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New seven qc tools

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New seven qc tools

  1. 1. The New Seven Q.C. ToolsA Training Presentation on the N7 By Christopher Diaz
  2. 2. What are the New Seven Q.C. Tools‚ Affinity Diagramsƒ Relations Diagrams„ Tree Diagrams… Matrix Diagrams† Arrow Diagrams‡ Process Decision Program Chartsˆ Matrix Data Analysis
  3. 3. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 1 0f 2· Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972· Aim was to develop more QC techniques with design approach· Work in conjunction with original Basic Seven Tools· New set of methods (N7) - 1977
  4. 4. History of the New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 2 0f 2· Developed to organize verbal data diagrammatically.· Basic 7 tools effective for data analysis, process control, and quality improvement (numerical data)· Used together increases TQM effectiveness
  5. 5. What are the Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?‚ Flow Chartsƒ Run Charts„ Histograms… Pareto Diagrams† Cause and Effect Diagrams‡ Scatter Diagramsˆ Control Charts
  6. 6. Relation Between New SevenQ.C. Tools and Basic SevenTools FACTS Data Numerical Data Verbal DataDefine problem after Define problem beforecollecting numerical data collecting numerical data The Basic Seven Tools The Seven New Tools•Analytical approach •Generate Ideas Organize •Formulate plans Information S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  7. 7. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 1 0f 4Enhanced Capabilities‚ Organize verbal dataƒ Generate ideas„ Improve planning… Eliminate errors and omissions† Explain problems intelligibly‡ Secure full cooperationˆ Persuade powerfully
  8. 8. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. ToolsEnhanced Keys to Organizational Reform‚ Assess situations from various anglesƒ Clarify the desired situation„ Prioritize tasks effectively… Proceed systematically† Anticipate future events‡ Change proactivelyˆ Get things right the first time
  9. 9. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 3 0f 4Five Objectives of Organizational Reformwhich will establish a Culture that:‚ Identifies problemsƒ Gives importance to planning„ Stresses the importance of the process… Prioritizes tasks† Encourages everyone to think systematically
  10. 10. Benefits of Incorporating New Seven Q.C. Tools Slide 4 0f 4 Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form] The Seven New Tools Problem is mappedProblem becomes Thoughts are Plans are Problem becomes obvious to all easily organized easily laid obvious to allPeople understand Problem can be Nothing is Nub of problem problem clearly articulated omitted is identified Cooperation is Countermeasures Things go well obtained are on target Problem is in solvable form S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  11. 11. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Pinpointing the Problem in a ChaoticSituation and Generating Solution Strategies· Gathers large amounts of intertwined verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)· Organizes the data into groups based on natural relationship· Makes it feasible for further analysis and to find a solution to the problem.
  12. 12. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Affinity Diagrams· Facilitates breakthrough thinking and stimulate fresh ideas· Permits the problem to be pinned down accurately· Ensures everyone clearly recognizes the problem· Incorporates opinions of entire group
  13. 13. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)· Fosters team spirit· Raises everyone’s level of awareness· Spurs to the group into action Topic Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card
  14. 14. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Select a topicƒ Collect verbal data by brainstorming„ Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly… Write each item on separate data card† Spread out all cards on table
  15. 15. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)‡ Move data cards into groups of similar themes (natural affinity for each other)ˆ Combine statements on data cards to new Affinity statement‰ Make new card with Affinity statementŠ Continue to combine until less than 5 groups
  16. 16. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an Affinity Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)‹Lay the groups outs, keeping the affinity clusters togetherNext, complete the diagram
  17. 17. New Seven Q.C. Tools Affinity Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing an Affinity Diagram Topic Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Data Card Affinity Statement Data Card Data Card Data Card S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  18. 18. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Finding Solutions Strategies by ClarifyingRelationships with Complex Interrelated Causes· Resolves tangled issues by unraveling the logical connection· Allows for “Multi-directional” thinking rather than linear· Also known as Interrelationship diagrams
  19. 19. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Relations Diagrams· Useful at planning stage for obtaining perspective on overall situation· Facilitates consensus among team· Assists to develop and change people’s thinking· Enables priorities to be identified accurately
  20. 20. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)· Makes the problem recognizable by clarifying the relationships among causesTertiary Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Primary Cause Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Why doesn’t Cause Secondary X happen? Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause Secondary 6th level Cause Tertiary Cause Secondary Tertiary Cause Cause4th level Cause 4th level 5th level Cause Cause Cause
  21. 21. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Express the problem in form of “Why isn’t something happening?”ƒ Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem„ Write each item on a card… Discuss info collected until everyone understands it thoroughly
