Gender and climate change for UN Officials

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Training Course giving by IPC-IG researcher Leisa Perch - August 2011

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  • Some other issues: SP not widely seen as part of Risk Reduction efforts Social requirements for strengthening preparedness, mitigation and prevention are still weak;
  • Indications are: the Amazon rain forest could become dryer, with a possibility of spontaneous fire, that coral reefs along Brazilian coastlines could suffer from bleaching (with likely impacts for tourism in the long-run) Changing rainfall patterns, especially in the drought-affected north-eastern region of the country, will mean impact on already limited water and reduce supply even further Agriculture is likely to suffer, not least due to water shortages and leading to greater food insecurity and malnutrition, Less water will impact on renewable energy effort particularly hydropower will suffer; which, according to the International Energy Association, provides more than 80 per cent of the electricity Brazil generates. Floods have implications for public and private infrastructure, disease and and stability. We have already seen the impact of floods in Rio and Sao Paolo earlier this year. Coastal areas would be particularly vulnerable to sea level rise and other impacts Implications for trade – the movement of goods to the coast for export and also the movement from the coast Brazil & climate change: a country profile by Emilio Lèbre La Rovere and André Santos Pereira (14 February 2007), SciDevNet – accessed online June 24th, 2010
  • Adaptation – accepts that climatic change will happen and efforts are focused on “no-regrets approaches”. Maladaptation – approaches or interventions that solve one problem and potentially create another
  • 1) The richer and developed countries have undoubtedly contributed to the levels and scale of GHG emissions. Not only directly but through the terms of trade. Both travel and global business contribute.
  • Adaptation – accepts that climatic change will happen and efforts are focused on “no-regrets approaches”. Maladaptation – approaches or interventions that solve one problem and potentially create another
  • Two sides women as victims and women as actors!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1111
  • Even the tension between adaptation and mitigation is a symptom of the tension between the macro and the micro.
  • Sudden-Onset and Slow-onset
  • A de-link between benefit-sharing and risk-sharing potentially undermines the sustainability of benefits – either due to them being impacted upon or wiped away by other shocks, negated by other realities (i.e. earnings by women that they are unable to spend due to inability to open bank accounts for example) or which are superficial in nature (these are largely communal or group-owned and no real impact/change occurs in assets, livelihood opportunities and development status).
  • Gender and climate change for UN Officials

    1. 1. Mainstreaming Climate Change in Gender Programming – Leisa Perch Team Leader, Rural and Sustainable Development IPC-IG/UNDP organized for UNIFEM Brazil and Southern Cone The Case for Why?
    2. 2. Overview Statement <ul><li>Gender inequalities intersect with climate risks and vulnerabilities. Women’s historic disadvantages – their limited access to resources, restricted rights, and a muted voice in shaping decisions – make them highly vulnerable to climate change. The nature of that vulnerability varies widely, cautioning against generalization. But climate change is likely to magnify existing patterns of gender disadvantage (UNDP Human Development Report, 2007). </li></ul>
    3. 3. Scope of Presentation <ul><li>Some of the basics on climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability, Risk Management/Risk Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Implications of CC for development </li></ul><ul><li>Why environmental risk is important for gender and equality programming? </li></ul><ul><li>Looking at environmental risk through key sectors </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons so far </li></ul><ul><li>Final Thoughts </li></ul>
    4. 4. Inclusive Growth - process and outcome <ul><li>Inclusive growth is both an outcome and a process . On the one hand, it ensures that everyone can participate in the growth process, both in terms of decision-making for organising the growth progression as well as in participating in the growth itself. On the other hand, it makes sure that everyone shares equitably the benefits of growth. Inclusive growth implies participation and benefit-sharing . Participation without benefit sharing will make growth unjust and sharing benefits without participation will make it a welfare outcome (IPC-IG). </li></ul>
    5. 5. Visioning Sustainable Livelihoods Taken from Perch, L., Murray R., Tincani, L.,(2007). Climate Change and Human Development: A policy Review for the Caribbean. Presented at Caribbean Conference on Climate Change. Jamaica. June. POOR PEOPLE’S ASSET MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Human, Financial, Social, Natural and Physical assets POLICIES, INSTITUTIONS AND PROCESSES Empowerment Accountability Democracy Participation Social Movements Community Organisations Opportunity Jobs Services Markets VULNERABILITY CONTEXT Trends Shocks Seasonality Re-drawn from: Environmental Resource Management (2002), “Predicted Impact of Global Climate Change on Poverty and the Sustainable Achievement of the MDGs: Vol. 2”, DFID review, p.10. The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) LIVELIHOOD OUTCOMES Income Well-being Health Security
    6. 6. Part I: Some of the basics: ideas, concepts and issues
