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Enough for all? Multiple benefits of actions

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Rogow, Poland 30.10.2014. Baltic University Programme. As a conclusion I present a new model of education for sustainable development (ESD)

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Enough for all? Multiple benefits of actions

  1. 1. 30.10.2014 Rogow Dr. Arto O. Salonen arto.salonen(at) metropolia.fi
  2. 2. 1.Big questions 2.Aspectsof sustainability 3.Transitioningtowards sustainable future 4.Multiplebenefits: Combiningaltruisticand egoisticlife goals
  3. 3. 1 Big questions
  4. 4. It is importantoressentialto… …beverywellofffinancially. …developa meaningfulphilosophyof life. 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Total sample approximately 6.5 million students Myers, D. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist 55(1), 56–67.
  5. 5. I Economic growth II Human rights, social justice, dignified living III Thriving ecosystems and sustainable use of natural resources Current model of well-being, happiness and good life
  6. 6. OUR CULTURAL PROGRAMMING We need rapid economic growth at any cost Increasing consumption is the best road to happiness
  7. 7. What we need in order to have good life?
  8. 8. Assessyourlife satisfaction(scale1-7) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 lowlife satisfaction---------------------------------------------------------------highlife satisfaction
  9. 9. Resultsbythegroups(scale1-7) 400richestpeoplein USA 5,8 MaasaisfromEast Africa 5,7 Ramdomsampleof peoplefromSweden 5,6 Diener, E., & Seligman, M. (2004). Beyond Money. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 5(1), 1–31. ______________________
  10. 10. BRAIN WASHING? We need rapid economic growth at any cost Increasing consumption is the best road to happiness Key driversfor unsustainability Massconsumption(moreis better) Individualism(everyoneshouldhaveeverything)
  11. 11. Human life canno longerbetaken for granted
  12. 12. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005). Living beyond our means: natural assets and human wellbeing. Statement from the Board. Luettavissa: www.maweb.org/documents/document.429.aspx.pdf “Human activity is putting such strain on the natural functions of Earth that the ability of the planet’s ecosystems to sustain future generations can no longer be taken for granted.”
  13. 13. Depleting naturalresources
  14. 14. “Economic progress is blocked more often not by a shortage of fishing boat but by a shortage of fish; not by poorly performing pumps but by the sinking of groundwater; not by a lack of chainsaw but by the disappearance of forests.” Hawken, P., Lovins, A. & LovinsH. 1999. Natural capitalism: Creating the next industrial capitalism. Boston.
  15. 15. Fastclimatechange
  16. 16. year Ilmakehän hiilidioksidipitoisuus (ppm) Burning of fossils fuels is a crime against humanity? Ilmakehän hiilidioksidipitoisuuden vaihtelu 420 000 vuoden aikana 400 ppm year2014 Petit, J. R., Jouzel, J., Raynaud, D., Barkov, N. I., Barnola, J.-M., Basile, I., Bender, M., et al. (1999). Climateand atmospherichistoryof the past420,000 yearsfromthe Vostokice core, Antarctica. Nature399, 429–436. Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., Way, R., Jacobs, P. jaSkuce, A. (2013). Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature. Environmental Research Letters 8(2), 1-7. Marcott, S., Shakun, J., Clark, P., Mix, A. (2013). A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 Years. Science 339(6124), 1198-1201 IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Geneva: Intergovernmental panel of climate change. Ice Age Ice Age Ice Age Ice Age
  17. 17. The Executive Office of the President of the United States points out that ”market forces result in a level of CO2 emissions that is too high. Because of this market failure, public policies are needed to reduce CO2 emissions and thereby to limit the damage to economies and the natural world from further climate change.” Executive Office of the President of the United States (2014). The cost of delaying action to stem climate change. Available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/the_cost_of_delaying_action_to_stem_climate_change.pdf
  18. 18. Needof transparency
  19. 19. The most profitable way to produce goods and services is forced labourand child labourwithout ecological concerns?