  22. 22. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)† Move cards into similar groups‡ Asking why, explore the cause-effect relationships, and divide the cards into primary, secondary and tertiary causesˆ Connect all cards by these relationships‰ Further discuss until all possible causes have been identified
  23. 23. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing a Relations Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)Š Review whole diagram looking for relationships among causes‹ Connect all related groupsNext, complete the diagram
  24. 24. New Seven Q.C. Tools Relations Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing a Relations DiagramTertiary Tertiary Cause Secondary Cause Primary Cause Cause Primary Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Cause Why doesn’t X happen? Secondary Cause Primary Cause Primary Cause 6th level Secondary Cause Tertiary Cause Cause Tertiary Secondary Cause Cause 4th level4th level 5th level Cause Cause Cause S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  25. 25. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 1 0f 5For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategiesfor Attaining an Objective· Develops a succession of strategies for achieving objectives· Reveals methods to achieve the results.· Also known as Systematic diagrams or Dendrograms
  26. 26. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 2 0f 5 Advantages of Tree Diagrams· Systematic and logical approach is less likely that items are omitted· Facilitates agreement among team· Are extremely convincing with strategies 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means 3rd means 4th means Primary means 3rd means 4th means 4th means To Secondary means 3rd means 4th meansAccomplish 4th meansConstraints
  27. 27. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 3 0f 5 Constructing a Tree Diagram Group Method Approach‚ Write Relations Diagram topic (Objective card)ƒ Identify constraints on how objective can be achieved„ Discuss means of achieving objective (primary means, first level strategy)… Take each primary mean, write ob- jective for achieving it (secondary means)
  28. 28. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 4 0f 5 Constructing an Tree Diagram Group Method Approach (cont.)† Continue to expand to the fourth level‡ Review each system of means in both directions (from objective to means and means to objective)ˆ Add more cards if needed‰ Connect all levelsNext, complete the diagram
  29. 29. New Seven Q.C. Tools Tree Diagrams Slide 5 0f 5 Completing a Tree Diagram 4th means 3rd means 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means Primary means 4th means 3rd means 4th means 3rd means Secondary means To 4th means Accomplish 4th means 3rd means 4th means Secondary means 3rd means 4th means 4th means Primary means 3rd means 4th means Constraints Secondary means 3rd means 4th meansS o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  30. 30. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Clarifying Problems by “ThinkingMultidimensionally”· Consists of a two-dimensional array to determine location and nature of problem· Discovers key ideas by relationships represented by the cells in matrix.
  31. 31. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Matrix Diagrams· Enable data on ideas based on extensive experience· Clarifies relationships among different elements· Makes overall structure of problem immediately obvious· Combined from two to four types of diagrams, location of problem is clearer.
  32. 32. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)· 5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Y-shaped, X-shaped, and C-shaped O O =1 O =4 Principa l QC circle supporter O =2 O X =5 O Subsidia ry =3 X =6 Site QC circle Section/Plant Section/Plant Practicability Eva lua tion Re sponsibilitie s Manager Member Efficacy Re ma rks Leader Rank 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram 4 O
  33. 33. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram‚ Write final-level means from Tree diagram forming vertical axisƒ Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy, practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.„ Examine final-level means to identify whom will implement them… Write names along horizontal axis
  34. 34. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)† Label group of columns as “Responsibilities”‡ Label right-hand end of horizontal axis as “Remarks”ˆ Examine each cell and insert the appropriate symbol:Efficacy: O=good, E=satisfactory, X=nonePracticability: O=good,P=satisfactory, X=none
  35. 35. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)‰ Determine score for each combination of symbols, record in rank columnŠ Examine cells under Responsibility Columns, insert double-circle for Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary‹ Fill out remarks column and record meanings of symbolNext, complete the diagram
  36. 36. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7Completing a Matrix Diagram O O =1 O =4 Principa l O =2 O X =5 O Subsidiary QC circle supporter =3 X =6 Site QC circle Eva luation Re sponsibilitie s Section/Plant Section/Plant Practicability Manager Member Efficacy Re ma rks Leader Rank 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O Hold 4 times/month 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 3 O At every meeting 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O X 5 O At least 3 times/year/person 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram 4 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O 2 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O 4th level meansfrom Tree diagram O O 1 O S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  37. 37. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 1 0f 7For Working Out Optimal Schedules andControlling Them Effectively· Shows relationships among tasks needed to implement a plan· Network technique using nodes for events and arrows for activities· Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)
