Grammar book


Published on

here it is

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Grammar book

  1. 1. Sixto<br />3rd Period<br />Grammar Book(Semester 2)<br />
  2. 2. Table of Contents<br /> Conditional + irregulars Perfect Tenseso Presento Pasto Present perfect irregularso Subjunctive perfect<br />tanto y tan Impersonal ‘se’ Saber vs. Conocer Los Mandatos Informal/Formalo Affirmativeo Negativeo Irregularo DOP + IOP placement Nosotros commando -mono verbs Subjunctive + irregularso Trigger phrases<br />   □ Impersonal expressions   □ Expressions of emotion   □ Conjunctions of time Demonstrative Adjectives + Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. Conditional<br />Add these endings to an infinitive<br />íaíasíaíamosíaisían<br />A fewexamples:<br />Aquéldíacorreríanmás de veinticincokilómetros.That day they must have run more than 25 kilometers.<br />Yosabíaqueabrirían la tienda a lassiete.I knew that they would open the store at seven o'clock.<br />Seríainteresanteestudiar chino.It would be interesting to study Chinese.<br />
  4. 4. Irregular Conditional<br />Caber yo cabría haber yo habría poder yo podría querer yo querría saber yo sabría <br />Poner yo pondría salir yo saldría tener yo tendría valer yo valdría venir yo vendría decir yo diría hacer yo haría<br />
  5. 5. Perfect Tenses<br />The perfect tenses in Spanish are formed with: <br />The helping verb haber, in the appropriate tense and mood, plus: <br />The masculine singular form of the past participle.<br />Past participles are normally formed by taking the infinitive, dropping off the last two letters, and adding -ado for -ar verbs, or -ido for -er and -ir verbs: <br />hablar > hablado (spoken), comer > comido (eaten), vivir > vivido (lived) <br />
  6. 6. Present Perfect Tenses<br />To form the present perfect, use the present tense of haber plus the masculine singular form of the past participle: <br />he hablado     I have spokenhas habladoyou have spokenha habladohe/she has spokenhemoshablado   we have spokenhabéishabladoyou have spokenhanhabladothey have spoken<br />Yo digo que ella lo ha hecho.    I saythatshehas doneit.<br />Ya hemos visto la película.We'vealreadyseenthe film.<br />
  7. 7. Perfect Past Tense <br />the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle. Haber is conjugated as follows:<br />habíahabíashabíahabíamoshabíaishabían<br />Ex: with Vivir…<br />I lived = había vivido<br />
  8. 8. Present Perfect Irregulars…use haber<br />abrir       (open)       abiertocubrir      (cover)      cubiertoescribir    (write)      escritomorir       (die)        muertoponer       (put)        puesto-solver     (-solve)     -sueltoromper      (break)      rotovolver      (return)     vueltosatisfacer  (satisfy)    satisfechodecir       (say / tell) dichohacer       (do / make)  hechover         (see)        visto<br />
  9. 9. Subjunctive Perfect <br />Conjugating the Spanish Present Perfect Subjunctive<br />The present perfect subjunctive is a compound verb formed with the subjunctive of the auxiliary verb haber + the past participle of the main verb.<br />SALIR<br />yo haya salido<br /> nosotros hayamos salido<br /> tú hayas salido<br />vosotros hayáis salido<br /> élellaUd. haya salido<br />ellosellasUds. hayan salido<br />
  10. 10. Tanto y Tan<br />Tan basically means "so," sometimes "such a" or "as," and is used only before adjectives or adverbs (or nouns used as adjectives). <br />Examples:Rita es tan altacomoMaría. (Rita is as tall as María.) Rita habla tan rápidocomoMaría. (Rita talks as fast as María.) Sentences like those are by far the most common usage of tan.<br />Tanto basically means "so much" or "so many" or, when used with como, "as much" or "as many.“<br />Examples:Tengotantodinerocomo Juan. (I have as much money as Juan.) Tengotantodineroque no séquéhacer con él. (I have so much money I don't know what to do with it.) <br />Tanto also can be used to make other kinds of comparisons and has a wide variety of colloquial uses; under some circumstances it can be used not only as an adjective but also as a noun, pronoun or adverb. A good dictionary will list at least two dozen different uses.<br />Examples:Tengo quince y tantosnietos. (I have 15 or so grandchildren.) No quieroestudiartanto. (I don't want to study so much.) No comotantoella. (I don't eat as much as she.) <br />
  11. 11. Impersonal ‘se’<br />How does one say "icecream" in Italian? ¿Cómo se dice "helado" en italiano? <br />You say "gelato". Se dice "gelato". <br />You pay the fines on Mondays. Se pagalasmultas los lunes.<br />Impersonal Se Formula<br />se + 3rd person singular<br />Senecesitaque la genteproteja la Tierra. (It's necessary that people protect the Earth.)<br />Sehablaespañolaquí. (Spanish is spoken here.)<br />Sedicequeva a llovermañana. (It's said it is going to rain tomorrow.)<br />Seprohibefumar. (Smoking is prohibited.)<br />No sepermitefotosaquí. (Photographs are not permitted.)<br />