  20. 20. Forced labor, child labor and inhuman working conditions are related to our daily used commodities. Bureau of International Labor Affairs (2012). U.S. Department of Labor’s List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2005. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, Washington: U.S. Department of Labor. Available at http://www.dol.gov/ILAB/programs/ocft/tvpra.htm Reardon, S. (2012). Will we ever be able to buy a fair-trade smartphone? New Scientist 2860, 18. SACOM (2012). Toying with Workers’ Rights. A Report on Producing Merchandise for the London 2012 Olympic Games. Play Fair. Coninck, N. Theuws, M. & Overeem, P. (2011). Captured by Cotton. Exploited Dalit girls produce garments in India for European and US markets. Amsterdam: SOMO -Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations. Available: www.indianet.nl/pdf/CapturedByCotton.pdf Iqbal, S., Guggenberger, M. & Alam, K. (2012). Deadly Denim. Sandblasting in the Bangladesh Garment Industry. Amsterdam: Clean Clothes Campaign. Ferus-Comelo, Anibel& Pöyhönen, Päivi (2011). Phony Equality -Labourstandards of mobile phone manufacturers in India. Finnwatch, Cividepand SOMO. Kakuli, A. & Risberg, V. (2012). A lostrevolution? Empowered but trapped in poverty. Women in the garment industry in Bangladesh want more. Swedwatchreport 47. Available www.swedwatch.org/sites/www.swedwatch.org/files/a_lost_revolution_sw_0.pdf Kit Ho, Chun, Pöyhönen, Päivi & Simola, Eeva. (2009). Playing with LabourRights: Music player and game console manufacturing in China. Helsinki: FinnWatch. Pöyhönen, P. (2009). Fair Phones: It’s Your Call –Why Finnish mobile operators should be responsible for supply chains. Helsinki: Finnwatch. UNDP (2008). Human Development Report 2007–2008. Fighting climate change. Human solidarity in a divided world. New York: United Nations Development Programme. Chan, Jenny, de Haan, Esther, Nordbrand, Sara & Torstensson, Annika (2010). Silenced to deliver: Mobile phone manufacturing in China and the Philippines. Stockholm: SOMO & SwedWatch UN (2011). Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Implementing the United Nations “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework. Geneva: United Nations. Available: www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/GuidingPrinciplesBusinessHR_EN.pdf “Will we ever be able to buy a fair-trade smartphone?” ____________________
  21. 21. If we do not change direction we will end up exactly where we are heading. -Chinese proverb CURRENT SITUATION? There is an irresponsible search for short- term benefits without concerns for long- term consequences
  22. 22. NOW IN THE FUTURE Fairfuturefor allwhencarryingcapasityof Earth is limited ”Overdeveloping” cultures, societiesand lifestyles ”Underdeveloping” cultures, societiesand lifestyles 1 PLANET 2 planets 3 planets 4 planets
  23. 23. 2 Aspectsof sustainability
  24. 24. Ecological concerns Social concerns Human rights, Equity, Dignity, Social justice Planetaryboundaries, Vitalecosystemservices, Foundationof life Holistic approach integrates social and ecological concerns
  25. 25. Social challenges of energy Markandya, A & Wilkinson, P. (2007.) Electricity generation and health. The Lancet 370(9591), 979-990 . Huber, M & Knutti, R. (2011). Anthropogenic and natural warming inferred from changes in Earth’s energy balance. Nature Geoscience. Available www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ngeo1327.html Energy is the biggest challenge DARA (2010). The ClimateVulnerabilityMonitor2010. The State of the ClimateCrisis. 2010 reportof the ClimateVulnerabilityInitiative. Daraand the ClimateVulnerableForum. UNDP (2008). Human Development Report 2007–2008.Fighting climate change. Human solidarity in a divided world. New York: United Nations Development Programme. _______________ Every terawatt hour of electricity generated with European coal causes 0.12 deaths because of accidents in mines, 25 deaths due to pollution and 225 cases of serious illness 150000-350 000 people die every year because of climate change. 99% of them are children. EXAMPLE
  26. 26. I ECONOMIC GROWTH Profitfirst II HUMAN RIGHTS People III VITAL ECOSYSTEMS Planet ?
