Grammerbook10

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Grammerbook10

  1. 1. Grammar Book <ul><li>Orquidea Plourde </li></ul>
  2. 2. Table Of Contents <ul><li>Estar </li></ul><ul><li>Ser </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs Like Gustar </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer Expressions </li></ul><ul><li>El Preterito </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger Words </li></ul><ul><li>Cars, Gars, y Zars </li></ul><ul><li>Cucaracha Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Snakes </li></ul><ul><li>Snakey Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Mandatos </li></ul><ul><li>DOPs </li></ul><ul><li>IOPs </li></ul><ul><li>Se impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Past participles </li></ul><ul><li>Irregulares </li></ul><ul><li>El futuro and ir + a + infivinitve </li></ul><ul><li>Los adjectives demonstrativos </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrative Pronouns </li></ul><ul><li>Los mandatos informales </li></ul><ul><li>Modal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>Saber vs conocer </li></ul>
  3. 3. Estar <ul><li>H ealth- Como estas? </li></ul><ul><li>E motions- Como estas? </li></ul><ul><li>L ocation- Donde estas? </li></ul><ul><li>P resent Condition- Como estas? </li></ul><ul><li>-ing verbs (-ar: -ando, -er/-ir: -yendo) Que estas haciendo? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Estar” means to be </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in the following forms </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>HELPING
  4. 4. Ser <ul><li>“ Ser” means to be as well, but is used in these forms </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>D escriptions- Que es? </li></ul><ul><li>O rigin- De donde es? </li></ul><ul><li>C haracteristics- Como es? </li></ul><ul><li>T ime- Que hora es? </li></ul><ul><li>O ccupation- Que hace? </li></ul><ul><li>R elationships- Quien es? </li></ul><ul><li>P ossession- De quien es? </li></ul><ul><li>E vents- Cuando/Donde es? </li></ul><ul><li>D ates- Que dia es hoy? Cual es la fecha de hoy?/ Cuando es tu compleaÑos? </li></ul>DOCTOR PED
  5. 5. Verbs Like Gustar <ul><li>Use IO me, te, le, nos, os, y les </li></ul><ul><li>The gustar verb is conjegated to the “gusta” or “gustan” depending on what is being verbed. </li></ul><ul><li>Me gusta bailar. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dance is pleasing to me. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If the object is singular or an infinitive, such as bailar, or manzana, use gust a </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Les gustan peras. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They like pears. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pears is plural, therefore you use gust an </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbos similares a “gustar” </li></ul><ul><li>Doler –to hurt </li></ul><ul><li>Fascinar- the fascinate </li></ul><ul><li>Molestar- to bother </li></ul><ul><li>Ecantar- to love </li></ul><ul><li>Falter- to lack </li></ul><ul><li>Importar- to be important to </li></ul><ul><li>Disgustar- to disgust </li></ul><ul><li>Aburro- bored </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>HACE + time + que + verb </li></ul><ul><li>- use present tense for “since” and “for” </li></ul><ul><li>- use preterit tense for “ago” </li></ul><ul><li>** when its negative, add “no” after que, before the verb </li></ul>Hacer Expressions <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Hace tres diaz que me duele mi cabeza. </li></ul><ul><li>I hurt my hear three days ago </li></ul><ul><li>Hace dos años que no vivo en la Francia. </li></ul><ul><li>I have not lived in France for two years. </li></ul>
  7. 7. El Preterito <ul><li>- ar </li></ul><ul><li>é </li></ul><ul><li>aste </li></ul><ul><li>ó </li></ul><ul><li>amos </li></ul><ul><li>aron </li></ul><ul><li>Past tense- a definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Comí una piña ayer. </li></ul><ul><li>I ate a pinapple yesterday. </li></ul><ul><li>-er/ir </li></ul><ul><li>í </li></ul><ul><li>iste </li></ul><ul><li>ió </li></ul><ul><li>imos </li></ul><ul><li>ieron </li></ul>