    7. 7. Global Ecological Footprint <ul><li>In 2008, global environmental damage estimated at USD 6.6 trillion (UNEP, 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>2010 noted as a record for CO2 emissions (IEA, 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Gross World Output in 2011 was over USD 63 trillion </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: Decoupling growth from environmental degradation </li></ul>Source: Ecological Footprint Atlas (2010) Region Average Ecological Footprint for consumption per capita/per resident Sub-Saharan Africa 1.4 gha Latin America   and the Caribbean 2.6 gha Europe 4.7 gha North America 7.9 gha Global 2.7 gha per person
    8. 8. Ecosystem Wellbeing and Human Wellbeing Interlinked <ul><li>Food security depends on water and energy; </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply and distribution depend on energy and labour; and </li></ul><ul><li>Energy can be supplied by water </li></ul>Source: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, WRI, 2003
    9. 9. GHGs – what is the problem? <ul><li>Contribution to GHGs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water vapor, which contributes 36–72% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide, which contributes 9–26% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>methane, which contributes 4–9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ozone, which contributes 3–7% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The seven sources of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion are (with percentage contributions for 2000–2004): [26] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid fuels (e.g., coal ): 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid fuels (e.g., gasoline , fuel oil ): 36% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas ): 20% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flaring gas industrially and at wells: <1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cement production: 3% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-fuel hydrocarbons: < 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;international bunkers &quot; of shipping and air transport not included in national inventories: 4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Wikipedia, 2010 </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Implications are defined by <ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resilience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptative Capacity and Action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigative Capacity and Action </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Climate Change is Real Taken from Climate Change and Sustaining Caribbean Tourism by Mareba Scott, CC and Tourism, BVI, 2007
    12. 12. Risk and Vulnerability <ul><li>Risk – Situational (Disasters) </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability – Systemic/Structural (Climate Change) </li></ul>Who is at Risk and Who is Vulnerable?
    13. 13. <ul><li>Vulnerability is a multi-dimensional concept which encompasses biological, geophysical, economic, institutional and socio-cultural factors (Nicholls, 1998) and of resilience or sustainability </li></ul>
    14. 14. Best and Worst Case Scenarios for CC <ul><li>Best case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a warming between 1.9–5.2 degrees Fahrenheit and seas rising between 7-14 inches within approximately 100 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worst case: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a warming of 4.3–11.5 degrees Fahrenheit and increased sea levels of 10-23 inches </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Social Risk and Global Inequality <ul><li>Poverty and inequality are a significant burden for youth </li></ul><ul><li>82 % of disabled people live below the poverty line in developing countries (UN) </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous groups are amongst the poorest of the poor globally </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs have increased in importance for and to service delivery but remain relatively underfunded </li></ul><ul><li>Every year, 2 million people – mostly women and children – die as a result of indoor air pollution (UNDP) </li></ul><ul><li>PLHIV/PLWHA still face significant discrimination in the work place </li></ul><ul><li>Racial inequality, income inequality and limited access to services are still linked in many countries – North and South </li></ul>
    16. 16. Construct of Social Vulnerability developed by Asha Kambon, 2005
    17. 17. Some implications for Brazil <ul><li>Indications are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Amazon rain forest could become dryer, with a possibility of spontaneous fire, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that coral reefs along Brazilian coastlines could suffer from bleaching (with likely impacts for tourism in the long-run) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing rainfall patterns, especially in the drought-affected north-eastern region of the country, will mean impact on already limited water and reduce supply even further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture is likely to suffer, not least due to water shortages and leading to greater food insecurity and malnutrition, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods will damage/destabilize public and private infrastructure, cause significant (Rio and Sao Paolo early 2010, 2011), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>movement of goods to the coast for export and also the movement from the coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less water will impact on renewable energy efforts particularly hydropower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil has committed to a reduction of 36-39% below projected levels by 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sourced from Brazil & climate change: a country profile by Emilio Lèbre La Rovere and André Santos Pereira (14 February 2007), SciDevNet – accessed online June 24th, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zxp_ePNXdj8&feature=related </li></ul>