  12. 12. Saber<br />Saber means to know a fact or to know how to do something. It is often followed by an infinitive or a subordinate clause<br />No sé la respuesta. I don't know the answer. <br />¿Sabéisfrancés? Do you know French? <br />Sabemoscocinar. We know how to cook. <br />In the pretérito, saber means to learn or to find out:<br />Supe el secretoayer. I learned/found out the secret yesterday. <br />yo sé nosotros sabemos tu sabes vosotros sabéis él sabe ellos saben<br />
  13. 13. Conocer<br />Conocer means to know someone or to be familiar with someone, something, or somewhere. It can only be followed by the a direct object, never by an infinitive or a subordinate clause. Remember that if the direct object is a person, the preposition a must be used. <br />Conozco a tu padre. I know your father. <br />No conocen la obra de Cervantes. They're not familiar with Cervantes' work. <br />¿Ud. conoce Barcelona? Are you familiar with Barcelona?    <br />In the pretérito, conocer means to meet someone for the first time. <br />Juan conociósunovia en Costa Rica. Juan met his girlfriend in Costa Rica. <br />yo conozco nosotros conocemos tu conoces vosotros conocéis él conoce ellos conocen<br />
  14. 14. Formal Command<br />The formal commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive:<br />Start with the yo form of the present indicative.<br />Then drop the -o ending.<br />Finally, add the following endings:<br />-ar verbs:-e (for Ud.), -en (for Uds.)<br />-er and -ir verbs:-a (for Ud.), -an (for Uds.)<br />EXAMPLES:<br />HableUd. más lentamente. HablenUds. más lentamente. Speak more slowly.<br />Coma Ud. la cena.ComanUds. la cena.Eat the dinner.<br />EscribaUd. la carta.EscribanUds. la carta.Write the letter.<br />IRREGULARS<br />Dar déUd. den Uds. EstarestéUd. esténUds .irvayaUd.vayanUds.<br />Ser sea Ud.seanUds. Saber sepaUd. sepanUds. And the other TVDISHES<br />
  15. 15. Formal Command Affirmative and Negative<br />Note that affirmative and negative commands use the same verb forms.<br />HableUd. Speak. No hableUd. Don't speak. <br />Coma Ud. Eat. No coma Ud. Don't eat.<br />EscribaUd. Write. No escribaUd. Don't write. <br />
  16. 16. Formal Command Pronoun Placement<br />When the command is affirmative -- direct, indirect or reflexive pronouns are attached to the end of the command form. Notice that they have a written accent on the syllable of the command form that is stressed. <br />Lléveme al aeropuerto, por favor. Take me to the airport, please. <br />Tráigalesunaensalada a ellos, por favor / ***Tráigasela, por favor. <br />Bring them a salad, please Por favor, láveselasmanos. Please wash your hands. <br />When the command is negative -- the direct, indirect or reflexive pronoun is placed before the command and after the word "no."<br />No le de lasradiografías al paciente. / ***No se las de. Don’t give the x-rays to the patiente No selevante tan temprano. Don’t get up so early.<br />
  17. 17. Informal Command<br />The affirmative informal (tú) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud. form:<br />(hablar - ar + a = habla)(comer - er + e = come)(escribir - ir + e = escribe)<br />Note that the negative informal commands use the tú form of the present subjunctive.<br />No cuentestusbeneficios.Don't count your blessings.<br />No hablesmás lentamente.Don't speak more slowly<br />
  18. 18. Informal Command Irregular<br />The following eight verbs have irregular familiar commands in the affirmative:<br />decirdisalirsalhacerhaz ser séirvetener ten ponerponvenirven<br />Note that these irregularities only occur with affirmative tú commands. As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the "tú" form of the present subjunctive.<br />Di la verdad. (Tell the truth.)No digasmentiras. (Don't tell lies.)Haztutarea. (Do your homework.)No hagaseso. (Don't do that.)<br />
  19. 19. Informal Command Pronoun Placement<br />
  20. 20. Nosotros Command<br />It is sort of like, “ Let’s go to the park!” in English<br />Take your verb, change it to the yo form, throw on the opposite vowel, and then add the mos<br />
  21. 21. Mono Verbs<br />
  22. 22. Subjunctive + Irregulars<br />Tener-tenga<br />Venir-venga<br />Decir-diga<br />Dar-dé<br />Ir-vaya<br />Ser-sea<br />Hacer-haga<br />Estar-esté<br />Saber-sepa<br />
  23. 23. Subjunctive Triggers<br />
  24. 24. Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns<br />Esto/e/a = this<br />Eso/e/a = that<br />Aquel/aquella = that over there<br />Estos/estas = these<br />Esos/esas = those<br />Aquellos/aquellas those over there<br />When used as a pronoun, add an accent (ex: esté)<br />