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Industrialization & sustainability v1


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MDS-510, Lacture V1

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Industrialization & sustainability v1

  1. 1. LECTURE:07 Industrialization & Sustainability M. A. Kamal, Ph.D Director General National Academy for Planning and Development
  2. 2. Out Line <ul><li>1. Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>3. Types of Farming </li></ul><ul><li>4. Properties of Sustainable Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sustainable agriculture indicators </li></ul><ul><li>6. Contribution of Agriculture to Economy </li></ul><ul><li>7. Production Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>8. Challenges in Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>9. Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>10. Farewell Call </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction <ul><li>1.1 World agriculture will undergo far-reaching economic and physical change in the coming 50 years. Population increase, urbanization and income growth will drive the demand for food while high energy prices, stress on natural resources, and climate change may act to constrain supply. </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 To feed the world’s growing population – projected to exceed 9 billion in 2050 (UN, 2009) – it will be necessary to boost the production of food and to do so sustainably. To be sustainable, agriculture will need to be intensified and its environmental footprint made to shrink. </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 Most of the projected population growth will occur in developing countries, where smallholder farming dominates and average yields are low. </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 The diminishing availability of agriculturally productive land and the need to minimize the further loss and degradation of natural habitats such as forests, wetlands, and long-term pastures call for efficiency gains in the use of resources and the achievement of higher yields. </li></ul><ul><li>1.5 The agricultural sector has potential to create economic growth in rural areas. It generates job opportunities in adding value (as in the food processing industry), in bringing agricultural products to the consumer (market linkages), and in providing support (infrastructure, information, quality control and training). </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Sustainable Agriculture <ul><li>2.1 At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined “Sustainable agriculture and rural development” as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>“Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the natural resource base and the orientation of technological and institutional change in such a manner as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for present and future generations. Such sustainable development (in the agriculture, forestry and fisheries sectors) conserves land, water, plant and animal genetic resources, is environmentally non-degrading, technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>In 1995 FAO went on to define sustainable agriculture and rural development more specifically as a process that meets the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>• “ Ensures that the basic nutritional requirements of present and future generations, qualitatively and quantitatively, are met while providing a number of other agricultural products. </li></ul><ul><li>• Provides durable employment, sufficient income and decent living and working conditions for all those engaged in agricultural production. </li></ul><ul><li>• Maintains and, where possible, enhances the productive capacity of the natural resource base as a whole, and the regenerative capacity of renewable resources, without disrupting the functioning of basic ecological cycles and natural balances, destroying the socio-cultural attributes of rural communities, or causing contamination of the environment, and </li></ul><ul><li>• Reduces the vulnerability of the agricultural sector to adverse natural and socio-economic factors and other risks, and strengthens self-reliance.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>“ A sustainable agricultural system is one that can indefinitely meet the requirements for food, feed, and fiber at socially acceptable economical and environmental costs” </li></ul><ul><li>-Adapted from Pierre Crosson </li></ul>
  7. 7. 3. Types of Farming <ul><li>3.1 There are three broad types of farming: </li></ul><ul><li>traditional production systems, </li></ul><ul><li>conventional modern agriculture (such as Green Revolution technologies), and </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable agriculture </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>4.1 Conway’s three properties are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Conway, G.R. and Barbier, E.B. 1990. After the Green Revolution. Sustainable Agriculture for Development. Earthscan, London. 205 p. </li></ul>4. Properties of Sustainable Agriculture
  9. 9. 4.2 Productivity Net increment of valued product per unit of resource (kg/ha for example)
  10. 10. 4.3. Stability Degree to which productivity remains constant over time when not faced with a shock (1/CV productivity)
  11. 11. 4.4 Resiliency The ability of a system to maintain or recover productivity when subject to stress or shock.