    18. 18. Scenarios for Brazil <ul><li>Period 2000 and 2050 (CEDEPLAR et al., 2008): </li></ul><ul><li>North expected to experience increased temperatures twice that of the Northeast and the South </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated impacts also in terms of rain fall). </li></ul><ul><li>North and North-east, where some of the poorest of Brazil’s population lives including the Amazon region, is expected to be 15-20% drier </li></ul><ul><li>In the North the rainy season is arrive later than usual. </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened health problems for the elderly, could add an additional R$1.43 billion to public health costs by 2040 (Ibid, 13). </li></ul><ul><li>Source: CEDEPLAR/UFMG e FIOCRUZ (2008):Mudanças climáticas, migrações e saúde:cenários para o nordeste, 2000-2050. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Part II: Accounting for climate variability Trends and Patterns
    20. 20. Uneven Development + climate change = more challenges for sustaining progress <ul><li>© Asha Nsasu. ALERTNET/Felix Mwakyembe </li></ul><ul><li>Rungwe District malaria coordinator, Gideon Ndawala, oversees a nurse attending malaria patient </li></ul><ul><li>According to the WB Africa Strategy document – Malaria costs Africa USD 12 billion (including lost productivity) annually (2011: 19) </li></ul><ul><li>Where growth, gender, poverty and environment meet: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintaining adequate levels of food is important for household security, and for health and education gains for production and productivity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued food production both as a source of good food, economic security and growth depends significantly on adequate and consistent access to water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High participation of women in agriculture, small farm production and fish processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced production of food and the expansion/diversification to non-farm and other productive sectors is constrained significantly by the lack of access to energy. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Gender dimensions of development <ul><ul><li>According to the best available data approximately 30% of those who live on less than a dollar each day are men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women work two-thirds of the world’s working hours yet receive only 10% of the world’s income. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Men own 99% of the world’s property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women members of parliament globally average only 17% of all seats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>92% of all of the world’s cabinet ministers are men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seventy-five percent of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worldwide women received 78% of the wages received by men for the same work, although in some regions, they have a better educational background. In some parts of the world, the wage gap between women and men is close to 40%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the 550 million low-paid workers in the world, 40% are men. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In a sample of 141 countries over the period 1981–2002, it was found that natural disasters (and their subsequent impact) on average kill more women than men or kill women at an earlier age than men. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources: Social Watch, 2007 and 2008; Oxfam, 2007; Neumayer and Plümper, 2007; and ILO, 2008. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Implications for Policy Response <ul><li>Responding to humanitarian crises and increasing displacement </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation – building resilience in communities and identifying options for sectors such as agriculture, water, sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation : reducing GHGs from unplanned, crisis and emergency driven responses particularly by the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict-sensitive approaches: slow and sudden-onset crisis </li></ul>
    23. 23. Disasters <ul><li>Between 1990 and 1998, 94 per cent of the world’s 568 major natural disasters, and more than 97 per cent of all natural disaster-related deaths, were in developing countries . </li></ul><ul><li>Women are more likely to die than men in a disaster …………….. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s recovery can be slower than men’s and in different sectors </li></ul><ul><li>40 MN displaced due to disaster last year </li></ul><ul><li>Floods in Pakistan in 2010 due to persistent rainfall for weeks and months </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple events </li></ul>
    24. 24. Crises <ul><li>Impact of the Iceland volcano in April 2010 on travel and business in Europe (Airline industry estimated losses of USD200MN a day; Kenyan growers already lost $12 million in 4-5 days, about 3.8 million per day (April 19, 2010*). </li></ul><ul><li>Significant losses for economies trading in perishable foods (Africa, C’bean) and likely access to some foods for others </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of swine flu, H1N1 and bird flu on tourism, travel, business and by extension the movement of goods and people </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for the flow and delivery of aid – economic and food aid </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for innovation </li></ul><ul><li>*Sourced from America.gov (Stephen Kaufman) –April 20, 2010. Accessed online June 27 th , 2010 and BBC news online April 21 st , 2010) </li></ul>