  27. 27. Max-Neef, M. (2010). The World on a Collision Course and the Need for a New Economy. Ambio39(3), 200-210. Baker, S. (2006). Sustainable development. London: Routledge. Giddings, B., Hopwood, B. & O'Brien, G. (2002). Environment, economy and society: fitting them together into sustainable development. Sustainable Development, 10(4), 187–196. Hediger, W. (1999) Reconciling “weak” and “strong” sustainability. International Journal of Social Economics, 26(7/8/9), 1120–1144. Ott, K. (2003). The Case for Strong Sustainability. In: Ott, K. & P. Thapa(eds.) Greifswald’s Environmental Ethics. SteinbeckerVerlag. I Thriving ecosystems and sustainable use of natural resources Fruitful soil, crop pollination, purification of water, control of climate, control of diseases. > Without well–functioning biosphere there can be no society. II Human rights, social justice, dignified living > Withouta society there can be no societal functions, including an economy III Robusteconomy Without efficient economy it is not possible to fulfil basic needs of people.
  28. 28. 3 Transition towards sustainable future
  29. 29. We almost doubled our life spans We managed to stop the global ozone depletion We have created universal education system and universal medical care. Great changes are possible
  30. 30. Silentrevolution is alreadygoingon
  31. 31. Diener, E. & Seligman, M. (2004). Beyond Money. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 5(1), 1–31. Myers, D. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist 55(1), 56–67. Whileincomehasrisen, self-reportedhappinesshasnot
  32. 32. fast pace of life stress depression loneliness ecologically destructive behaviour Kasser, T. (2014). A Values–Based Se of Solutions for the Next Generation. In: Robert Costanzaand Ida Kubiszewski(eds.).. Greatinga Sustainable and Desirable Future. London: World Scientific, 331–340. Kasser, T. (2002). The High Price of Materialism. Cambridge: MIT Press. Bartolini, S. (2014). Buying alone: how the decreasing American happiness turned into the current economic crisis. In: TimoHämäläinenand Juliet Michaelson (eds.) Well-being and Beyond –Broadening the Public and Policy Discourse. Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. 144–181. When focusing on material life goals new well-being problems tend to appear
  33. 33. experience less happiness and life satisfaction, have fewer pleasant emotions such as joy and contentment have more unpleasant emotions such as anger and anxiety tend to be more depressed and anxious report more physical problems (headaches, stomach- aches, backaches) Kasser, T. (2014). A Values–Based Se of Solutions for the Next Generation. In: Robert Costanzaand Ida Kubiszewski(eds.).. Greatinga Sustainable and Desirable Future. London: World Scientific, 331–340. Kasser, T. (2002). The High Price of Materialism. Cambridge: MIT Press. Bartolini, S. (2014). Buying alone: how the decreasing American happiness turned into the current economic crisis. In: TimoHämäläinenand Juliet Michaelson (eds.) Well-being and Beyond –Broadening the Public and Policy Discourse. Northhampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. 144–181. People who prioritize money, image, and status…
  34. 34. HOPE FOR FUTURE: Elementsof humanflourishing arenon-material –theycanincreaseforever
  35. 35. 1.UNDERSTANDING knowledge, understanding, information & communication 2.ACHIEVEMENT meaningful work and play –outside and at home; creativity 3.PARTICIPATION democraticpractice, voice, empowerment, self-determination 4.RELATIONSHIPS absence of shame/humiliation, love, relatedness, affiliation 5.SATISFACTION self integration, emotional well-being, happiness, inner peace 6.HARMONY culture and spirituality, art, environment Alkire, S. (2009). The Capability Approach to the Quality of Life.