  38. 38. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Arrow Diagrams· Allows overall task to viewed and potential snags to be identified before work starts· Leads to discovery of possible improvements· Makes it easy to monitor progress of work· Deals promptly with changes to plan· Improves communication among team
  39. 39. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)· Promotes understanding and agreement among group Strategy Constraints 4 121 2 3 5 9 10 13 Activity 6 8 11 7
  40. 40. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram‚ From strategies on Tree diagram, select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)ƒ Identify constraints to Objective„ List all activities necessary to achieving Objective… Write all essential activities on separate cards
  41. 41. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)† Organize cards in sequential order of activities‡ Remove any duplicate activitiesˆ Review order of activities, find sequence with greatest amount of activities‰ Arrange parallel activities
  42. 42. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)Š Examine path, number nodes in sequence from left to right‹ Record names and other necessary informationNext, complete the diagram
  43. 43. New Seven Q.C. Tools Arrow Diagrams Slide 7 0f 7 Completing an Arrow Diagram Strategy Constraints 4 12 1 2 3 5 9 10 13 Activity 6 8 11 7S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 984)
  44. 44. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 1 0f 7For Producing the Desired Result from ManyPossible Outcomes· Used to plan various contingencies· Used for getting activities back on track· Steers events in required direction if unanticipated problems occur· Finds feasible counter measures to overcome problems
  45. 45. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 2 0f 7 Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts (PDPC’s)· Facilitates forecasting· Uses past to anticipate contingencies· Enables problems to pinpointed· Illustrates how events will be directed to successful conclusion· Enables those involved to understand decision-makers intentions
  46. 46. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 3 0f 7 Advantages of PDPC’s (cont.)· Fosters cooperation and communication in group· Easily modified and easily understood Start NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO GOAL
  47. 47. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 4 0f 7 Constructing a PDPC‚ Select a highly effective, but difficult strategy from the Tree diagramƒ Decide on a goal (most desirable outcome)„ Identify existing situation (Starting point)… Identify constraints of objective† List activities to reach goal and potential problems with each activity
  48. 48. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 5 0f 7 Constructing an PDPC (cont.)‡ Review list. Add extra activities or problems not thought of previouslyˆ Prepare contingency plan for each step and review what action is needed if step is not achieved‰ Examine carefully to check for inconsistencies and all important factors are included
  49. 49. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 6 0f 7 Constructing an PDPC (cont.)Š Examine to make sure all contingency plans are adequateNext, complete the diagram
  50. 50. New Seven Q.C. ToolsProcess Decisions ProgramCharts Slide 7 0f 7Completing a PDPC Start NO NO NO NO YES YES NO NO YES NO GOAL S o u rc e : N ayatan i , Y., T h e S e ve n N e w Q C T o o ls (T o k yo , Jap an , 3A C o rp o rati o n , 1 9 84)
  51. 51. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 1 0f 6 Principal Component Analysis· Technique quantifies and arranges data presented in Matrix· Based solely on numerical data· Finds indicators that differentiate and attempt to clarify large amount of information
  52. 52. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 2 0f 6Advantages of Principal Component Analysis· Can be used in various fields (market surveys, new product planning, process analysis)· Can be when used when Matrix diagram does not give sufficient information· Useful as Prioritization Grid
  53. 53. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 3 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid S o u rc e : F o s te r, S ., M an ag i n g Q u ali ty (U p p e r S ad d le R i ve r, N J: P re n ti c e H all, 2 001 )‚ Determine your goal, your alternatives, and criteria for decisionƒ Place selection in order of importance„ Apply percentage weight to each option (all weights should add up to 1)… Sum individual ratings to establish overall ranking (Divide by number of options for average ranking)
  54. 54. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 4 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)† Rank order each option with respect to criterion (Average the rankings and apply a completed ranking)‡Multiply weight by associated rank in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)ˆ Result is Importance Score‰ Add up Importance Scores for each option
  55. 55. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 5 0f 6 Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)Š Rank order the alternatives according to importanceSee completed the diagram
  56. 56. New Seven Q.C. Tools Matrix Data Analysis Slide 6 0f 6 Completing a Prioritization Grid Criteria Customer Acceptance Strength Importance Option (most important) Cost Reliability (least important) Sum Score RankingOptionsDesign A Percentage weight .40 .30 .20 .10 Rank 4 3 3 1 Importance score 1.6 .90 .60 .10 3.2 1 (tie)Design B Percentage weight .30 .40 .10 .20 Rank 3 4 1 2 Importance score .90 1.6 .10 .40 3.0 2Design C Percentage weight .25 .25 .25 .25 Rank 1 2 4 3 Importance score .25 .50 1 .75 2.5 3Design D Percentage weight 0.3 .10 .20 .40 Rank 3 1 3 4 Importance score .90 .10 .60 1.6 3.2 1 (tie) Sum of weights 1.25 1.05 .75 .95 Average weight .31 .26 .19 .24 Criterion Ranking 1 2 4 3 S o u rc e : F o s te r, S ., M an ag i n g Q u ali ty (U p p e r S ad d le R i ve r, N J: P re n ti c e H all, 2 001 )

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