  8. 8. Trigger Words <ul><li>Ayer- yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>Antayer- day before yesterday </li></ul><ul><li>A las ocho- at 8 o’clock </li></ul><ul><li>El miercolos- on Wednesday </li></ul><ul><li>El día anterior- the day before </li></ul><ul><li>El lunes pasado- last Monday </li></ul><ul><li>El fin de semana pasado- last weekend </li></ul><ul><li>Ayer por la mañana- yesterday morning </li></ul><ul><li>El otro día- the other day </li></ul><ul><li>Una vez- one time/once </li></ul><ul><li>Esta tarde- this afternoon </li></ul><ul><li>Esta noche- tonight </li></ul><ul><li>Entonces- then </li></ul><ul><li>Desde el primar momento- from the first moment </li></ul><ul><li>Durante do siglos- during two centuries </li></ul><ul><li>En ese momento- in that moment/then </li></ul><ul><li>Hace dos días- two days ago </li></ul>
  9. 9. Car, Gar, Zars <ul><li>El pretérito irregulars </li></ul>Tocar Jugar Comenzar toqué Tacamos Tacaste tocó tocaron Jugué Jugamos Jugaste Jugó jugaron Comencé Comenzamos Comenzaste Comenzó comenzaron
  10. 10. Spock Verbs Irregular Preterites hacer ir ser dar ver ver vi viste vio vimos vieron dar di diste dio dimos dieron ir/ser fui fuiste fue fuimos fueron hacer hice hiceste hizo hicimos hicieron
  11. 11. Cucaracha Verbs Mas Preterito Irregulars Infinitives -Andar -Estar -Poder -Poner -Querer -Saber -Tener -Vener -Conducir -Producir -Tranducir -Decir -Traer Conjugated Beginnings -Anduv -Estuv -Pud -Pus -Quis -Sup -Tuv -Vin -Conduj -Produj- -Tranduj -Dij -Traj Endings - e (yo) -iste (tu) -o (el) -imos (nosotros) -isteis (vosotros) -ieron (ellos)
  12. 12. Snakes Stem Changing Verbs in the Preterite **Changes in third person Dormir Pedir domi domimos dormiste dormisteis dumio dumeiron pedi pedimos pediste pedesteis peidio pidieron
  13. 13. Snakeys Stem Changing Verbs in the Preterite **change the “i” to a “y” in the 3rd person Leer Creer Oir lei Leimos leiste leisteis leyo leyeron crei creimos creiste cresteis creyo creyon oi oimos oiste oisteis oyo oyeron
  14. 14. Mandatos <ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Change verb to –yo form </li></ul><ul><li>-ar verbs- add an e to the end </li></ul><ul><li>-er/ir verbs- add an a to the end </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Eat your vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Come tu vegetables. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the boy a hug. </li></ul><ul><li>De el hombre un abrazo. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Irregular Commands T V D I S H E S tener- tenga venir- venga dar- de ir- vaya ser- sea hacer- haga estar- este saber- sepa
  16. 16. DOPs **receives direct action of the verb lo, la, los, las (singular, feminine versus masculine) If the verb is an: - infinitive - affirmative command - gerund the the DOP is hooked on at the end of the verb If the verb isn’t any of those, than the DOP comes before the conjugated verb Example Drink the water. Bebala (Beba is your affirmative command verb. Water (agua) then changes to la and is hooked on “beba”. Example I ate the apple. La comi. (Comi is your preterite verb for “i ate”. “ Una manzana” (apple) changes to la and is placed before the verb.
  17. 17. IOPs **answers the question of “to whom or for whom?” me te le nos os les *when you have “le(s) lo”, change le(s) to se Examples I gave it to her. (“it” is the DOP, “her” is the IOP. So, “it” will change to lo, and “her” will change to le. However, because the rule stating you can’t have “le lo”, le changes to se. Se lo di. Give it to him. (“it is the DOP, “him” is the IOP. So, “it” will change to lo, and “him” will change to se. Because “give” is an affirmative command, both the IO and DO are hooked on to the end of the verb. D é selo If the verb is an: - infinitive - affirmative command - gerund the the IOP is hooked on at the end of the verb, just like the DOP. When this happens, an accent is added to the third to last syllable.
  18. 18. Se Impersonal use “se’ to aviod specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb Example Se vende fruta en la fruteria. They are selling fruit in the cafeteria. **when using se, the verb is always in the 3rd person **can be used in all tenses
  19. 19. Past Participles as Adjectives <ul><li>-ar verbs  add –ado </li></ul>-er or –ir verbs  add –ido *agree with the nouns they modify Example : Comido la manzana. The eaten apple. > The verb infinitive is comer. To change it to a present participle, drop the –er ending, and add –ida (feminine and singular, agreeing with the feminine and singular manzana.