  36. 36. Old Well-beingParadigm New Well-being Paradigm WELL-BEING material consumption, individualism, needs of our generation immaterial consumption, sharing and caring, needs of future generations ECONOMY competition, “more”, maximizing of owners profits cooperation, “better”, benefits of society NATURALRESOURCES lot of wastes, fossil fuels, “cradle–to–grave” wastes indicate incorrect product or service design, clean energy, “cradle–to–cradle” TIME short–termism, intra–generational equity long–term orientation, intra–generationaland inter– generational equity A roadmapto sustainablefuture Salonen, A. & Åhlberg, M. (2013). Towards sustainable society –From materialism to post-materialism. International Journal of Sustainable Society 5(4), 374-393. Salonen, A. (2015). EcosocialApproach in Education. In: Rolf Juckerja Reiner Mathar(toim.) Schooling for Sustainable Development: Concepts, Policies and Educational Experiences at the End of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer. Salonen, A. (in Print). Fair future for all –social work on the finite planet. Madrid: Universidad Complutensede Madrid.
  37. 37. 4 Multiple benefits: Combining altruistic and egoistic life goals
  38. 38. Be a part of solution instead of being a part of problem! > Horizon of significance
  39. 39. benefit the local community promote public health and animal well-being maintain biodiversity help establish global food security maintain transparency: trust replaces regulations in ways that improve happiness and save finite natural resources simultaneously MULTIPLE BENEFITS GIVE LIFE SATISFACTION Locally produced organic vegetables on my plate EXAMPLE
  40. 40. 4 ways to enhance behaviour
  41. 41. Support participation and mutual belonging 1 Sharing and caring: Responsibility for each other's well-being e.g. vitality, self-esteem, dignity, and resilience
  42. 42. Thinking like an economist undermines community (competition decreases co-operation) Sense of community supports cooperative relationships, generosity and sufficiency. Rees, W. (2010). What´s blocking sustainability? Human nature, cognition, and denial. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, 6(2), 13-25. Marglin, S. (2008). The Dismal Science. How Thinking Like an Economist Undermines Community. London: Harvard University. Seligman, M. (2002). Very Happy People. Psychological Science 13(1), 81–84. _______________ People with good social relationships are less materialistic
  43. 43. ________________ Trusting that your wallet would be returned if found by a neighbor (for someone who already felt they belonged in their neighborhood) has the additional life-satisfaction equivalent of 30% higher income Having a sense of belonging in one’s com- munity has a larger effect on life satisfaction than a tripling of household income. Helliwell, J. (2013). Social norms, happiness, and the environment: closing the circle. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy 10(1), 78-84. Helliwell, J. & Barrington-Leigh, C. (2011). How much is social capital worth? TeoksessaJ. Jetten, C. Haslam, & S. Haslam (ed.), The Social Cure. London: Psychology Press, 55–57. Culture of trustis worthof it
  44. 44. 2 I My family My friendsand relatives Peoplein my country Peoplein Western world Allpeople Peopleand animals People animalsand plants Ecosystems PlanetEarth Our planet and human life is a system of interdependence.
  45. 45. People Animals Plants Abioticpartof nature
  46. 46. People Animals Plants Abioticpartof nature
  47. 47. Ecosystem-centred Bio-centred Human-centred How worldworks? Needof expandingmy worldview? I My family My friendsand relatives Peoplein my country Peoplein Western world Allpeople Peopleand animals People animalsand plants Ecosystems PlanetEarth
  48. 48. Our planet is a system of the interdependence. All components support each other. My behaviouraffects other people, nature and economy locally and globally The challenge is to identify what kind of systems we are linked in 3 *Systems thinking focus on causal relationships between elements. Systems thinking helps us to combine ecological, social and economic point of view. In East Africa they used to say “mvuanichakula”. It refers to the systems thinking: “rain is food”. ________________
  49. 49. BauxitewasminedinAustralia.Orewastransferredwithtruckstoachemicalreductionmill.AfterthatorewassenttoSweden.Thejourneyacrossoceanstooktwomonths.InSweden10meterslongaluminumrodswereprocessedinasmelter.TherodsweresenttoGermanywheretheywereheatedandpressedintoathinsheetofaluminum.CoilsofaluminumwereshippedtoEngland, wherethealuminumsheetswerepunched.Canswerewashed,driedandcoated,andtransportedtoabottler.Sugarcanes,farmedinFrenchfarms,wererefinedtosugarflowerandshippedtoEngland.ColacontainsphosphoricfromaminelocatedintheUnitedStates.Thismineusesenergyequivalentto100000peopleconsumptionofenergybecausefoodgradephosphoricrequiresahighdegreeofprocessing.Colaalsocontainscaffeine.Itcomesfromachemicalfactorynearby.Cansarepackedincartonswhicharemadeofcelluloseinapapermill.ThepapermillgetstreesfromSiberia,SwedenandColombia.Finally, thebeveragecartonsweretransferredtothesupermarketinwhichtheyweresoldtotheconsumerinthreedays.Theaverageconsumerdrinkscolainafewtensofseconds.Manufacturingofthecanismoreexpensivethantheliquidinsidethecan. Complex global markets: The origins and pathways of a can of cola bought in London Womack, J. & Jones, D. (2003). Lean Thinking: Banish Waste and Create Wealth in Your Corporation. New York: FreePress.
