear- to desire<br />Necesitar- to need<br />Poder- can<br />Querer- to want<br />Saber- to know<br />Soler-usually, used to<br />
  29. 29. Reflexives<br />
  30. 30. Saber v. Conocer<br />Conocer is used in the context of knowing a person or a place<br />Saber is used when the subject knows a piece of information or how to do a specific task. It can be translated as “to know” as well as “to know how.”<br />

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