  12. 12. 5. Sustainable agriculture indicators <ul><li>5.1 Producers </li></ul><ul><li>Producers harvest food, feed and fiber </li></ul><ul><li>“Food” includes grain, fruits and vegetables, livestock, aquaculture, as well as natural products </li></ul><ul><li>Producers may also engage in processing and marketing of food, feed and fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Producers may reside in settled communities, refugee/IDP camps or be pastoralists </li></ul>
  13. 13. 5.2 Agricultural Technologies <ul><li>Agriculture technologies refer to </li></ul><ul><li>The practices of combining of land, labor, capital, and knowledge to </li></ul><ul><li>Produce, market, distribute, utilize, and trade food, feed, and fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples: planting in rows, rotation, integrated farming systems, water conservation/harvesting, cover cropping, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 5.3 A sustainable agriculture system <ul><li>Nurtures natural resources and maintains ecological balance </li></ul><ul><li>Is driven by market demand and economically viable </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures local replicability, gender equity, and social acceptability </li></ul><ul><li>Generates predictable income </li></ul><ul><li>Considers availability of household labor and seasonality of labor demand </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6. Contribution of Agriculture to Economy in BANGLADESH <ul><li>6.1 84% : Population in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>- 23.4% : Agri-contribution to GDP </li></ul><ul><li>- 13.44%: Crop sector’s contribution </li></ul><ul><li>to GDP </li></ul><ul><li>- 63% : Labour force in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>- Modern Agriculture: Production, Development, Processing, </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Extension etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Table-1: Share of Agriculture in GDP (%) 5.23 6.09 5.36 4.93 Fishery Source: Bangladesh Economic Review 1.87 1.88 1.93 2.01 Forestry 2.92 3.02 3.36 3.56 Livestock 13.44 14.59 15.03 17.71 Crop 18.23 19.49 20.32 23.28 Agriculture 2002-03 1999-00 1995-96 1992-93 Sector/Sub Sector
  17. 17. 7. Achievement : Production Achievement 277.8 2.0 12.0 263.8 2003-04 260.58 1.52 16.06 243.0 2000-01 1999-00 1997-98 1995-96 1993-94 Food grain Source: Bangladesh Economic Review 249.07 206.64 190.6 191.7 Total - - - - Maize 18.40 18.02 13.7 11.3 Wheat 230.67 188.62 176.9 180.4 Rice Table-2 : Food grain Production (in Lac mt.)
  18. 18. 7.1 Production Achievement
  19. 19. 7.2 Production Achievement <ul><li>1970-71 : 10.1 mmt </li></ul><ul><li> Rice Production </li></ul><ul><li>2003-04 : 26.4 mmt. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat increased by 15 times Last 3 decades </li></ul><ul><li>Maize increased by 50 times </li></ul><ul><li> Last decade </li></ul><ul><li>Veg. increased by 114 times </li></ul><ul><li>Per head food provision : From 436 gm. to 540 gm. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 7.3 Research Achievement <ul><ul><li>BRRI : 41 HYVs, 1 Hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Resistant Varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BARI : 225 Improved Varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potato 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables 41 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulses 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oilseeds 30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spices 11 </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 7.4 Export Achievement <ul><ul><li>1972-73 : 93% Export Earning – Jute + Tea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000-01 : 5% Export Earning – Jute + Tea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1972-73 : US$ 13000 Export Earning from Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992-93 : US$ 9 m Export Earning from Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1997-98 : US$ 32 m Export Earning from Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1998-99 : US$ 18 m Export Earning from Horticulture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2001-02 : US$ 15 Export Earning from Horticulture </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. 8. Challenges in Agriculture <ul><ul><li>8.1 Depletion of Soil Fertility : low nutrition + low C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.2 Falling Productivity of HYV : Stagnancy in Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.3 Dominition of Rice : 75% Cropped area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.4 Decrease of Cultivable Land : 82000 ha decrease annually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.5 Population Increase : Additional 2.5 mmt by 2015 </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Challenges (contd.) <ul><ul><li>8.6 Non-Irrigated Land : 42% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.7 High Production Cost : Irrigation 26% P. Cost Subsidy only 0.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8.8 Marketing and storage Problems </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Fig-2 : Projected Food Availability Scenario
  25. 25. 9. Conclusion <ul><ul><li>9.1 Transforms Agriculture into a dynamic Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9.2 Requires Updating </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 10. Farewell Call <ul><li>“ If you want to be happy for the whole day- slaughter a sheep and have a feast with your friends. If you want to be happy for about a month then marry. But if you want to be happy for many years to come then go for gardening.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Chinese Proverb (2000 BC) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you for your attention