  50. 50. Minersin Congo Negociants, buyersand transporters Comptoirsin Gomaand Bukavu Tradersin neighbouringcountries Smeltersand processors Refinedproduct Electronic components(AVX, HoneywellElectronix, KEMET, MatsuoElectric, Murata, NEC Tokin, Nippon Mining&Metals, PraxariMRC, RIM, Samsung, Sanyo Electronic device, Vishay) Electronic products (Apple, Dell, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Motorola, Nokia, Philips, Sony, SUN jne.) ColtanfromCentral Africato my phone Bleischwitz, R., Dittrich, M., and Pierdicca, C. (2012). ColtanfromCentral Africa, International Trade and Implicationsfor AnyCertification. Resources Policy. 37(1), 19–29. Luettavissa: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420711000833# Miners Localbusiness Globalmarkets Consumers
  51. 51. ”The supply of flour, of lumber, of foods, of building materials, of household furniture, even of metal ware, of nails, hinges, hammers, etc., was produced in the immediate neighborhood, in shops which were constantly open to inspection and often centers of neighborhood congregation. The entire industrial process stood revealed, from the production on the farm of the raw materials till the finished article was actually put to use.” (Dewey, 1915, 23). Dewey, J. (1915). The School and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press ________________ Local economy supports radical transparency and culture of trust
  52. 52. Nobodyaskshowbig shouldoureconomybe. How muchmaterialwealthis enoughfor us? More is enough? 4
  53. 53. A shopper who shops only to meet his or her needsposes danger to the consumer markets? Youarerichifyouknowhowmuchis enough.* _______________ *Asian wisdom
  54. 54. NEEDS DESIRESAND WANTS Universal endsfor goodlife Personal instrumentsfor goodlife CanNOT bequestioned Canbequestioned Fulfillingof basicneeds(* is a humanright Fulfillingof desiresand wantsdependson ethics *) food, water, shelter, energy, healthcare, education… Weneedrobusteconomyto fullfilbasicneedsof everyhumanbeing
  55. 55. conclusion
  56. 56. Model of education for sustainabledevelopment The hierarchy of ecological, social and economic aspects of well-being I Thriving ecosystems (planet) II Human rights, social justice, dignified living (people) IIIRobust economy (prosperity) Participation -culture of trust -cooperation -value of social capital Systems thinking -integrated world (causalrelationships) -consequentialism -local -global Sufficiency How much is enough? Responsibility -enough forall (sharing and caring) -planetary responsibility (human and non- human world) Salonen, A. (2015). EcosocialApproachin Education. In: Rolf Juckerja ReinerMathar(eds.) Schoolingfor SustainableDevelopment: Concepts, Policiesand EducationalExperiencesat the Endof the UN Decadeof Educationfor SustainableDevelopment. Berlin-Heidelberg: Springer.
  57. 57. Together we create a just and safe operation base for humanity on the planet Earth Tamasugodiniabe* *Hopeis the pillarof the world. -Nigerian proverb
  58. 58. Dr. Arto O. Salonen arto.salonen(at) metropolia.fi

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