  20. 20. Irregulars <ul><li>Infinitive </li></ul><ul><li>Abrir </li></ul><ul><li>Cubrir </li></ul><ul><li>Decir </li></ul><ul><li>Escribir </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer </li></ul><ul><li>Morir </li></ul><ul><li>Poner </li></ul><ul><li>Resolver </li></ul><ul><li>Romper </li></ul><ul><li>Ver </li></ul><ul><li>Ir </li></ul>Participle <ul><li>Abierto </li></ul><ul><li>Cubierto </li></ul><ul><li>Dicho </li></ul><ul><li>Escrito </li></ul><ul><li>Hecho </li></ul><ul><li>Muerto </li></ul><ul><li>Puesto </li></ul><ul><li>Resuelto </li></ul><ul><li>Roto </li></ul><ul><li>Visto </li></ul><ul><li>ido </li></ul>
  21. 21. El Futuro Example: I will go to the store tomorrow. Ir e a la tienda ma n ana. Attach the appropriate ending to the infinitive verb. Irregulars -caber... cabr_ -poner... pondr_ -decir... dir_ -haber... habr_ -salir... saldr_ -hacer... har_ -poder... podr_ -tener... tendr_ -querer... querr_ -valer... valdr_ -saber... sabr_ -venir... vendr_ There are twelve common verbs that are irregular in the future tense. Their endings are regular, but their stems change The future tense is used to tell what &quot;will&quot; happen, or what &quot;shall&quot; happen. The future tense is not used to express a willingness to do something. Instead, use ir + a + infinitive Example: I am going to reed my book tonight. Voy a creer mi libre a noche. é emos ás á án
  22. 22. Los Adjectives Demonstrativos The demonstrative adjectives typically are placed before the nouns they modify. They must match the noun in both number and gender. Example: This book is good. Este libre esta bien.
  23. 23. Demonstrative Pronouns *identical to demonstrative adjectives apart from the accent marks
  24. 24. Imperfect Used to describe actions in the past with no definite beginning or end **Used for Habitual or repeated actions Events or actionas that were in progress Physical characteristics   Mental or emotional states (he loved his family) Time-telling (it was 3:30) Age (the children were six years old) TRIGGER WORDS: De nino/a (as a child) Todos los días (every day) Mientras (while) Los miercoles/____ (Wednesday) Muchas veces (many times) Cada dia/ ____ (every day) -ar -er or -ir aba Ábamos abas Abais aba Aban Ía Íamos ías íais ía ían
  25. 25. Imperfect Irregulars Ir Ser Ver Iba Íbamos Ibas Ibias Iba Iban Era Éramos Eras Erais Era Eran Veía Veíamos Veías Veiais Veía Veían
  26. 26. Los Mandatos
  27. 27. Informal (t u) Affirmative Negative Irregulars 1. simply drop the “s” Example: Stacy, eat. Stacy, come. 1. conjugate the verb to first person 2. change to opposite ending 3. add an “s” Example: Don’t eat that! No comas! -decir... di -hacer... haz -ir... ve -ser... s e -poner... pon -venir... ven -tener... ten -salir... Sal
  28. 28. Formal or Usted 1. put in -yo form 2. change to opposite vowel Example: Eat the dinner. Coma Ud. la cena.
  29. 29. DOP + IOP placement When a phrase is used, the pronouns can be placed either before the verbal structure or attached to the infinitive or –ing (gerund) form. To negate a sentance, place the no before both pronouns. When both pronouns are used in a sentence:
  30. 30. Modal Verbs Used along with infinitives to change their meaning Examples: Ir + a + infinitive I am going to Querer to want Deber should Poder to be able to Tener que to have to Example: Tengo que limpiar I have to clean Debes limpiar I should clean
  31. 31. Reflexives A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same. When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in &quot;se.&quot; For example, lavarse, which means to wash oneself. You attatch your reflexive pronoun before the verb to show what is receiving the action of the verb. Example: Yo me lavo. I wash myself. Reflexive Pronouns Common Reflexive Verbs Acostarse to put in bed Despertarse to wake Lavarse lavate Secarse to take out Afeitarse to share me nos te os se se

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