    25. 25. Women’s Educational attainment around the world Source: Deloitte, 2011:7 ( http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Greece/dttl_ps_genderdividend_130111.pdf_
    26. 26. Women as economic actors…… <ul><li>Activities which emit GHGs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation – cars, airplanes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation – releases carbon into the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture – animal waste significant source of methane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At issue here is not just the emissions themselves but the lifetime of these gases in the atmosphere - 1, 12 years, 100 years (nitrous oxide) , 500 and some even 3,000 and 10,000 ( Hexafluoroethane and their global warming potential over tens of thousands for years </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CmRyJaBPvD0&NR=1 </li></ul>
    27. 27. Women’s Growing Economic Power Source: Deloitte, 2011 from Silverstein and Sayre, 2009
    28. 28. Reducing energy poverty, emissions and inequality: (Barefoot College example) <ul><li>Started in India but now worldwide including Africa: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and focused largely on women ( middle aged and older women including gra nd-mothers) making them actors in the response to climate change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finalist for the Buckminster Fuller Challenge in 2010, awarded the Alcan Prize for Sustainability in 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Africa, started in Ethiopia in 2004 and extended to other countries including Cameroon and Rwanda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has saved 30,000 litres of kerosene per month from polluting the atmosphere and reduced significantly the use of firewood in participating communities. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Transport of solar panels in the village of Tindjambane, in the region of Timbuktu, Mali (From BC webpage) <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More information: http://www.wipo.int/wipo_magazine/en/2009/03/article_0002.html </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Climate Change and Growth <ul><li>CC presents a fundamental challenge to inclusive growth processes within states and between states </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>limiting opportunities for productive inclusion), </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potentially de-stabilizing growth, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>changing the nature of growth and economies and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>destroying the scarce and fragile assets available to the poor. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Getting the mix right between CC and Inclusive Growth requires policy efforts at a number of levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing the burden on the poor from macro level risks in growth; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowing the poor and vulnerable to be heard and to define and contribute to defining new forms and growth and participating in the transformation; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Helping the poor build and sustain assets which help them to weather shocks, whether one time intense events or as part of long-term change where shocks will be more frequent; </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that women, youth, farmers, the urban poor, indigenous peoples and other marginalized groups have access to opportunities in order to productively contribute to growth. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Part III : Improving empowerment and agency: accounting for long-term environmental risk
    31. 31. Risk and Risk Perception <ul><li>Risk is the likelihood of something happening. </li></ul><ul><li>implying…… awareness, information and belief </li></ul>
    32. 32. Sudden Onset impacts, empowerment and development Issues Female Male Pre Disaster Differing Vulnerabilities - biological - social - cultural - attitudinal (risk perception) Reproductive health needs Restricted skill base Exclusion from home construction Low level of risk tolerance No special restrictions Mobile skills Exclusion from child care responsibilities High level of risk tolerance Emergency Differing coping mechanisms Suffer higher incidence of depression (crying and suicide ideation); Organizing community sing-a-longs and story telling; Alcoholism, gambling and dysfunctional behaviour; Rescuing villagers and clearing roads; Transition (rehabilitation and Recovery) Weak access to wage earning possibilities; Women prepared one-pot meals for the community; Devoted more time to community and reproductive work. Easier access to wages/income; Men engaged in ‘marooning” teams for house rebuilding; Spend more time in productive work; abandonment of families and responsibilities. Reconstruction Differing priorities Differing access to resources; Differing access to power in the public sphere Priorities for shelter, economic activity, food security, and health care; Women slower to return to Labour Market; Reconstruction programmes that embark on development without the inclusion of gender analysis tools; Women’s lack of involvement in governance mechanisms. Priorities for, agriculture, Infrastructural development and economic activity; Men easy access to the Labour Market; Reconstruction programmes in construction and agricultural development that favour male participation; Gender neutral governance mechanisms that don’t recognize changing gender roles and relationships, and favour male participation.
    33. 33. Slow onset: Urban Risk <ul><li>Urban risk has increased </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation, slums, housing, waste management amongst key issues </li></ul><ul><li>In 2008, the urban share of GDP for (UNESCAP in UNHabitat, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, the urban population living in slums (hence not profiting largely from growth and the productive capacity of the urban area) </li></ul>Slum Populations in Asia and Pacific, 2010 (projections. Sourced from UNHabitat, 2011 Source: UN-Habitat/UNESCAP, 2011
    34. 34. Rural Risk: Climate Change and Agriculture <ul><li>Availability – drought or flood – on production </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of the land </li></ul><ul><li>Deforestation and Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Use of pesticides and fertilizers to increase production </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and Quantity of crops – nutrition and income </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of planting and reaping </li></ul>Source: Oxfam, 2011
    35. 35. Generalized Risk: Water Resources <ul><li>Availability – Droughts/Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Food, Disease, Cost/Access </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul><ul><li>Forced migration </li></ul><ul><li>Social inequality </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict and social unrest </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>Personal hygiene </li></ul>Who distributes water in the household? Who uses water most? Who is exposed to risk in water collection? Who bears the burden of care-giving? Who needs it and for what? Heavy rain: the Brazilian town of Jacuipe is swamped by floodwaters from the Jacuipe River. (AFP: Thiago Sampaio)
    36. 36. Generalized Risk: Health <ul><li>Increase prevalence of disease vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Result in heat stress or water deficiency or expose persons to even more unclean water </li></ul><ul><li>Too little or too much water will impact on food production and food safety </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts on food production and food security, will have impacts on nutrition – consequences for mothers, children, the elderly, youth in terms of physical resilience and ability to fight off disease. Also for children’s development </li></ul>Who is more vulnerable to illness? Who cannot afford to be sick? Who takes care of the sick? Who leads on food safety in the household? Implications for pregnant and nursing mothers.
    37. 37. Gender, Employment and Access to Food Sourced from FAO, 2011: Presentation to Expert Group Meeting on The Challenges of Building Employment for Sustainable Recovery
    38. 38. CC, Gender and Economic Empowerment <ul><ul><li>For the 70% of those who live on less than a dollar each day (women) – mitigation efforts should ideally provide them with new income-generating opportunities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the women who work two-thirds of the world’s working hours yet receive only 10% of the world’s income – adaptation should ensure that this 10% is not further reduced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the 1% of global women who have property climate change could damage or destroy these assets or adaptation and technology could help to protection those assets. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the 75% of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women and the 25% who are men, mitigation and adaptation efforts supported by education, could give them many opportunities and facilitate their contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V9waL_Jlvqw&feature=player_embedded# </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. The Solidarity Economy (Brazil) <ul><li>The Solidarity Economy embraces the concept of a “social economy’’ or growth driven by social accountability and responsibility combined with a focus on environmental sustainability. In Brazil, the &quot;Solidarity Economy&quot; started in the 1980s with the organization of rural workers, it expanded in the 90s and early 2000s into a social movement.   </li></ul><ul><li>It is now linked into the national policy framework through a National Secretariat and a council and more recently a policy signed by Lula integrating the solidarity economy into Brazil’s growth strategy.  In 2005 it involved over a million persons and 41% of municipalities in Brazil. While linked to the concept of productive inclusion, it goes further. In November 2010, President Lula signed a decree making Brazil the first Equitable and Solidarity trade system in the world that is recognized and supported by the state [1] . Paul Singer, professor and Secretary of the Solidarity Economy National Secretariat argues in his book Introduction to Solidarity Economy (Introdução à Economia Solidária) that Solidarity Economy is a alternative proposal between capitalism and classic socialism and updates ideas of John Stuart Mill. </li></ul><ul><li>Solidarity Economy is a vision in which a series of parameters  are to be followed during the execution of public policies aimed at creating employment and revenues through actions of promotion of the solidarity economy and of fair trade. Its objectives include conscious consumerism, social responsibility, a national identity of equitable and solidarity trade; and equitable pricing for those who produce, commercialize and consume. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Greening Commodities (UNDP Global) <ul><li>UNDP’s Green Commodities Facility and Public-Private Platforms for Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” : </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on experiences of the Green Commodities Facility (GCF) as well as broader work of UNDP in the area of inclusive markets and value chain development. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership of the Environment and Energy Group, BDP together with the Private Sector Division. </li></ul><ul><li>UNDP’s Green Commodities Facility and an emerging national platform initiative bring together public and private actors with the aim to integrate inclusive growth with environmentally sustainable and “green growth”. </li></ul><ul><li>Country example: the National Platform for Responsible Production and Trade of Pineapple in Costa Rica. The platform is an initiative of UNDP and the Costa Rican Government with the objective of developing an environmentally and socially responsible model for pineapple production in the country through a dialogue among producers, exporters, authorities and civil society. </li></ul><ul><li>The pineapple industry, the second largest agricultural exporter, has been accused of contributing to eco-degradation including water contamination (freshfruitportal.com, 2011). According to the WRI, Costa Rica uses the most pesticides per hectare globally, more than double that of Colombia (No.2 ) and Netherlands (3). </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    41. 41. Part IV: Sustaining Empowerment: Environment as a Policy Principle “ There can be no sustainable social progress or expansion of economic activity unless the natural foundations for human existence are maintained, and there can be no effective protection of the integrity and diversity of natural ecosystems, rational use of natural resources or equitable sharing of benefits unless the necessary institutions are developed” (UNDP 2004)
    42. 42. Understanding Sustainability Interlocking show connectedness and the continuing process of change
    43. 43. Linking CC is important for gender analysis <ul><li>Improves understanding of how social and environmental risk intersect </li></ul><ul><li>Expands our understanding of behaviour change needed for transformational change </li></ul><ul><li>How climate change can impact on women’s economic empowerment opportunities – taking away or reducing their viability </li></ul><ul><li>Can help make strategic decisions for the investment of scarce resources </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to improve human impact of climate change policy </li></ul><ul><li>Likely to result in greater ownership by entire society of policy reform including hard choices </li></ul><ul><li>Can reduce/eliminate ‘ additional harm ’ </li></ul>
    44. 44. Inclusion is not just about who; it is it is also about why <ul><li>It is also important to recall that poverty and gender inequality are not absolutes but are relative concepts, since they refer to the status of one group relative to another in a specific context. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all rural people are poor , not all women are disempowered in the same ways , and not all environmental benefits are sustainable . </li></ul><ul><li>Those who have access to resources, education and opportunities are certainly vulnerable to climate change, but in a different way; they are much less vulnerable than the poor because of their capacity to cope , and to identify or create other opportunities for themselves. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Mainstream, not add….. <ul><li>mainstream sustainable development and climate change perspectives into national policies, action plans and other measures on gender equity, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carrying out systematic analysis, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collecting and utilizing sex-disaggregated data on who uses resources, when and for what, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establishing indicators and benchmarks, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developing practical tools to support increased attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More research but about climate change responses i.e. human behaviour and social change, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultation with and participation of women in climate change initiatives and ensuring a role for women’s groups and networks. Involving the Gender Bureaux and Ministry of Social Development. [Policy Reform] </li></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Governance is central ………………… <ul><li>Existing governance institutions are also embedded in the current system, so it is naïve to simply specify “ideal” governance institutions that would, for example, create a high global price for carbon, mandate clean production systems, and empower non-financial stakeholders. Meaningful change requires careful study of the contested terrain of corporate environmental practice and governance, and a long-term strategy to win new allies, reframe the issues, shift norms, realign economic incentives, and craft new rules and oversight mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>(David Levy in Pardee Centre Task Force Report, 2011) </li></ul>
    47. 47. Understanding how the environment is valued <ul><li>O ’ Brien and Wolf (2010: 233) note that : </li></ul><ul><li>“ a values-based approach to vulnerability and adaptation recognises that economic assessments of impacts and responses, a </li></ul><ul><li>s exemplified in the Stern Review, cannot capture the full significance of climate change. The experiential and cultural dimensions of climate change, </li></ul><ul><li>largely ignored in assessments by the IPCC, examine the meaning and relevance of climate change for individuals and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability is not simply about the negative material outcomes associated to climate change … </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently, what is considered legitimate and successful adaptation depends on what people perceive to be worth </li></ul><ul><li>preserving and achieving, including their culture and identity ” . </li></ul>
    48. 48. Appreciating Uncertainty Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability/Source: Asha Kambon, 2005
    49. 49. Contact information <ul><li>Leisa Perch </li></ul><ul><li>Policy Specialist/Coordinator –Rural and Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>IPC-IG/UNDP </li></ul><ul><li>Ministerio do Exercito, Esplanada dos Ministerios, Bloco O, 7 Andar, Brasilia </li></ul><ul><li>DF </li></ul><ul><li>Email: [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: +55 61 2105 5012 </li></ul>

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